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Thomas H. S. Harris

Thomas H. S. Harris
RCA Astro, GE Astro, Lockheed Martin, Boeing Helicopter (retired)

Engineering Science and Mechanics, VPI & SU

About

90
Publications
3,960
Reads
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9
Citations
Introduction
A background in Mechanics makes Thomas Harris curious about the Australasian (AA) tektites and the Carolina bays imprints. He assess both with Suborbital Analysis and other tools, providing the former as shareware (GSA SP553, 2022). How can a 100+ km impact structure that is only 786 ka old somewhere on continental crust remain "missing"? Suborbital Analysis fed by decades of Carolina bays and Australasian tektites research illuminates this 50+ year old scientific enigma.
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - present
Locatell-Harris
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Interdisciplinary Mechanics research on unresolved planetary impact issues here on Earth, where it matters most. Identification of incorrect dynamical treatment of suborbital ejecta transport in 1960s NASA tektite ablation research lead to Suborbital Analysis software development for the public domain per Harris (2022) https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/books/book/2323/chapter-pdf/5559310/spe553-23.pdf in GSA Books volume 553 https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/books/book/2
May 1998 - March 2020
Brownstone Beam (hand held camera crane/stabilizer)
Position
  • Technology Developer
Description
  • Developed hand held camera positioner technology for the broadcast production industry, patented domestically and globally, and effort still underway.... Design, integration and test of hybrid digital-analog controls w/ custom aerospace structure.
April 1996 - August 1998
The Boeing Company
Position
  • Dynamicist
Description
  • Ground vibe testing & first flight of Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) vehicle assets at Arlington TX Bell Helicopter facility, then followed the vehicles to PAX Naval Air Development Center in southern Maryland for envelop expansion.
Education
January 1993 - May 1993
General Electric
Field of study
  • Orbit Determination & Dynamics
August 1983 - March 1989
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Field of study
  • Engineering Science & Mechanics

Publications

Publications (90)
Data
This is the same specimen as the "Tektite Arcing Damage Track" file, with better lighting on the supposed arcing damage (lower portion of the concave surface).
Data
The morphology and surface texture imprinting suggest that a disc may have been blown into fragments by an energetic electrical arcing event, causing cavity resonance between the fragments at the moment that the arc existed. Resonance would have included plenty of available power in the higher optical frequency range that is absorbed by quartz (i.e...
Research
Full-text available
Launch solutions for Chapman's test-derived ablated button tektite reentry conditions. The mid-valued launch elevation (25 degrees launch EL) passes through the North American Great Lakes region for both the 70% and the 75% Earth Escape KE (EEKE) solution families, or 9.35 and 9.68 km/s launch speeds, respectively.
Research
Full-text available
Australasian tektite show very regular iron oxidation (Fe ox), more uniform that the three tektite strewn fields with known source craters. This has something to do with their formative environment. The uniformity most likely did not come from separate target rock groups of greywacke, sandstone and shale identified by their composition, unless sedi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Larger, heavier objects ejected further from the center of an impact are overtaken by hypersonic aggregate flow of small-grained comminuted target volume which becomes entrained within adiabatic expansion of shocked volatiles. Bow shock displaces the flow with its entrained aggregate radially outward from the relative flow axis. The resultant impri...
Data
This PDF file contains a transcription of the talk. It accompanies the abstract and the PDF file of the slide deck.
Presentation
Full-text available
Reentry conditions reconstructed via ablated "button" tektite morphology during 1960s NASA research allows launch solution curves to be determined across Earth's global surface. Button tektites from S.E. Australia's Bendigo region and the Central Indian Ocean (CIO) basin have different launch solution family "swaths" that cross each other over limi...
Presentation
Full-text available
Reentry ablation alteration of button-form Australasian tektites from S. E. Australia and the Central Indian Ocean (CIO) indicate the North American Great Lakes as their source region. The Carolina bays conformal aggregate blanket landform covers 400,000+ square km and contains several tens of thousands of shallow ovoid basins in highly systematic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Tektite and microtektite (μ-tektite) progeny of the ~35.5 Ma Chesapeake impact at Cape Charles, VA are collectively termed NAT, populating the N. American strewn field. The NAT case is unique among known tektite families with the source being close to the strewn field compared to the strewn field area, suggesting a possible near-vert...
Method
Terrestrial Ejecta Transport Supplemental Material. Supp 1: SASolver suborbital ballistic spread- sheet for the A-to-B suborbital problem. Supp 2: Helix spreadsheet for variable flight times of the same A-to-B suborbital problem. Supp 3: Appendix S1 followed by the spreadsheet tools user guide. Supp 4: Global ejecta fall patters (19 files) for incr...
Chapter
This unusual book, published to honor the late iconoclast and geologist extraordinaire Warren Bell Hamilton, comprises a diverse, cross-disciplinary collection of bold new ideas in Earth and planetary science. Some chapters audaciously point out all-too-obvious deficits in prevailing theories. Other ideas are embryonic and in need of testing and st...
Chapter
This unusual book, published to honor the late iconoclast and geologist extraordinaire Warren Bell Hamilton, comprises a diverse, cross-disciplinary collection of bold new ideas in Earth and planetary science. Some chapters audaciously point out all-too-obvious deficits in prevailing theories. Other ideas are embryonic and in need of testing and st...
Presentation
Full-text available
Fact-based speculation of North American Great Lakes as a mid Pleistocene impact structure, parent of the Australasian tektites and Carolina bays. Physical mechanical processes are suggested to explain the possible sibling relationship between Australasian tektites, Lake Huron, and the N. American Carolina bays giant conformal sand blanket landform...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We observe in North America significant surficial sedimentary deposits which are poorly constrained temporally and morphologically: the Upland Gravels of Maryland and Virginia; the Pinehurst Formation of the Carolinas, where a nearly continuous deposit extends across intervening terraces and scarps; the Cypresshead Formation in Georgia; the Blackwa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Two independent geologic signals imply the N. American Great Lakes as a possible large-scale mid Pleistocene cosmic impact region. First, ablated Australasian tektites have well characterized speed and vertical angle reentry conditions per NASA research in the 1960s led by Dean R. Chapman, i.e., “Chapman conditions”. Second, a large conformal blank...
Poster
The Australasian tektite (AAT) source region remains paradoxically un-located, with tens of billions of tons of ejecta melt strewn across significant fraction of Earth’s surface at anomalously high Kinetic Energy by a geologically very recent cosmic impact event at ~788 ka. NASA hall of fame researcher Dean Chapman’s reentry condition data for the...
Poster
Indochinite Australasian tektites (AAT) display contorted unit morphology consistent with electric charge saturation, arc-induced heating during magnetic confinement, and magnetic flux expansion with rapid cooling. Common surface textures are consistent with post-solidus flash heating and coincident electromagnetic (EM) field imprinting. Common co-...
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing (AM) enables production of components that are not possible to make using traditional methods. In particular, lattice-type structures are of recent interest due to their potential for high strength-to-weight ratios and other desirable properties. However, standard periodic lattice structures have problems conforming to comple...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Discusses the methodology and technology enabling a geomorphic and geospatial survey of the Carolina bay landforms. LiDAR-generated high-resolution topographic digital elevation maps (HRTdems) reveal the true geological terrain. The protocol presented is also applicable to supported Mars and Lunar virtual globes.
Data
Tektites possess common form factor expressed at different scales. This is true for the shredded bubble fragments of Indochina and China. These smaller specimens are from Viet Nam. The morphology appears to be wedge shaped "pizza slices" or "apple slices" of a formerly spheroid tektite that had a central bubble cavity. The features of these fragmen...
Data
Evidence of plastic yield upon internal overpressure of still molten inner volume upon electrical arcing through that volume?
Data
Tektite fragments possibly blown to "apple slice" fragments from a hollow spherical semi-solidified tektite by electrical arcing. The process apparently acted in similar fashion over a range of physical scales as evidenced by these two specimens.
Data
Similar to other specimens with this combination of morphologies, this one is poorly focused. The specimens with dark background photographed on 23 Jan 2020 are from Guangdong Province, China. This contorted plate with fluid surface tension-dominant concave contour conforming to the contorted margin of a plastically deformed (semi-rigid but not bri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Australasian (AA) tektites are distal ejecta of a cosmic impact into terrestrial sediments 788.1 ± 2.8 ka. Protracted explorations within the strewn field, as preferred by consensus opinion, have yielded neither an astrobleme nor a proximal imprint. In 3 lesser strewn fields correlated with progenitor astroblemes, tektites are strewn asymmetrically...
Data
This squashed teardrop seems to have been hit with an applied force while still bearing some bulk heat of formation, apparently in a plastic or semi-plastic state at the moment of application. Could electromagnetic impedance and bulk charge have played a part in forming this morphology? Penetration of a strongly polarized shock front by the tektite...
Data
Main fragment of highly flattened teardrop tektite.
Data
It seems that this thin tektite has a welded accretion in the form of another small piece of the same thin glass.
Data
This specimen appears to have been wrenched out of plane with plastic deformation by some collisional force that notched the glass. This is not the type of damage that brittle or cold glass would survive in a single remaining piece, implying that some heat of initial formation probably still remained in the specimen at the time of the notching even...
Data
This specimen has bald patches of complex curvature with no pitting, and other areas of pronounced pitting including spatter patterns common among indochinites. The bald patches seem to have been evenly heated, with uniform and relatively smooth surface texture, and very regular or continuous curvature. Sometimes bald patches share a shallow or mor...
Data
Tektite surface is placed into a state of compression as cooling, solidification and associated dimensional shrinkage progress from the outer surface toward the core. In this specimen, it appears that and electrical arcing event or impact by spatter formed a pock while delivering KE to the tektite at a time when the outer surface was cooled below p...
Data
Arcing melt track ridge on concave surface, with radiating ropy filaments, and bubble beneath track exposed at curved plate margin.
Data
An elongate tektite shows one surface mostly bald & the opposing side with distributed spatter strike patterns. Some of the margins of the bald region(s) have slight lips or slightly up-turned or raised rims.
Data
Tektite Central Pock & Deep Gouge Spider, consistent with KE deposition by EM field-guided spatter and/or electric arc, per Saint Elmo's Fire discharge pattern across a static-charged bulk insulator.
Data
Closeup of a spider-shaped gouge typical of Saint Elmo's Fire static discharge pattern, with deeper pock central to roughly radially arranged gouges, mid-length of an elongate tektite.
Data
Truncated end show spider gouges (top of 360 photo). Pock on smooth side has raised rim around roughly 1/2 of its perimeter.
Data
Glass may be an insulator under ambient terrestrial conditions, but all materials become conductive when sufficiently heated. The initial 360video frame suggests EM imprinting straie on that surface, presumedly from intense surface heating during high radiant power UV bath associated with energetic electrical arcing through the tektite. A semi-soft...
Data
Etch pitting on the convex our outer surface of bubble fragment Australasian (AA) tektites like this is consistent with micro-channel damage on that outer surface from high energy plasma bombardment during an extended ascent phase, while the inner or concave surface was an internal bubble not subjected to that plasma bombardment or still hot enough...
Data
A fairly typical damage signature in AA tektites, this "spider crack" or radial starburst of scored channels is consistent with high-energy electrical arcing damage from a semi-solid state. Opposite the spider shaped score mark is a sub-planar "cleavage plane" having a commonly arranged pitting cluster of a few big pits surrounded by more numerous...
Data
A typical discoidal AA tektite shape also has a fairly typical sub-planar truncation with sub-centered crater on the truncation plane and deep scoring radially arranged outward from the crater across the margins of the planar feature. This is consistent with impact and thermal/momentum/electrical deposition during a semi-solid state of the discoida...
Data
Various locations within the Australasian tektite strewn field are reached given the launch conditions surrounding Lake Huron. Of particular interest is the parabolic curve to reach the Glass-Koeberl microtektite concentration maxima, with Southern AZ launch apex at Lake Huron's southern "wing", & launch solution curves of additional meridional com...
Data
Ablated Australasian (AA) tektites that take the shape of buttons are a valuable asset in the search for the parent impact structure, a 50+ year effort with no solution to date. The shapes of ablated button tektites were reproduced in the early 1960s by NASA researcher and co-developer of Aerothermodynamics, Dr. Dean R. Chapman. Chapman carefully c...
Data
The high-ablation S. Australian button tektites from the Bendigo region of Victoria Australia exhibited ring waves from higher dynamic pressure and minimum VEL of 10.0 km/s or 80% Earth escape Kinetic Energy (%EEKE). These solutions for the less-ablated Central Indian Ocean button tektite (CIO button) are reduced in EEKE by 5% relative to their hig...
Data
Launch solution plots across Earth's surface for the indicated reentry condition of the ablated button tektite, i.e. 10.0 km/s (80% Earth Escape Kinetic Energy or %EEKE) and between 12 and 25 degrees elevation angle or EL angle from horizontal.
Data
This data is output from Suborbital Analysis of prescribed launch conditions and target or 'fall' location where ablated button tektites have been found and carefully analyzed. The launch conditions are prescribed by known reentry conditions and the assumed symmetry of suborbital trajectories from ascending to descending intercepts with Earth's sur...
Research
Full-text available
Glass, Chapman, Prasad (1996) discuss lack of ring waves on the extremely well preserved Central Indian Ocean (CIO) button AA tektite but are unable to determine where it may have come from. Since the early 1960s when Chapman started publishing on the topic, he never included any rotating frame transformation for proper dynamical accounting of Eart...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Central Indian Ocean (CIO) button tektite launch solution curves for Chapman's test-derived reentry conditions (20 to 30 deg launch EL) and 65% of Earth Escape KE (9.01 km/s). Notice 22 and 23 degree elevation curve sections over the Great Lakes region.
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Mid-range launch elevation angles for Chapman's test-derived Central Indian Ocean (CIO) button tektite launch conditions (blue arc for 25 degrees launch EL) cross the North American Great Lakes.
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Mid-range launch elevation (EL) values of Chapman's test-derived reentry conditions for the Central Indian Ocean (CIO) button tektite at 75% of Earth Escape KE (9.68 km/s) cross the North American Great Lakes. The CIO button (Glass et al. 1996) showed less ablation than the earlier Bendigo button tektite from Victoria in S. E. Australia, which chap...
Research
Full-text available
This graphic shows the layout of the high Mg and high Ni arcs across the lat/long grid and required VEL vs. EL at different AZ values. It demonstrates that by launching at any given singular AZ out of Lake Huron between compass points 180 and 270, the pair of high-Mg & -Ni arcs may be reached through a spread of only roughly 20 degrees EL or less a...
Research
Full-text available
A-to-B launch elevation (EL) and launch Kinetic Energy (KE, normalized to Earth Escape) as functions of launch azimuth (AZ) are compared for a launch at Lake Huron and fall points along the tektite fall arc points of common composition, as indicated in the legend. This shows where a jet or jets may supply the requisite tektite population without ha...
Research
Full-text available
Any given A-to-B suborbital trajectory between two set points A and B on Earth's surface may be accomplished by an infinite number of solution trajectories that vary continuously with Time-Of-Flight (TOF). Two solution families typically exist, one "long way" and one "short way" trajectory, each with its own set of EL-vs-AZ and KE-vs-AZ. In these p...
Research
Full-text available
This plot shows several useful global relations observed in Australasian tektite distribution. A vertical launch out of Lake Huron at speeds between 10.58 and 10.625 km/s fall at the same latitude across the Chinese Loess plateau between 108.58 deg E and 84.72 deg E longitudes, respectively, possibly explaining why some portion of that Chinese lo...
Data
These are the points on Earth's surface where a vertical launch in the the range of speeds calculated by NASA researcher Dean R. Chapman in the 1960s would have to come from to reach the Glass-Koeberl AA microtektite concentration maxima in Indochina. Progressively lower elevation launch solution curves would blossom out from these points across Ea...
Poster
Full-text available
80 years after aerial photography revealed thousands of aligned oval depressions on the USA’s Atlantic Coastal Plain, the origin of “Carolina bays” remains enigmatic. Claims of a cosmic connection were made early on, but scientists today dismiss that because of the lack of an associated impact crater, and many other valid reasons. “Wind & Wave” for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correlating the giant "Carolina bays" depositional sand blanket with the Australasian tektites and the possible origin region of them both, the Great Lakes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correlating proposed sibling distal and medial ejecta of the Pleistocene in order to locate the source or shed light on the impact condition (impact angle above horizontal, bolide size/content/character, target content/character, etc.) and location of the (assumed) parent impact for those sibling ejecta components.
Poster
Full-text available
An overview of observations and basic mechanical processes to help identify the likely source of the Carolina bays unit geologic formation, a 400,000 square km depositional blanket containing ~1600 cubic km of angular-grained nearly pure quartz sand that is virtually absent all biotic detritus, and seeps hydrogen. The Great Lakes area is indicated...
Data
Using conical perturbation about a central suborbital (ballistic) trajectory, the orientation, elongation and geographic location of each bay may be estimated for a given launch speed. Similarly, a set of incremental launch speeds gives a "launch line" for each bay, an arc across the landscape of potential launch regions for the bays as a group. Fo...
Research
Full-text available
Suborbital Analysis computation of launch location for the entire bay SOUTH archetype at a single speed of 3.5 km/s in this case. First pane shows emplaced range of the bay SOUTH cases and their emplaced centroid (sample n = 17,670), along with launch cluster centroids (big blue "+" signs) for 1/10th km/s incremental launch velocity cases. At lower...
Research
Full-text available
The first two panes here show what appears to be structure within the launch cluster swarm, in the form of apparent streaking of higher density launch flux aligned from N.W. to S.E. in the same general direction as launch AZ. This may only be an artifact of bays surviving in some areas of the remaining un-dissected coastal plain, where other parts...
Research
Full-text available
These seem to show radially convergent trajectories on average, the opposite of what is considered to be a normal impact outflow pattern (radially divergent). The radially convergent transport is consistent with an expanding hemispheric plume that translates while expanding (i.e. Schultz & Gault 1990)
Research
Full-text available
Carolina bays, if they actually did originate somewhere in the North American Great Lakes regions such as Lake Huron, would have travelled a distance between 800 and 1200 km from that location to emplacement, based on where they are commonly found. This range profile with a surface range or "A-to-B range" of 1090.52 km, similar to a large fraction...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in hydrocode modeling of oblique impact, shock ionization, high-temp plasmas and X-ray CT clarify inter-hemispheric transport of Australasian tektites.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Oblique terrestrial impacts into volatiles may leave no obvious shock or cratering signatures. Proxies may present to locate and study such events: example….
Method
Full-text available
45,000 ovoid depressions or ”voids” with alignment rigidly systematic by latitude, and conforming to only six archetype plan-forms. The ovoid depressions are of scale from 100’s of meters to several km and follow a log-normal surface area distribution. Over the last 80 years this ~500,000 square kilometer Pleistocene sand formation has been recogni...
Poster
Full-text available
Describing the relationship between 60 billion tons of vacuum quenched impact melt glass (the Austral-Asian tektites = distal ejecta of a big comet or asteroid impact) and the 500,000 square kilometer sand blanket on the US east coast & Nebraska that has definite signature as a suborbital ballistic emplacement (proximal ejecta of the impact)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sibling abstract/poster to "SUBORBITAL OBSTRUCTION SHADOWING", explaining a Pleistocene stratigraphic unit covering ~5% of the continental US, approximately 500,000 square km. The previously unexplained ~1600 cubic kilometer unit of monotonously uniform, large-grained, pure quartz, highly fractured sand overlies several regional, ancient antecedent...
Research
Full-text available
An extensive sand unit horizon of the US eastern coastal plain and Nebraska contain over 45,000 ovoid depressions or "voids" with alignment rigidly systematic by latitude, and conforming to only six archetype plan-forms. The ovoid depressions are of scale from 100's of meters to several km and follow a log-normal surface area distribution. Over the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Suborbital convolution of ejecta and/or tektite transport makes correlating with impact structures more difficult, particularly for large strewn fields on rotating planets, planets with low gravity relative to spin rate, and on planets lacking ejecta composition data. Hypervelocity impact tests indicate that volatile target components...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
1960’s tests which faithfully reproduced flange flattening of splash form Australasian (AA) “australite” button tektites indicate ~10 km/s atmospheric reentry speed with very high confidence [1]. Recent work matching experimental and numerical results of shocked quartz, however, clearly shows that shock to threshold vaporization level only produces...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Splash form Australasian (AA) “australite” button tektites reentered at ~10 km/s, according to high confidence tests from the 1960s [1]. Recent experimental and numerical results for shocked quartz clearly show that shock to vaporization only produces around half of the 10 km/s australite reentry value [2]. Their fall sites in S. Australia at 10 km...
Research
Full-text available
The shape of ejecta and/or tektite strewn distribution and the patterns within are potentially rich with information relating to both the transport and emplacement processes.
Research
Full-text available
Suborbital Analysis is applied to strewn and ejecta distribution. The A-to-B transport problem is a tool to help identify candidate regions of parent impacts structures where none have been identified for a given strewn or ejecta set.
Article
Full-text available
A suborbital sand transport model explains the many observed features of the Carolina Bay sand unit including: highly fractured, sub angular in texture [1], and remarkably void of any terrigenous detritus. The unit is depositional, delivered by a single process [2], yet the entire ~1,600 km3 sand unit [3] shows no signs of any conventional depositi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pleistocene Epoch cosmic impacts have been implicated in the geomorphology of two enigmatic events. Remarkably, in both cases spirited debates remain unsettled after nearly 100 years of extensive research. Consensus opinion holds that the Australasian (AA) tektites are of terrestrial origin despite a failure to locate the causal astroblem, while a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Tektites offer unique evidence of detailed impact process mechanics, although tektite formation mechanisms remain elusive. Tektite forming impacts are most likely very energetic (>20 gigaton TNT) [1], making them important to understand. Although the source crater for the largest known tektite strewn field remains unknown [2], the Aus...

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Projects (2)
Project
To guarantee civilization survives next comet, contrary to Graham Hancock's prophesy, in his alt-TED lecture (YouTube), when he showed photos at nite from space of Northern hemisphere city lites illuminating the planet : "These lights will go out, and they will not come back." (1.) THE JOSEPH PROJECT. Like patriarch Joseph did for Egypt, store grain for seven lean years after next comet impact. His event likely was a comet impact. (2.) THE CAVEMAN PROJECT. Build cities under mountains as refuges when a comet approaching Earth has been detected and defensive measures seem uncertain. Cavemen may have survived multiple pleistocene comet impacts known from multiple signals discernable in archeological record, including climate deterioration and geomagnetic excursions. (3.) THE DIRECTED ENERGY PROJECT. Construct giant directed energy gun on back of our moon Luna to divert comets (& asteroids). Outgassing pressure from ablated cometary mass perturbs the incoming trajectory. The far-Lunar position would guarantee that no rogue actors could ever aim such a device anywhere near Earth. This is Tim Harris' response to my suggestion of installing rocket engines on comets. Graham Hancock was telling the Richard Firestone & team's account of the Younger Dryas comet that hit Earth sometime between 12,400 and 12,900 BP with megafauna extinction and Clovis-Solutrean people in North America, with excavation of five Great Lakes by exploding comet fragments, DOI:10.4236/ojg.2017.72013, as well as simultaneous Central European Federmesser culture from comet fragment exploding at Laach crater, site of the famous Laach Monastery (Eifel mountains, near Cologne) with ejecta in characteristic butterfly pattern blanketing the subcontinent up to Scandinavia. The Justinian plague was caused by comet impact that split Sumatra from Java, impact crater still visible on Google Earth in the Sunda Strait. Typically, a resurgent caldera was created causing the 1883 Krakatoa eruption (Laach also may be resurgent). These matters still are being debated, but to answer critics, I wrote a paper on Yellowstone volcanism resulting from impact event DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.64038. - H.G.W. Burchard. Important Note: Dr. Hermann G. W. Burchard is in disagreement with T.H.S. Harris regarding the probable 'parent' or source location for the Australasian (AA) tektites, per Dr. Burchard's noteworthy paper on the Spratlies Archipelago of the South China Sea being the AA tektite impact crater. A free download of Burchard (2018) is found here: https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=81747 Regarding Burchard (2018), Harris is in full agreement that a ricochet oblique impact of a high speed, low density impactor (i.e. comet or comet-like object) may very likely include a significant or substantial portion of disrupted bolide mass escaping Earth's gravity to be re-injected into heliocentric orbit through some range of inertial parameters (direction and speed). The obvious problem in such a scenario is that all such ricochet mass then lies on Earth crossing orbits (by definition) over a range of orbit parameters with a range of return crossing (hazardous) time scales, save any portion that escapes the Sun's gravity all together. Without knowing the exact epoch and impact condition for the origin event of this nature, subsequent debris return would seem random in timing, although incoming orbit determination and comparison for some number of such objects my provide insight to those unknowns. Dr. Burchard also addresses the Eltanin impact in a GSA 2019 Phoenix poster found at the website for that national conference, here: https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2019AM/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/334480 The problem of prolonged timescales for large scale oblique impact effects is addressed by Shultz and Gault (1990) "Prolonged Global Catastrophes from Oblique Impacts" with abstract here: (paper available on request at link) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234335380_Prolonged_Global_Catastrophes_from_Oblique_Impacts The Earth ring debris issue seems to be the basis of the 10Myr prolonged catastrophe timescale in Shultz & Gault (1990), i.e. Earth-captured vs. Earth-escape impact effluent. A simplified assessment would project a majority of Earth-ring mass to be of terrestrial composition, while the higher speed Earth-escape fraction to be primarily composed of disrupted bolide, based on momentum considerations. This is because terrestrial components accelerated to cometary speeds and cometary components slowed to terrestrial speeds would likely be vaporized when driven by shock processes that dominate such collisions. - "Without disagreement between rationally minded folks, we are no better than the amoeba we (seemingly) arose from."
Project
Suborbital Analysis (SA) & Compositional Comparison of Carolina bays, North American Great Lakes and Australasian Tektites (AAT). We seek co-investigators to compare the AAT, the Carolina bays unit Geologic formation, Chinese Loess bearing the same REE profile as the AAT, and North American Great Lakes geology. Growing evidence suggest these geologic entities may be results of the same oblique bolide impact over the present Great Lakes area in a NE-to-SW direction (Georgian Bay to Saginaw Bay) at 786 ka, as described in GSA Books volume 553, New Ideas in Earth Science: https://doi.org/10.1130/2021.2553, chapter 24, "Postulating an unconventional location for the missing mid-Pleistocene transition impact: Repaving North America with a cavitated regolith blanket while dispatching Australasian tektites and giving Michigan a thumb". Supporting chapter 23 of the same GSA Book 553 is a terrestrial ejecta transport analysis paper with downloadable shareware spreadsheet tool, useful for showing that Australite and Central Indian Ocean ablated Australasian tektites must have come from the North American Great Lakes region based on Chapman conditions of reentry at those locations. We are collecting samples of Michigan red bed sandstone and Carolina bay sand. We would like to collaborate with scientists who can do any of the following: • compare samples of Michigan red bed sandstone to Carolina bay sand and Australasian tektite (AAT) samples using detailed compositional analysis, • test quartz sand grains for low-rate hydrogen seepage, • test for thermal alteration or conduct isotope systematics of indurated Mackinac breccia and/or folded limestone sheet formations of Bass Islands, Lake Erie, or • isotope systematics on thermally altered contents of the Michigan Basin regional subsurface. No explanation would exist for any regional thermal metamorphic process at the surface in that sedimentary setting during the Pleistocene. The above-mentioned features of the Michigan Basin are assumed to have formed significantly earlier than the mid Pleistocene. Results to the contrary would be publishable content for many reasons. Isotope systematics on these formations may reveal surprising results for the diligent investigator who realizes the importance of the AAT event due to the extreme partitioned KE of that melt implied by well-proven reentry conditions per NASA and D.R. Chapman, as described below. Based on the transported mass of the Carolina bays unit geologic formation and implied 3.2 to 3.7 km/s velocity, the indicated mass of involved ice from the MIS 20 northern ice sheet is on the order of 10^22 grams or greater. This is comparable to the mass of Earth's entire atmosphere. It makes the transport energy partitioned to the Australasian tektites pale in comparison, as explained in greater detail below…. The realities, and the inconvenience: A substantial majority of the estimated 30 to 60 billion tons of AA tektite melt was propelled to ~ 10 km/s (Chapman 1962, '63, others). With simple equivalence of KE = 1/2MV2, the indicated AAT transport KE is ~3 x 1021 joules, regardless of the source region, based on Chapman’s findings. For tektites being distal ejecta (by definition), this should be several orders of magnitude less than the overall KE partitioned to ejecta transport of the event. There should be a large medial or proximal signature that indicates the impact structure region from much closer than do the AA tektites, perhaps in the form of conformal depositional emplacement of allochthonous aggregate or clastic flow. Four orders of magnitude greater than the AAT transport KE would place the AAT parent event yield at the same order as Chicxulub. Unfortunately, the Chicxulub KE comparison is most likely a substantial under-estimation for the AAT event. This is based on the idea that the AAT melt was propelled by entrainment within shocked volatiles of originally lessor density but overall higher mass than the tektite silicate parent mass, all as indicated by aspects of the imprint. Inconvenient aspects. Commonly dismissed aspects. Critically important aspects. And this speaks to the root of the current failed consensus. The indications of colossal scale typically lead to rapid dismissal of such inconvenient facts by geoscientists who are confident that we know all there is to know about planetary impacts and related ejecta transport mechanics. Those workers are so confident that they are willing to apply a proximal ejecta (blanket) model to tektites, which are distal by definition. And the list of other equally important selectively dismissed observations is lengthy. Many of those workers are the same researchers dedicated to the failed AAT source search in Indochina. It is failed because we still have plenty to learn. The question is, do we have time to learn it? This is not a comfortable reality. The overall feature set of the Carolina bays unit geologic formation is yet to be explained by any conventional geologic means. Previous ‘wind and waves’ hypotheses fail, and the angular to sub-angular grain texture of that sand defies normal transport processes for lack of erosional wear on the grains. Hypervelocity impact shock waves applied to a continental ice sheet, and resultant steam plasma plume expansion ‘wind’ do serve to explain the observable features. Some History: Recent Suborbital Analysis (SA) of Chapman's ablated button tektite reentry conditions for the Bendigo button (minimum 10 km/s and 12 to 25 deg elevation from horizontal) and the Central Indian Ocean (CIO) button tektite (less speed than the Bendigo button and 20 to 30 degrees elevation per Glass et al. 1996) indicate the North American Great Lakes as the only place on the globe with a focus of launch conditions meeting Chapman's test-derived reentry conditions (Harris, 2015, 2017, 2020 in review, ongoing). This is a difficult reality to accept for anyone holding Gradualist views as required explanation. Interdisciplinary understanding is required, as is an explanation of how the path of scientific research could have gotten so far off track. That explanation is provided by the recently identified error of omission by Chapman that every NASA co-worker & manager, every journal editor and review all missed, the ever-critical important rotating frame transformation. More-senior workers in the geologic sciences who are aware of Chapman’s ablated tektite reentry conditions from the 1960s frequently either discount or completely mistrust those reentry condition results. Many younger researchers are entirely unaware of Chapman’s triple-verified AAT reentry condition results because the senior researchers left it by the wayside long ago in their careers, in a consensus of the entire geoscience branch. All of this is due to Chapman’s error of omission in those 1960s works, recently identified in a larger research effort to understand seemingly conflicting elements of the geologic record. In the aerospace camp, Dr. Dean R. Chapman is widely recognized for his valuable contributions in aerothermodynamics. His heat transfer equation is still used today in contemporary spacecraft design, and NASA properly honors him as a hall of fame researcher. Search his name and that is where you will find him. Apollo astronauts are the first to agree he belongs there. How is this disconnect between the two scientific camps possible? After carefully resolving the ablated AAT reentry conditions in NASA’s 1960s NASA reentry heat shield development effort, Chapman never applied the requisite rotating frame transformation to resolve possible and/or impossible AAT source regions on the globe. This critical error of omission has only recently been identified (Harris 2020, in review with GSA). Decades later, Glass Chapman Prasad (1996) detailed another ablated AAT from the Central Indian Ocean, the CIO button tektite. Again, Chapman never applied the correct dynamical accounting to the results, with no rotating frame transformation applied to implied launch conditions of 70% to 80% of Earth’s escape Kinetic Energy for the CIO button tektite. At such high KE, extended suborbital loft is assured, making any attempt at suborbital analysis without the rotating frame transform completely invalid from a physical mechanics basis. Any PhD physical mechanics researcher will agree that proper dynamics treatment of any rotating frame problem is required for a valid solution, with brilliant contemporary mechanists like Artemieva and Melosh being the first to remind us of such requisite treatments. Yet many researchers in the geologic camp are quick to discount or completely ignore Chapman’s triple-verified ablated AAT reentry conditions. Chapman’s inappropriate assumption of lunar origin for the AAT, based on faulty and wholly inadequate mechanical treatment of suborbital transport, clearly eroded confidence in all of his work pertaining to the tektites. Lunar origin is no longer considered a possibility for tektites based on their well-characterized geochemistry. But Chapman arrived at Lunar Origin after the reentry condition test results were clear. In the 1960s, SA methodology was not widely available in the literature, and the most advanced SA treatments were classified in the defense sector for the ‘payload delivery’ problem (Cold War intercontinental ballistic missile application). Chapman was a bit of a ‘my-way mathematician’, but a good enough experimentalist to get away with it. In 1971 Bate Mueller and White published Fundamentals of Astrodynamics with a detailed terrestrial suborbital treatment, for instruction at the Airforce Academy and other colleges. In 1981 Dobrovolskis published an elegant nondimensionalized treatment in the astro journal Icarus. The latter shows why Stauffer (1978) lacks the dynamic similitude and the included Indochina proposal is invalid. The 1st chapter of the former contains the simplified two-body orbit mechanics model for analysis of chapman’s reentry conditions. Tektite researchers often refer to Stauffer (1978) even today, because previous tektite workers did as well. The problem is not impossibly complex as Chapman implied, but it is ‘rocket science’, and there is no substitute for the correct analytical treatment. Omission is no substitute. Lunar comparisons are no substitute. Those are the realities that must be accepted before any solution to the AAT source location can be located. Any space-flight experienced astronaut, however, will be happy to testify as to the validity of Chapmans heat shield design. Apollo astronauts came through atmospheric reentry after free-return from the moon, with no deceleration rocket burn after falling into Earth’s gravity well from that great distance. Obviously that extremely challenging constraint on the Apollo program mission design was well-treated by the reentry heat shields. Apollo heat shield design was highly reliable without question, because it was calibrated by Chapman’s diligent tektite reentry condition research. The unfortunate historic path described here cannot ever be changed. What we can do is acknowledge Chapman’s error of omission and its effects on all subsequent tektite research. This is not an easy task for any senior scientist with a career invested in research of Indochina as a potential AAT source. But without all of that dedicated tektite research since the 1960s, there would never have been enough evidence to understand the preponderance of incredible and seemingly conflicting AAT imprint features. Acknowledge it and move on: It is unfortunate that astro-scientist and NASA hall of fame researcher Dean R. Chapman failed to consider any possibility of terrestrial origin for the AAT, and refused to embrace the requisite dynamical treatments that were outside his analytic comfort zone. It is too bad that no peers, no editors and no one reviewing any of Chapman’s work in multiple journal papers or NASA technical papers realized Chapman’s error of omission. It is too bad that no geoscientist at that time or in the 5-decades-plus since that time put forth the required effort to review the work and identify Chapman’s error of omission instead of simply dismissing research that was good enough to bring all of the Apollo astronauts back safely in free-return all the way from the Moon. These are the risks when interdisciplinary collaboration is lacking in planetary science research, as is made clear by W. Alvarez (GSA Special Paper 247, 1990). The suborbital mechanics required for high KE ejecta transport is indeed rocket science. Proper assessment of such tektite transport requires proper dynamical treatment, either by the worker needing the result, or by a collaborator with the requisite specialty background. It can’t be accomplished using straight lines on flat maps, or using just the trivial ‘minimum KE’ case that so many geoscientists fall into the trap of using. Complete and proper treatment has not been available as public domain within the civil sector until now (Harris, 2020 in review). There are infinite A-to-B suborbital solutions for every A/B point pair, and addressing that issue alone requires detailed understanding of the suborbital paradigm and all of its peculiarities and non-linear trends. Chapman’s error of omission has not been identified until now, with a lack of interdisciplinary collaboration between earth- and astro-science camps at the root of the misdirected AAT source search in Indochina. We did send men to the Moon and return them safely. The mechanics of that effort were indeed valid. The only error in Chapman’s work was the error of omission, after his tektite reentry conditions were carefully and correctly tested and calibrated through extensive experiment that yielded an aerothermodynamics equation still used for spacecraft design today. Time-tested validity. And this brings up what is probably the most important message of the entire exercise. Errors of omission can be the most damaging in scientific research – having no explicit presence makes them difficult to identify, the research that they infest lacks validity moving forward, and no explicit indication of non-validity exists in the meantime. The fact that no one found Chapman’s error of omission until now is disturbing. Now that his lack of properly applied rotating frame transform has been clearly identified, AAT science has a chance to get back on track and locate the parent impact structure, no matter how big or how convoluted it may be compared to any ‘conventional crater’. It is time to move on, and this time on sound analytic basis, for a change. Applying ejecta blanket models (that are derived for proximal ejecta) to tektites, which are by definition distal ejecta, will not yield valid results. Changing the definition of tektites from distal ejecta to anything different as suggested by Stauffer (1978) will not yield valid results. The science will certainly follow the evidence to eventually reveal the AAT source. The message here is that the consensus Indochina paradigm fails the test of proper dynamical accounting. It is not a popular message. It is simply the truth as reviled by proper scientific methodology and carefully executed, detailed review of research. In this case, that careful level of review has taken 55+ years. Now it is time to move on. Suborbital Analysis indicates the Great Lakes region as the source for the Carolina bays sand unit, particularly a great circle line source from Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay to the S.W. serves as a trajectory source for the 50,000+ documented bays to date, with otherwise common and tightly constrained launch conditions from that line, implying an oblique impact over what is now Lake Huron from NW to SE. The contemporary shoreline of Lake Huron is actually a beautiful representation of astronomic KE partitioning from oblique impact into substantial ice overburden, as convoluted and subsequently delivered to the competent substrate. The implied KE is chilling, and the signature is completely foreign to any contemporary ‘crater’ scaling practice yet published (Harris & Davias, 2017). But the Australasian tektites are real, as is the impossibly large KE required to get them to their carefully verified reentry speed. This project: The goal of this project is to assemble and organize all associated data in an effort to determine possible correlation or compositional match between Great Lakes geology, Carolina bays sand compositional & morphologic trends, and the Australasian tektites. Barnes (1990) already tells us that the AA tektites Rare Earth Element profile matches that of the North American Shale Composite, and we also know that 1.6 Ga zircons from Moung Nong-type AA tektites match provenance of zircons from the Michigan Basin. 5 to 15 hours loft associated with 10+ km/s reentry speed of ablated australites ("button-form" flanged tektites) implies inter-hemispheric transport, without question. The centroid of microtektite fallback was in Indochina, with North America's Great Lakes almost antipodal to that location, as we would expect for such high launch speeds. Central Indian ocean microtektites exhibit post solidification collisional damage with each other per extensive characterization by Prasad & Khedeka (2003). The extremely unlikely traffic pileup scenario of atmospheric reentry trajectories is also explained by antipodal convergence from a source above the Americas continental landmass. The Bayport limestone formation of Michigan, USA (Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron) is breached. Why would an advancing ice sheet prefer to 'turn right and go up hill' through harder rock when a softer sandstone substrate was available straight ahead of the southern marching Laurentide Ice Sheet? This is one of many unexplained issues in North American glaciology. AA splash-form tektites were accelerated to twice the post-shock velocity for shock-vaporization of quartz, or 4 times that KE. The AA tektites were not largely vapor fractionated (except for the most volatile elements). Something in addition to shock served as a transport energy source. Volatiles such as carbonates or water fit the bill. Steam plasma is an obvious option for such a transport motive engine, and electromagnetic delta-V boost another possibility presented in this project with tektite observations of fragmented indochinites and chinite AA tektite 360 degree imagery. Details of the geologic imprint: A continental ice sheet vaporized and ionized by cosmic impact explains the uniform Fe oxidation state of 30 to 60 billion tons of AA tektite melt coming from 3 different rock units (greywacke, sandstone, shale), matching that of 45,000 K disassociating Oxygen at just over 2+ ionization. The uniform mixture may be explained by mixed sediments in the target setting, but 60 billion tons of distal ejecta should be the smallest fraction of excavated mass. With no deeply excavated large crater, the implication is a large volume of ice coming apart at the molecular level and oxygen coming apart at the electrical level. The uniform AAT iron oxidation state also implies a continental target region at high enough latitude or altitude (or both) to have significant ice overburden at MIS 20, and perhaps several times since, to modify and further convolute the structural signature. It means lots of partitioned KE and some kind of buffer to prevent substantial mix of projectile with target substrate mass while also shielding the substrate from more substantial damage and excavation. These ideas must be embraced, understood and explained, in light of any suspected impact structural signature in whatever continental landscape (or coastal marine-scape). It means the buffer may have been H2O in some form since the AA tektites are higher in moisture content than other tektite families but are known to have formed equal or greater temperature than those other tektite families. Low impedance ice along with the extended shock-forcing length of an oblique bolide impact into a thick ice sheet explain the high temperature result indicated by the AA tektite imprint. It also explains why Carolina bays sand may be seeping hydrogen, although the detected H2 may be from somewhere "deep in the basement...." as suggested by Zgonnik (2015). Ion infusion of hydrogen from shocked ice sheet, at a relative encounter speed to the vertically exploding (rapidly decompressed) substrate sand of 3.2 to 3.7 km/s, is a viable mechanism per linked Rager et al. (2014). It should be easy enough to test using pass/fail light gas detection assuming careful sample site selection and secure specimen custody chain, as in any science. We are now working on better characterization of the H2 signature in relation to the 400,000 square kilometer sand unit conformally draped across several ancient antecedent surfaces and covers over. What is not so easy is any explanation for such a large unit of nearly pure quartz, allochthonous and angular to sub-angular grained sand in a costal setting, or in any such large depositional formation for that matter. Wind or water transport of sand rounds the edges. Terrestrial transport of sand is an erosional process to the grains. If the sand has angular grains, how did it get to the huge area over which it has been identified…? We are already holding at least one such sample of angular to sub-angular grain from roughly 10m under the US eastern coastal plane in southern NJ, recovered and well documented from a quarry test well. Seemingly this depositional setting was coastal marine, but the grain morphology defies conventional explanation. Seeking valid physical mechanical explanations, abandoning invalid ones: The AA tektite event was 786 ka, a low sea level stand at MIS20, with Ice sheets likely large and thick. What does an oblique impact look like when a thick ice sheet is involved? What are the implied electromagnetic effects? What signatures would be left behind on the substrate? Would any resultant structure be shallow but extended, if observable at all, to such an extent as to be completely unrecognizable by any conventional terrestrial standard of impact structural definition? Stickle and Schultz (2012, 2014) demonstrate this. Volatiles are an effective shield to the competent substrate under these impact conditions. A low density projectile will further obfuscate remnant impact signature in the record, if any. Selective or passive dismissal leads research further down the wrong road: Artemieva (2013) attempts to show that the required melt mass for AA tektites may be generated with a final crater diameter of only 20 km. Unfortunately, the greatest velocity of the melt in that work is only 7 km/s, falling short of known Australasian tektite 10 km/s reentry velocity by at least half of the required transport KE. This is not naive or obsolete thinking so much as it is simply disappointing - why not model what we really know to be the truth per Chapman, and demand a solution that includes at least some component of melt at or near or even above the observed 10 km/s (let alone a vast majority i.e. all AA microtektite mass), before summary dismissal of Chapman’s valid reentry values without so much as a mention of any scientific reason to do so? What errors does Chapman’s aerothermodynamics development hold for such justification? What complaints did any of the Apollo astronauts bring back from the Moon? Any consult with them should clear things up, because they all lived through the reentry from those trips. The Apollo missions were no hoax, and neither was the heat shield design or the physical mechanics behind same. And here is a good example of the poisoning effect of errors of omission. The ever-shrinking crater as a rational solution to the missing AA parent source should be considered completely exhausted. Such efforts don’t account for what Chapman proved as the truth, his ablated AAT reentry conditions. Time to abandon the ever-shrinking crater quest in favor of valid alternatives instead. If you need to collaborate for the suborbital transport portion of any tektite research, it may be inconvenient, but it is better than accepting mechanically non-valid solutions or throwing away Chapman’s carefully derived and highly validated tektite reentry conditions. Science is a search for truth, not a search for ways to ignore the truth. In this project, we will never rationalize why it is OK to ignore inconvenient indications of the imprint. Instead we embrace those seemingly unbelievable indications as the most critical to explain. Anything less just wastes time by side-stepping the central realities of the overall problem we are trying to explain to begin with. That would indeed be naïve. The greater effort of science will never find the AA parent impact site by ignoring inconvenient elements of the imprint, but rather only by embracing those most cumbersome and hard to explain signatures. The AA reentry speed means inter-hemispheric transport, without question. If you disagree with Dean R. Chapman's Lunar Origin of Tektites hypothesis, then you are in good company. But if you discount his test-derived conditions for ablated button tektites reentering at 80% escape speed or more, then you must find any error contained within his derivation of Aerothermodynamics and the Chapman Equation, still used today in modern spacecraft design. Chapman's only error was one of omission, leaving out the requisite rotating frame transformation needed to calculate possible, or impossible, zones of terrestrial origin. His tested reentry conditions are true and valid. That is the harsh reality we must now face. This is the spoiler - Chapman's heat transfer equation for reentry through the transitional zone in Earth's upper atmosphere, between free-molecular and collisional flow, is without error, because its derivation is without error. That derivation was aided and calibrated by testing actual tektite glass specimens to reproduce observed ablated tektite surface features under extremely sensitive test conditions, where slight changes of condition yielded large changes in ablated morphologic results. What Chapman was really up against was the electron, but he avoided a direct confrontation by finding a curve fit between the collisional and the electron-dominated free molecular (or free ionic) flow regimes. Chapman himself still insisted that the published tektite atmospheric entry conditions be padded with margin on either side of his baseline test-derived values because of "unknown" error. He wanted to be conservative in his treatment of the atmospheric entry vs. reentry issue. His baseline reentry condition values for the Bendigo Australia (“high ablation group”) and Central Indian Ocean ablated button tektites yield a single possible source region on Earth's surface, the North American Great Lakes, when all rotational transforms are applied in appropriate sequence (Harris, 2020, in review). Cautionary note in light of the current consensus situation: The growing trend to assume an ever-smaller impact structure as a conspiring culprit in keeping its location a mystery is misguided and opposite the likely reality. The AA tektite parent impact structure is most likely so big and so shallow that it is unrecognizable by any published standard, and probably only hinted at by oblique impact studies such as Stickle and Schultz (2012, 2014) and Kurosawa et al. (2012, 2015). Embracing the future of impact science means recognizing this unyielding fact. Look to the electron to understand astronomic partitioning into volatiles under highly oblique shock, with its incredible capacity to absorb KE during liberation from a host atom. Look to the increased surface involvement of oblique impact in combination with an ice sheet overburden to explain increased electron involvement (i.e. EM domination of the early phase of impact, and significant later phase involvement in the down-range momentum flow). These two concepts conspire to remove all precedence or familiar reference frame, and leave the brain in conflict and disbelief. When this happens, and it will, then you will know you have arrived in the local conceptual neighborhood of this project. Chapman's error of omission came after his extensive test program with its careful attention to detail and multiple means of cross checking the results. Chapman's derived reentry conditions are unquestionably correct. You must prove them wrong before any appropriate dismissal. Modern computer resources and suborbital mechanics provide for correct solutions which are presented in this Research Gate project. Ignoring these realities simply means leaving the solution for subsequent generations of scientific researchers to resolve. In the mean-time…. Beware of longstanding consensus opinions that fail to explain observed realities. These includes but are not limited to the following: 1) Earth is flat (because we know boats disappear ‘over the edge’!), 2) Plate Tectonics can't be real (because continents certainly can’t “drift”!), 3) the Channeled Scablands aren’t flood scars (all catastrophism is identically false!), 4) all of NASA researcher D. R. Chapman’s aerothermodynamics work is flawed (but all Apollo missions returned safely through the reentry phase...?), 5) the Australasian tektite parent impact site must be in the centroid of that largest known tektite strewn field, instead of far distal in proportion to the strewn field size as with the other known tektite strewn fields. An oblique impact over North America at 786 ka explains all observations of the AAT, even the inconvenient and seemingly contradictory ones. Disagreement with this typically involves selective dismissal of valid observations. J.A. O'Keefe was right when he assumed Lunar Origin of the tektites, almost. Inter-hemispheric terrestrial transport gives the suborbital signature that led him to the Lunar Origin concept. I will explain this in full detail upon request. It boils down to the high tektite reentry speed indicating tektite origin at great distance from fall site. O'Keefe guessed just slightly too far, but it is literally only a slight difference between nearly escaping Earth's gravity as terrestrial ejecta, vs. free-return and falling from the Moon all the way to Earth. Based on Dean R. Chapman’s triple-verified tektite reentry conditions, any Indochina parent impact concept for the AA tektites is identically wrong. Valid disagreement requires identification of fault in Chapman’s aerothermo’ derivation and tektite reentry condition analysis and testing, the same effort responsible for bringing Apollo astronauts home safely from the Moon via free-return. Selective dismissal of this truth requires finding fault in Chapman’s ablated tektite reentry conditions to justify such dismissal. Until then, we must now accept Chapman’s extremely high KE tektite reentry conditions and act accordingly. The harsh reality we face as research scientists: 1) Hypervelocity shocked ice sheet with resulting steam plasma scouring of the substrate taking place somewhere on the far side of Earth from Indochina explains all observed aspects of the AA tektite composition and distribution, including the layered Muong Nong-types, when the source region is roughly antipodal from the center of strewn concentration, somewhere in the northern hemisphere and subject to ice overburden at MIS20. 2) The uniquely large AA tektite strewn field area implies uniquely long duration for suborbital dispersal, which also implies uniquely large longitude displacement due to Earth's spin during that loft duration, while the suborbital tektites travel in inertially fixed trajectory planes. “It’s not just a good idea, it’s the law”. The laws of suborbital mechanics are not subject to selective dismissal when valid results are the goal. The suggested process per the inconvenient imprint: Massive free-electron currents seem to have disrupted some partially cooled tektites-in-formation while frantically seeking ground, powerfully unkind to any who resist. Plastically-shredded or fractured fragments of formerly spheroidal or sub-spheroidal indochinite tektites that had initially semi-solid or fully chilled outer shells were laid open by a powerful process. This is evidenced in the fragment-form sub-family of AAT. The indochinite shredding process involved rapid heat deposition and mechanically explosive force that expressed as brittle fragmentation, plastic mechanical deformation, and in some cases liquid or ropy spatter from internal cavity radially outward to convex outer surface. The cavity and the convex outer surface are with respect to the original spheroidal specimen being blown apart by the lightning bolt through its bulk volume. Some specimen feature sets imply multiple cycles of such violent and high-energy thermal cycling, consistent with sub-horizontal initial flight paths through multiple hot spot expansion plumes per extended oblique impact footprint. The arc path on the remnant fragments is often identifiable by near-surface bubble concentrations and/or melt tracks on those fragments, with striae in a similar pattern as the expected electromagnetic field generated by arcing along those indicated current paths. This similarity of striae to EM field geometry could be a coincidence if expressed in a few specimens, but the evidence presents in hundreds of fragment-form AAT specimens examined to date, the number still climbing. Some examples are presented in this project. The EM field-like striae are typically in a relatively clear outer layer on the tektite’s surface, typically not correlated to internal flow lines, mixing patterns or schlieren. Try explaining that without electromagnetic involvement. The imprinted EM field-like striae are easily explained by flash surface heating from a highly-energized plasma halo surrounding the tektite within the central volume of the HV arcing current. Energized plasma will fluoresce, and a brief but intensive UV fluorescence typical of high-voltage, high current discharge serves as an effective heater for the outer layer of tektite glass. The contorted fragment-form morphologies are easily explained by forceful mechanical coupling between the conducting (vaporizing and highly ionized) portion of the tektite and the extreme current and rate of change of current that are both characteristic of energetic HV arcing. This process may also be a contributor to the otherwise problematic delta V of the tektite fragments in a ‘rail-gun’ scenario. Because of these commonly observable fragment-form AAT features, electron recombination time scale is indicated to be on the same time scale required to cool inviscid liquid silicates to brittle glass. That is difficult to assimilate conceptually, but that is clearly the indication of fragment-form AAT. It represents an incomprehensibly large event, with incomprehensible amounts of involved ice sheet volume and resulting massive current flow of liberated electrons. And we are lucky that it does, because the ice literally "took the heat" for our ancestors as a species, and surely saved the Earth from global conflagration vs. the dinosaur-ending event of Chicxulub. The ice, and the electrons of the water molecules in the ice, are the heroes of the story, to be celebrated along with the good fortune of an oblique incidence condition and apparently a low bolide density as additional bonus. As a species we should be ever-grateful for this protective gesture, and mindful not to cause the undoing of contemporary ice sheet coverage. You never know how that stuff may protect us... Summary of the situation: The extensive data behind our project goals take time to absorb, involving related works in geomorphology, high resolution LiDAR mapping and data interpretation, shock, thermodynamics, heat transmission, geochemistry, nuclear chemistry, structural geology, solids, fluids, plasmas physics & electrodynamics, as well as some other topics. This process is best not rushed, but taken carefully and thoughtfully to gain the most meaning. Unfortunately, when comets come through the inner solar system, we sometimes only get a few years notice. The more people that take a look at or contribute to this research now, the better prepared we will become as a species. The overall body of evidence suggests that Earth endures uncharacterized risk until we know how the AA tektites formed and where the offending projectile came from. Any reservoir of such objects feeding the inner solar system through whatever mechanism needs better characterization to guarantee effective, comprehensive monitoring for risk mitigation. The indicated KE of the AAT event is 10 to 1000 times that of the Chicxulub event. It isn’t just the currently observed ~1600 (sixteen hundred) cubic kilometers of the Carolina bays unit geologic formation and the KE required to boost that nearly pure quartz sand to 3.5 or 4 km/s, it is also the vastly greater amount of ice that must have absorbed the KE partitioning and subsequently delivered it to that much tektite melt, and more especially to that much sand. Use this information at your own risk. We bear no liability in the event that your mind frame suddenly becomes shifted to anti-consensus thinking regarding various features of the geologic imprint. This may be a disorienting feeling and we advise sitting and taking a glass of water, and then some slow, deep breathing. For students of the sciences picking up lots of new ideas, this is an easier transition, but may manifest in some of the more senior faculty members becoming red-faced with bulging vessels, agitated, upset or generally fatigued from stress. Your enthusiasm for any material presented in this project may upset them further, so be sensitive to that fact. Their research may have directly laid the path for this new understanding, but further advance will only take place when astro- and geo-scientists are willing to collaborate whole-heartedly with full trust in each other, and careful review for full understanding of the work. Also: Never try to rationalize or explain an electron recombination time scale that is longer than inviscid silicate solidification time scales when it is late at night or you are starting out in a fatigued state. You will just become frustrated at the seemingly nonsensical nature of it, and it is not good for the blood pressure or for sound sleep. Critical questions going forward: We should be looking for a several-hundred-kilometer-long shallow structure of disrupted subsurface features, heat and pressure alteration and missing overburden somewhere on the far side of Earth from Indochina. The North American Great Lakes region and included Michigan Basin have just those features. The list of expected features includes but is not limited to regional en echelon faulting normally oriented to an indicated oblique impact axis, hydraulic discontinuities and over-pressures in the subsurface, missing overburden, unexplained location and orientation of excavated or erosional features, and unexplained regional subsurface heating & associated fractionation that is too shallow for contemporary thermal gradient. These are well-explained by Michigan's "Lost Interval", Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay implying the oblique impact axis, and evidence of anomalous heating in that well-characterized 0.5 Ga sedimentary basin setting. Most critically, the alignment of 55,000+ Carolina bays, all conforming to just six Davias Archetype planforms, indicate an origin along the Saginaw Bay centerline axis according to extensive Suborbital Analysis (SA). This is exactly as expected for entrainment of a massive volume of sand within a shocked down-range steam-plasma momentum current from an oblique cosmic impact into the MIS20 continental ice sheet. Rotation of the Earth during that suborbital transport is expressed within the extraordinary Carolina bays depositional sand blanket unit. The highly fractured, angular to sub-angular grain texture, conformal blanket of sand completely lacks biogenic detritus within its monotonously uniform bulk interior, has no bedding structure and apparently seeps hydrogen as well. It covers at least 5% of the continental U.S. It passes the Carl Sagan test of extraordinary evidence for the equally extraordinary concept investigated herein. We are looking for collaborative researchers to investigate the various features outlined in this posting. We are currently arranging pass-fail testing of Carolina bays sand samples for H2 gas. If the sand indicates as the H2 source, we want to collaborate with researchers who can examine the microstructural process involved. Is H2 be seeping from nearly pure quartz sand in the shallow subsurface, or escaping the quartz matrix as H and finding a sibling on the surface before departure as H2? If so, why? What is the D/H ratio of that hydrogen and why? Etc…. Is there a giant ejecta blanket realized anywhere in the Indochina region? More importantly, how can one unit of sand cover 400,000 square kilometers in a 2 to 10 m thick conformal blanket through a range of elevations from negative 2 meters to 600 m above sea level (and possibly west of Denver at much higher ASL), and be continuous across the eastern coastal plain fall line while also 'allochthonous' relative to all of those regions where it is observed? Why would such sand fine upward, as if from sedimentation through slow-moving fluid as observed in the Midlothian or ‘upland’ gravels around Richmond VA? It’s as if it fell from the top of the atmosphere…. There are many curious observations gathered in this project, and many explanations still needed detailed scientific investigation. A long-time latent error of omission has been identified and corrected. That is only a new beginning to what now shapes up to be an inconceivable challenge facing contemporary science. The scale is huge, the process is poorly constrained, and imagination may be the only key to guide scientific advance through this otherwise uncharted paradigm. There is much left to learn. We have plenty of work to do, and we need help in the effort. The species we save could be our own, so let that be your inspiration for contributing or collaborating if no other reason comes to mind. -T. H. S. Harris