Thomas Hartmann

Thomas Hartmann
Technische Universität Dortmund | TUD · School of Spatial Planning

Prof. Dr.
Thomas Hartmann is the chair of land policy and land management (www.bodenpolitik.de).

About

186
Publications
28,793
Reads
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1,614
Citations
Introduction
Thomas Hartmann is the chair of land policy and land management (www.bodenpolitik.de). His research focuses on strategies of municipal land policy, and the relation of flood risk management and property rights. He is also president of the international academic association on planning, law, and property rights (www.plpr-association.org). Approach him in English, German, or Dutch!
Additional affiliations
September 2021 - present
Technische Universität Dortmund
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Thomas Hartmann is the chair of land policy and land management (www.bodenpolitik.de). His research focuses on strategies of municipal land policy, and the relation of flood risk management and property rights. He is also president of the international academic association on planning, law, and property rights (www.plpr-association.org).
April 2018 - August 2021
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Thomas Hartmann has a special expertise and research interest in land policies and planning instruments, flood risk management and planning theory. You may approach him in English, German, or Dutch.
September 2010 - March 2018
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (186)
Book
Full-text available
Extreme floods cause enormous damage in floodplains, which levees cannot prevent. Therefore, it is vital when spatial planning to provide space for water retention in these areas. Land use planners, water management agencies, landowners, and policymakers all agree on this challenge, but attempts to make the space for when rivers burst their banks a...
Article
What is the role of spatial planners in urban development? Planners can be very involved in the realization of the land-use plans or they can take a more passive role in development processes. Which role they take depends on the particular institutional arrangements for land management in each country. In this contribution, a typical active and a t...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book addresses the various disciplinary aspects of nature-based solutions in flood risk management on private land. In recent decades, water management has been moving towards nature-based solutions. These are assumed to be much more multi-purpose than traditional “grey infrastructures” and seem to be regarded as a panacea for many...
Book
Full-text available
Planning, Law and Economics sets out a new framework for applying a legal approach to spatial planning, showing how to improve the practice and help achieve its aims. The book covers planning laws, citizens' rights and property rights, asking ‘What rules do we want to make and, where necessary, enforce? And how do we want to apply them in planning...
Technical Report
IAK Land Policies in Europe in Discussion with the German Association of Cities and Towns and the German Institute for Federal Real Estate (BIMA) on the challenges of land policy
Article
Full-text available
The transition to a renewable energy future requires the extensive expansion of current high voltage grids. Due to the amount of land needed for expansion, issues related to land use have led to increased grid development opposition among landowners which in turn leads to significant project planning and budget overruns. Yet knowledge about why lan...
Article
Full-text available
Land policy influences how and by whom land is used; therefore, it impacts the efficiency and equity of land use. This paper offers an economic perspective on efficiency and equity as fundamental purposes of planning and land policy. It brings a highly needed mutual understanding between planning and economics, whilst acknowledging the limitations...
Article
Full-text available
The adoption of sustainable soil management practices such as the use of green waste from road side management and nature reserves is thwarted in practice by hesitance on the side of farmers. To foster the use of these practices, it is crucial to understand farmers’ decision‐perspectives and attitudes toward them. Using Q‐methodology, perspectives...
Book
Centralising the role of land and landowners, Spatial Flood Risk Management brings together knowledge from socio-economy, public policy, hydrology, geomorphology, and engineering to establish an interdisciplinary knowledge base on spatial approaches to managing .
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Flood risks are expected to increase in the future due to the combined effects of climate change, land use change and population growth. New approaches are needed to complement conventional flood risk management (FRM) based on engineering solutions and project‐based approaches. In this Commentary we present the findings of th...
Article
The struggle of cities to achieve quantitative housing objectives can partly be explained by the struggle to cope with increasing value conflicts with other (qualitative) policy objectives, including the realization of affordable housing, climate adaptive areas, inclusive neighborhoods, and high-quality public spaces. In public debate in the Nether...
Article
Full-text available
The major event that hit Europe in summer 2021 reminds society that floods are recurrent and among the costliest and deadliest natural hazards. The long-term flood risk management (FRM) efforts preferring sole technical measures to prevent and mitigate floods have shown to be not sufficiently effective and sensitive to the environment. Nature-Based...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally assumed that municipalities attract residents and businesses as a result of intermunicipal competition for tax revenues. This growth-oriented behaviour poses a serious problem considering internationally acknowledged goals to limit land take. Nonetheless, research on how fiscal incentives affect municipal land policies is scarce. Ad...
Book
Climate change will affect the way cities work substantially. Flooding and urban heating are among the most tangible consequences in cities around the globe. Extreme hydro‐meteorological events will likely increase in the future due to climate change. Making cities climate‐resilient is therefore an urgent challenge to sustain urban living. To adapt...
Article
Land policies influence the value of land use. In this context, land valuation is essential for land policy for two reasons: First, operationally, many of such instruments require reliable knowledge of land values; second, ethically: by influencing land values, land policy makes people poorer or richer. The valuation of land, therefore, is importan...
Technical Report
ie Hochwasserereignisse vom 13.-15. Juli führen uns die Relevanz von Hochwasser­prävention akut und erneut wieder vor Augen. Die Natur hält mit der Erhitzung der Erd­atmosphäre immer mehr und intensivere Ereignisse für uns bereit, die unsere Hochwasser-Schutzmaßnahmen an ihre Grenzen und darüber hinaus führen. In Deutschland und in der Europäischen...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Die jüngsten Ereignisse verdeutlichen es drastisch: Wetter-Ausschläge werden extremer. Im Juli 2021 waren es extreme Niederschläge in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Bayern und Sachsen, 2018 und 2019 litt Deutschland unter einer langanhaltenden Trockenheit und Hitze. Jüngere Klimastudien zeigen, dass die Wahrscheinlichkeit für beide Extreme z...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change will affect the way cities work substantially. Flooding and urban heating are among the most tangible consequences in cities around the globe. Extreme hydro-meteorological events will likely increase in the future due to climate change. Making cities climate-resilient is therefore an urgent challenge to sustain urban living. To adapt...
Chapter
Floods are one of the most common natural disasters affecting numerous people worldwide. Over the last years, Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) have gained attention as an emerging approach for flood mitigation that can complement traditional grey infrastructures. NBS provide several ecosystem services, including flood mitigation and improved water qual...
Article
Full-text available
Residents should take adaptive action to reduce flood risk—this claim increasingly resonates in the academic debate on flood risk management (FRM). Hence, it must be assumed that a change in the division of responsibilities between actors involved is an imperative, that is, beyond the public authorities, residents should become more responsible for...
Article
Full-text available
The multi-layer safety approach was introduced in 2009 in the Netherlands as a result of the shift from flood prevention to flood risk management. It aims at reducing flood risks by integrating defensive measures against floods (layer 1), resilient spatial planning measures (layer 2), and effective disaster management measures (layer 3). But how ar...
Article
Full-text available
How do municipalities strategically use land policy to develop land for housing? The development of housing is a challenge for many European countries, though the scale and time of it differs. Issues are not always about the absolute number of houses that need to be supplied in a country. The distribution and quality of houses affect the demand for...
Technical Report
We need to change how we think about flood risk management. Successfully implementing sustainable flood risk mitigation measures requires approaches that are different from the management of grey infrastructure measures, such as dams, dikes, or levees. For large grey infrastructure projects, the defining factor is engineer-ing. Measures are designe...
Article
Like many other countries, Germany aims to create flood retention areas via polders and dike relocations. As these measures require access to diverse plots, land acquisition is clearly a challenging task for the responsible water authorities. A revision to the national water law in 2017 introduced several new instruments for land acquisition, i.e....
Article
Full-text available
Governments all over the world experience institutional conflicts in transforming their fossil-based energy system into a more renewable one. Between national, regional, and local tiers of government tensions rise on meeting renewable energy objectives. Under the institutional arrangement of subsidiarity, decisions on renewable energy policy object...
Article
Full-text available
Governments all over the world experience institutional conflicts in transforming their fossil-based energy system into a more renewable one. Between national, regional, and local tiers of government tensions rise on meeting renewable energy objectives. Under the institutional arrangement of subsidiarity, decisions on renewable energy policy object...
Article
Full-text available
Die Bereitstellung von Grund zum Wohnen – Bauland – ist ein erklärtes Politikziel des Baulandmobilisierungsgesetzes, das derzeit im Referentenentwurf vorliegt und in vielen Punkten den Empfehlungen der Baulandkommission folgt. Wohnungsnot wird demnach als eine Frage der Flächenbereitstellung und somit eine Bodenfrage erkannt. Nach jahrzehntelanger...
Article
Book review Sclar, E., Baird-Zars, B., Fischer, L. A., Stahl, V. E. (eds.) (2020). Zoning: A guide for 21st-century planning. Rooilijn - tijdschrift voor wetenschap en beleid in de ruimtelijke ordening.
Article
Full-text available
Flood resilience (resilient flood risk management), which has been repeatedly demanded, can be achieved through the phases of the risk management cycle. There is a vast body of literature on adaptation, disaster risk reduction measures, and effectiveness of prevention, seen through the lens of postdisaster recovery, but oftentimes the existing lite...
Article
Studios were introduced at many planning schools about 50 years ago. They broke with the tradition of classical lecturing which had prevailed until then. Since then, this teaching format has been established a characteristic of planning education and is even listed in the core requirements of AESOP. This paper discusses the relevance of the idea fr...
Book
Flood Resilience of Private Properties examines the division and balance of responsibilities between the public and the private when discussing flood resilience of private properties. Flooding is an expensive climate-related disaster and a threat to urban life. Continuing development in flood-prone zones compound the risks. Protecting all properti...
Book
Land resources are emerging as a critical factor in flood risk management. While there is a general consensus to “accommodate water” on land for (temporary) flood storage or flood runoff, the provision of the necessary land for floods is hampered by the lack of availability and accessibility of the (often privately owned) land. Similarly, the need...
Article
Full-text available
Informal real estate markets have developed as a result of deficiencies of formal real estate markets and play a crucial role in providing housing to the urban poor. This contribution combines an adaptation of Ostrom’s rules with property rights theory to study the rules that have developed in the informal real estate, their spatial impact and impl...
Article
Full-text available
Managing public space is a big and important blind spot of urban and regional planning and design. Important, because major transition challenges, such as climate adaptation, energy transition, circular economy, mobility, and governance require substantial changes in public space – both physical and social changes. Big, because managing public spac...
Article
The past two decades have witnessed increasing global concern about the need for sustainable water and land management in an era of rapid change, and persistent water insecurity. Good water governance is a prerequisite to improve water management all over the world. The OECD Water Governance Initiative developed Water Governance Principles to enhan...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, many cities have introduced densification policy objectives to stop urban sprawl or to promote efficient use of natural resources. In the urban housing sector, however, densification projects often intensify social challenges. Due to rising rents after moderniza-tion of existing housing stocks as a consequence of densification, low-inc...
Article
A common assertion in discussions of flooding is that risk perception is critical and is linked to risk‐mitigating behavior. Furthermore, many assert that the adverse effects of floods could be reduced by changes in risk communication, thereby influencing risk perception to foster mitigating behavior. We argue that these assertions are based on qui...
Article
Full-text available
The European Flood Directive (FD) shifted water management policy from flood protection to flood risk management. To facilitate the shift, a new instrument was introduced called the flood risk management plan. According to the FD, a flood risk management plan shall first take into account relevant aspects from water management, nature conservation,...
Article
Full-text available
In view of the anticipated climate change, many countries face increasing risks of flooding. Since the end of the 20 th century, the traditional hard flood protection measures have been increasingly complemented with spatial flood risk reduction measures. These measures, though in the public interest and as such, benefitting many people, almost ine...
Article
Full-text available
The academic debate on flood risk governance is paying increased attention to the shifting position of homeowners. Homeowners are increasingly expected to adapt their homes to protect against possible floods. Although an overall agreement seems to exist on the involvement of homeowners in flood risk governance, the academic literature is dispersed...
Article
Full-text available
Options for the increase of flood resilience during the recovery phase is, to a large extent, overlooked. The special issue Financial Schemes for Resilient Flood Recovery investigates how the implementation of financial schemes (government relief subsidies, insurance schemes, buy-outs, etc.) might increase flood resilience. Five papers address foll...
Technical Report
Full-text available
- Learning to ‘live with the flood’ instead of ‘fighting the flood’ starts at home – on private land. - The law has a strong influence on how homeowners respond to floods. - Risk communication is not just about informing citizens, but also clarifying public and private responsibilities. - Fair distribution of benefits and burdens requires coordinat...
Article
In many countries, densification is a central goal of land policies to promote sustainable development. However, while these policies intervene in existing built-up structures and thus affect diverse and complex arrangements of property rights, it remains unclear how they are applied by actors. We argue that an explicit normative point of view is r...
Article
Full-text available
Terwijl in planning en ontwerp een uitgebreid wetenschappelijk debat over ‘transities in de openbare ruimte’ plaatsvindt, blijkt beheer hierin nauwelijks een rol te spelen. En dat terwijl beheer een sleutelrol kan vervullen in de complexe aanpak van de verschillende transities. Een strategische, geïntegreerde benadering van het beheer van de openba...
Article
Full-text available
Hydro-meteorological hazards annually lead to considerable economic losses worldwide. Property level flood risk adaptation (PLFRA) measures have shown to decrease potential damages by floods and other hazards. However, such measures are often implemented inadequately, frequently because of lacking communication between public administration and hom...
Article
The trade-off between flexibility and legal certainty is inherent in every planning system. This trade-off is especially apparent within a land-use plan. Flexibility and legal certainty are often seen as communicating vessels: the demise of one leads to an increase in the other. Within land-use plans, however, the connection between the two is more...
Article
Nach jahrzehntelanger Ruhe wird die Frage nach dem strategischen Umgang mit Boden in Deutschland derzeit wieder intensiv debattiert. Der Mangel an bezahlbarem Wohnraum, der ungebremste Flächenverbrauch und die Probleme bei der Baulandverfügbarkeit sind so drängend, dass die Politik sich dem Thema angenommen hat und Massnahmen diskutiert, die vor we...
Article
Flood risk management has proven successful at reducing the threat of some flooding hazards, preventing loss of life during flooding events and easing the economic burden to communities and regions following floods. It is a useful approach for assessing risks and guiding decisions on implementing protection measures. Recently, in addition to flood...
Article
Full-text available
Large river floods threaten intensively used urban areas across the world. Projections of IPCC expect such risks to increase in the future. To deal with flood risk along rivers water can be retained upstream at places where less damage is caused and more vulnerable land (downstream) can be adapted to the flood risk (resilient cities). This catchmen...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience in relation to flood risk management (FRM) is not a new concept, yet parts of the FRM community are still struggling to apply it. The main challenge this study addresses is the question as to whether parts of the FRM community should still adopt, or rather “leap‐frog,” resilience. The main purpose is to evaluate whether resilience is a s...
Chapter
The frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase due to climate change. These developments and challenges have focused the attention of policymakers on the question of how to manage natural hazards. The main political discourse revolves around the questions of how we can make our society more resilient for possible futu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Private land matters in FRM. In particular, private land is closely associated with NBS in FRM—nature-based flood risk management. Nature-based solutions are currently receiving a large degree of attention in policy, academia and slowly in practice (see introduction). These measures need more land, and this land is often privately owned. However, e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nature-based solutions (NBS) in Flood Risk Management require more—and mostly privately owned—land, and more diverse stakeholder involvement than traditional (grey) engineering approaches. This also implies that there are challenges related to different disciplines. Flood risk management with NBS is an issue not only of technical expertise, but it...
Article
Full-text available
Many urban residences are insufficiently prepared for fluvial, pluvial or coastal floods, owing to a lack of accurate information on flood risk. This article analyzes how risk communication can improve disaster risk reduction by overcoming the expert–layperson gap. Building on interviews in three cities in the Netherlands, it applies Q methodology...
Article
Full-text available
Investing in large transport projects affects the (potential) economic development of metropolitan areas. Yet, very little critical research has been performed to understand how to assess these effects. The relationship between infrastructure investments and regional economic development is complex and indirect, and many theoretical and methodologi...
Article
The underground provides many spatial planning opportunities as it offers space for structures, but also functions as a resource for energy. To guide developments and use the capabilities the underground provides, the Dutch national government started a policy process for the Structuurvisie Ondergrond (a master plan). Stakeholders are involved in t...
Chapter
De Nederlandse praktijk van ruimtelijke planning staat internationaal in hoog aanzien en is zelfs getypeerd als planners’ paradise (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994). Dit positieve beeld van de Nederlandse planningspraktijk is deels het gevolg van de (pro-)actieve rol die gemeenten spelen bij het sturen van ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen, onder meer door he...
Article
„Jede Person, die durch Hochwasser betroffen sein kann, ist im Rahmen des ihr Möglichen und Zumutbaren verpflichtet, geeignete Vorsorgemaßnahmen zum Schutz vor nachteiligen Hochwasserfolgen und zur Schadensminderung zu treffen“ (§ 5 WHG) – das Wasserhaushaltsgesetz ist mit dieser Grundsatzregelung zur allgemeinen Sorgfaltspflicht deutlich. Bürger s...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary water-governance approaches lack an understanding of the differences revealed when land and water governance interact. Conflicts arise because the spatial component is less regarded in water-governance approaches. This explorative paper introduces an analytical framework for the common management of land and water along three frontiers...
Article
Full-text available
De Nederlandse woningmarkt staat onder druk. De woningbouwproductie is in de periode 2010-2015 als gevolg van de economische crisis sterk afgenomen, waardoor een achterstand in de productie is ontstaan. De sleutel tot woningbouwproductie ligt echter niet op nationaal, maar op gemeentelijk niveau. Een belangrijke uitdaging voor gemeenten is het besc...
Article
The underground provides many spatial planning opportunities as it offers space for structures, but also functions as a resource for energy. To guide developments and use the capabilities the underground provides, the Dutch national government started a policy process for the Structuurvisie Ondergrond (a master plan). Stakeholders are involved in t...
Article
The transition from fossil to renewable energy needs changes in land use. The development of renewable energy sources introduce extra and sometimes new externalities, such as shadows and noise on landscape. There are governments who are experiencing difficulties when developing renewable energy sources especially when existing land owners (and othe...
Article
Full-text available
The transition from fossil to renewable energy requires changes in land use. The development of renewable energy sources introduces extra and sometimes new externalities, such as shadows, noise, and changes to the landscape. Several governments are experiencing difficulties when developing renewable energy sources, especially when existing land own...
Article
Die ZEIT titelte im März 2017 „Wohnen in Wien: Hauptstadt des bezahlbaren Wohnens“. Wien verfolgt ein besonderes Modell der Wohnungspolitik – meist einfach das „Wiener Modell“ genannt. Es wird in der Literatur häufig als besonders gerecht dargestellt. Grund genug sich mit der Wiener Wohnungspolitik näher auseinanderzusetzen. Aber was bedeutet gerec...
Article
Im Umgang mit den Folgen des Klimawandels wird zunehmend häufiger der Begriff Resilienz verwendet. Dabei existieren eine Reihe verschiedener Definitionen ohne eindeutige Charakterisierung und Quantifizierung. Im Hochwasserrisikomanagement steckt die wissenschaftlich fundierte Untersuchung der Resilienz erst in den Kinderschuhen. Dabei sind durchaus...