Thomas Efferth

Thomas Efferth
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz | JGU · Department of Pharmaceutical Biology

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965
Publications
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Publications

Publications (965)
Article
As a major tea component, theabrownin represents a promising anti‐cancer candidate. However, its effect on the melanoma is unknown. To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti‐melanoma efficacy of TB, we conducted cell viability, immunostaining, comet, and TUNEL assays on human A375 melanoma cells, and employed a zebrafish xenograft model of A375 cel...
Article
The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is widely recognized as a key effector in angiogenesis and cancer progression and has been considered a critical target for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives exert profound efficacy in treating not only malaria but also cancer. As a novel ARS-type c...
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Hepatobiliary, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal cancers account for 36% of the ten million deaths caused by cancer worldwide every year. The two main reasons for this high mortality are their late diagnosis and their high refractoriness to pharmacological treatments, regardless of whether these are based on classical chemotherapeutic agents, target...
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Background Tetrapleura tetraptera is a medicinal spice traditionally used to treat cancer, diabetes, and several other ailments. This study analyzed the cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane methanol extract of T. tetraptera fruits (TTF) and its constituents. The toxicity profile of the TTF extract was also evaluated in rats. Methods The Cytotoxicit...
Article
Background Esophageal cancer (EC) is highly prevalent in Eastern Asia (including China) with high rates of mortality. The metastatic tendency in EC is associated with a poor prognosis. Our previous studies have demonstrated the suppressive effects of Andrographis paniculata water extract (APW) on metastatic esophageal cancer in vitro and in tumor-b...
Article
Background: Small cell vaginal carcinoma is a very rare gynecological cancer and treatments including chemo- and radiotherapy have had limited success. Case report: We report the case of a 37-year-old female, where intensive treatment with the combination of paclitaxel, carboplatin, irinotecan, and camptothecin with and without irradiation did n...
Article
Background/aim: The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5) transporter plays a pivotal role in melanocyte progenitor cell fusion and has been identified as a tumor-initiating cell marker. In this study, we determined ABCB5 expression in normal tissues among various species, i.e., Homo sapiens, Mus musculus (mouse), Rattus norvegicus (ra...
Article
Background/aim: Patients with metastatic tumors commonly have a poor prognosis. Frequently, patients suffering from progressive tumors have a high willingness for the compassionate use of non-approved medications. One of these medications is the antimalarial drug artesunate (ART) which also showed profound anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo, an...
Article
Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has been considered an important strategy for cancer therapy. VEGFR2 inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenic pathways have been widely used in clinical cancer treatment. However, inherent or acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic drugs may occur and thus limit their cl...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (also called Danshen in traditional Chinese medicine) is a famous herbal medicine, which has been frequently used to treat blood stasis syndrome including osteosarcoma (OS) in traditional Chinese medicine. Main components of Danshen have been assumed to exhibit anti-OS capacity. Nevertheles...
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Tetrapleura tetraptera is a medicinal plant used in East and West Africa to treat inflammation and related diseases. From the stem bark of the plant, three previously undescribed flavan-3-ol derivatives named (2R,3S)-3,3′,5′,7-tetrahydroxy-4′-methoxyflavane (1), (2R,3S)-3′,5′,7-trihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavane-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (2R,3S,4S...
Article
Based on the complex pathology of AD, a single chemical approach may not be sufficient to deal simultaneously with multiple pathways of amyloid-tau neuroinflammation. A polydrug approach which contains multiple bioactive components targeting multiple pathways in AD would be more appropriate. Here we focused on a Chinese medicine (HLXL), which conta...
Article
Background : Hepatic inflammation can substantially impact the development of acute hepatitis. It is a pressing need to identify and exploit novel therapeutic targets as well as effective drug therapies against acute hepatitis. Aucubin (AU) is one of the main active components extracted from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides and possesses significant...
Article
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by an overreaction of immune responses and damage at the intestinal mucosal barrier. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a key role to protect the intestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation and suppressing excessive immune responses. Therefor...
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The improvement of cancer chemotherapy remains a major challenge, and thus new drugs are urgently required to develop new treatment regimes. Curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), has undergone extensive preclinical investigations and, thereby, displayed remarkable efficacy in vitro and in vivo...
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Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a large group of highly toxic chemical compounds, which are found as cross-contaminants in numerous food products (e.g., honey), dietary supplements, herbal teas, and pharmaceutical herbal medicines. PA contaminations are responsible for serious hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenesis. Health authorities have to se...
Article
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte injury, is an obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation with few available therapeutic options. Enhancement of the mitochondrial function was considered as an effective treatment for NALFD. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) have been shown to have ben...
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The main protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) in coronaviruses represents a promising specific drug target as it is essential for the cleavage of the virus polypeptide and has a unique cleavage site that does not exist in human host proteases. In this study, we explored potential natural pan-coronavirus drugs using in vitro and in silico approaches and three...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance According to the theory and practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the pathogenesis of lung carcinoma is associated with many syndromes, such as "sputum stasis", "cough", "lung fever", "lung toxin", and "hemoptysis", which should be removed for therapeutic purpose. Tea is not only a world-wide beverage, but a...
Article
Background Ginkgo biloba L. is one of the oldest trees on earth, and its leaves have been used since ages as herbal medicine to treat cerebrovascular disorders. It is worth noting that in addition to the widely concerned flavonoids and terpenoids, it also contains various thus far neglected biflavonoids. In fact, biflavonoids are flavonoids consist...
Article
Background : Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone from citrus fruit peels. Among other bioactivities, it acts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardiovascular-protective. Nobiletin exerts profound anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Purpose : The aim was to unrave...
Article
Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a difficult disease but the clinic lacks effective therapy. As a classic formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Fuzi decoction (FZD) has been clinically applied for treating OA-related syndromes, but its anti-OA efficacy and mechanism remain unclear. Purpose To experimentally and clinically determine the a...
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(1) Background: beverages based on extracts from Camellia sinensis are popular worldwide. Due to an increasing number of processed teas on the market, there is a need to develop unified classification standards based on chemical analysis. Meanwhile, phytochemical characterizations are mainly performed on tea samples from China (~80%). Hence, data o...
Preprint
Background Tetrapleura tetraptera is a medicinal spice traditionally used to treat cancer, diabetes, and several other ailments. This study analyzed the cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane methanol extract of T. tetraptera fruits (TTF) and its constituents. The toxicity profile of the TTF extract was also evaluated in rats. Methods The Cytotoxicity...
Article
Full-text available
Background :In the pharmaceutical sector, tissue culture techniques for large-scale production of natural chemicals can be a less expensive alternative to large-scale synthesis. Although recent biotransformation research have used plant cell cultures to target a wide range of bioactive compounds, more compiled information and synopses are needed to...
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Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a common food crop used in many parts of the world for nutritional purposes. One of its chemical constituents is cajanin stilbene acid (CSA), which exerts anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In an effort to identify molecular targets of CSA, we performed a kinome-wide approach based on the measuremen...
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Background Theabrownin (TB) is a bioactive component of tea and has been reported to exert effects against many human cancers, but its efficacy and mechanism on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with different p53 genotypes remains unclarified. Methods MTT assay, DAPI staining, flow cytometry and SA-β-gal staining were applied to evaluate the effects...
Chapter
Natural products are unique sources for drug discovery and exhibit diverse biological activities. The immunomodulatory properties of natural agents have gained great interest during the past decades. Natural immunomodulators can contribute to the management of various diseases including cancer, because they provide great efficacy and safety profile...
Article
Full-text available
Background Triptolide is an active natural product, which inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, suppresses tumor metastasis and improves the effect of other therapeutic treatments in several cancer cell lines by affecting multiple molecules and signaling pathways, such as caspases, heat-shock proteins, DNA damage and NF-ĸB. Purpose W...
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Crizotinib was a first generation of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. COMPARE and cluster analyses of transcriptomic data of the NCI cell line panel indicated that genes with different cellular functions regulated the sensitivity or resistance of cancer cells to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Theabrownin (TB) is a bioactive component of tea and has been reported to exert effects against many human cancers, but its efficacy and mechanism on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with different p53 genotypes remains unclarified. Methods: MTT assay, DAPI staining, flow cytometry and SA-β-gal staining were applied to evaluate the effect...
Article
Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prominent malignancy among men worldwide. PCa cells have a high tendency to metastasize to various distant organs, and this activity is the main cause of PCa mortality. Nimbolide is a promising phytochemical constituent of neem Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). Previous studies showed that nimbolide exhibi...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Acanthus mollis L. (Bear's Breeches) is a wide-spread medicinal and ornamental plant and is particularly suited to exemplarily illustrate the diverse aspects of invasion biology by neophytes. Since ancient times, it has been a popular Mediterranean ornamental plant in horticulture and served as model for the decoratio...
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Differentially expressed genes have been previously identified by us in multidrug-resistant tumor cells mainly resistant to doxorubicin. In the present study, we exemplarily focused on some of these genes to investigate their causative relationship with drug resistance. HMOX1, NEIL2, and PRKCA were overexpressed by lentiviral-plasmid-based transfec...
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Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. is an adaptogenic plant traditionally used to enhance mental and physical capacities in cases of weakness, exhaustion, tiredness, or loss of concentration, and during recovery. According to ancient records, red ginseng root preparations enhance longevity with long-term intake. Recent pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenosides in...
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Full-text available
Numerous in vitro studies on isolated cells have been conducted to uncover the molecular mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng Meyer root extracts and purified ginsenosides. However, the concentrations of ginsenosides and the extracts used in these studies were much higher than those detected in pharmacokinetic studies in humans and animals orally...
Preprint
Full-text available
Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. is an adaptogenic plant traditionally used to enhance mental and physical capacities in cases of weakness, exhaustion, tiredness, loss of concentration, and during recovery. According to ancient records, Red Ginseng root preparations enhance longevity with long-term intake. Recent pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenosides in hu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Numerous in vitro studies on isolated cells have been conducted to uncover the molecular mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng Meyer root extracts and purified ginsenosides. However, the concentrations of ginsenosides and the extracts used in these studies were much higher than detected in pharmacokinetic studies in humans and animals orally admini...
Article
After decades of research, multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a huge challenge in cancer treatment. In this study, the cytotoxic of 4-hydroxy-N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (MCC1734) has been investigated towards multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. MCC1734 exerted cytotoxicity on cell lines expressing different mechanisms of...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) belongs to the most common tumor types, and half of all CRC harbor missense mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. In addition to genetically caused loss of function of p53, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, histone modifications, micro-RNAs) contribute to CRC development. In this review, we focused on epigeneti...
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Introduction Differentiation therapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is an encouraging target in this context. By now, this field of research is still at its infancy, which motivated us to perform a large-scale screening for the identification of novel ligands of TCTP. We studied the...
Article
Several non-acetal artemisinin derivatives were synthesized and their antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant parasites as well as their antileukemic activity were investigated. The azide 10 was proved to have slightly better activity than the current antimalarial drugs such as artesunate and chloroquine. In addition, the azide 10 and t...
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Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic has affectedmore than 150million people, while over 3.25million people have died from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As there are no established therapies for COVID-19 treatment, drugs that inhibit viral replication are a promising target; specifically, the main protease (Mpro) that process CoV-encoded p...
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The majority of drug candidates fails the approval phase due to unwanted toxicities and side effects. Establishment of an effective toxicity prediction platform is of utmost importance, to increase the efficiency of the drug discovery process. For this purpose, we developed a toxicity prediction platform with machine-learning strategies. Cardiotoxi...
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A series of eleven celastrol derivatives was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against six human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, HepAD38, PC3, DLD-1 Bax-Bak WT and DKO) and three human normal cells (LO2, BEAS-2B, CCD19Lu). To our knowledge, six derivatives were the first example of dipeptide celastrol deri...
Article
New and potent agents that evade multidrug resistance (MDR) and inhibit epigenetic modifications are of great interest in cancer drug development. Here, we describe that a moniliformin derivative (IUPAC name: 3‐(naphthalen‐2‐ylsulfanyl)‐4‐{[(2Z)‐1,3,3‐trimethyl‐2,3‐dihydro‐1H‐indol‐2‐ylidene]methyl}cyclobut‐3‐ene‐1,2‐dione; code: MCC1381) bypasses...
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The sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. is well established for malaria therapy, but its bioactivity spectrum is much broader. In this review, we give a comprehensive and timely overview of the literature regarding the immunosuppressive activity of artemisinin‐type compounds toward inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Numerou...
Article
Background 1,4-Naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are secondary plant metabolites with numerous biological activities. 1,4-NQs display low water solubility and poor bioavailability. Bigels are a new technology with great potential, which are designated as drug delivery systems. Biphasic bigels consisting of solid and liquid components represent suitable for...
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Background Precision medicine and drug repurposing are attractive strategies, especially for tumors with worse prognosis. Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumor with limited treatment options and short survival times. We identified novel BRAF (47-438del) and PIK3R1 (G376R) mutations in a glioblastoma patient by RNA-sequencing. Methods The p...
Article
The NLRP3 inflammasome holds a crucial role in innate immune responses. Pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns may initiate inflammasome activation and following inflammatory cytokine release. The inflammasome formation and its-associated activity are involved in various pathological conditions such as cardiovascular, central nervous sy...
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The biological activities of shancigusin C (1) and bletistrin G (2), natural products isolated from orchids, are reported along with their first total syntheses. The total synthesis of shancigusin C (1) was conducted by employing the Perkin reaction to forge the central stilbene core, whereas the synthesis of bletistrin G (2) was achieved by the Wi...
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Chemical investigation of the root of Zanthoxylum paracanthum afforded 1 new alkamide derivative, (2E,4E)-6-oxo-N-isobutyldeca-2,4-dienamide (1) together with 10 known congeners including one phenolic amide (2), four benzophenanthridines (3 − 6), three indolonaphthyridines (7 − 9) and two lignans (10 and 11). Their structures were elucidated by a c...
Article
Introduction: Depression is responsible for 800 000 deaths worldwide, a number that will rise significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Affordable novel drugs with less severe side effects are urgently required. We investigated the effect of withanone (WN) from Withania somnifera on the serotonin system of wild-type and knockout Caenorhabditis e...
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Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder, in which recurrent abdominal pain is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. STW 5-II is a combination of six medicinal herbs with a clinically proven efficacy in managing IBS. Aim This study aims to establish an in vitro IBS model using mouse intestinal orga...
Article
Aims Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is not only involved in carcinogenesis, but also in chemoresistance. We characterized U87.MGΔEGFR glioblastoma cells with constitutively active EGFR due to deletion at the ligand binding domain in terms of gene expression profiling and chromosomal aberrations. Wild-type U87.MG cells served as control. M...
Article
Introduction : Depression is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Lower antioxidant concentrations and increased oxidative stress levels contribute to the development of depression. Effective and tolerable medications are urgently needed. Nrf2 and prdx-2 are promising targets in the treatment of oxidative stress and, therefore, promising f...
Article
Background Opioids have been prescribed to reduce suffering from pain and to enhance quality of life. Due to the addictive potential and the lack of other effective alternatives to treat severe acute and chronic pains, opioids remain a serious public health issue. While, opioids directly influence the drug-seeking behavior, tolerance and withdrawal...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria constitute a real problem in the public health worldwide. Hypericum roeperianum Schimp. ex A. Rich (Hypericaceae) is used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as abdominal pains, constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, and bacterial diseases. A...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Triptolide is an active natural product, which inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, suppresses tumor metastasis and improves the effect of other therapeutic treatments in several cancer cell lines by affecting multiple molecules and signaling pathways, such as caspases, heat-shock proteins, DNA damage and NF-ĸB. Purpose:...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, which generated more than 1.82 million deaths in 2020 alone, in addition to 83.8 million infections. Currently, there is no antiviral medication to treat COVID-19. In the search for drug leads, marine-derived metabolites are reported here...