Thomas Cash

Thomas Cash
Old Dominion University | ODU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

196
Publications
185,772
Reads
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21,520
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1982 - December 2008
Old Dominion University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Education
August 1969 - December 1973
Vanderbilt/Peabody
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
September 1965 - May 1969
Vanderbilt University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (196)
Article
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can significantly affect both health and non-health-related quality of life (HRQOL and non-HRQOL). However, of the existent published patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools, none were developed from US patients, an ethnically diverse population. Furthermore, these tools do not address men with SLE or assess non-HRQO...
Book
This scholarly work is the most comprehensive existing resource on human physical appearance-how people's outer physical characteristics and their inner perceptions and attitudes about their own appearance (body image) affect their lives. The encyclopedia's 117 full-length chapters are composed and edited by the world's experts from a range of disc...
Article
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may adversely affect body image in multitude ways. Development and validation of a brief and valid SLE specific body image tool were undertaken. Eleven items were identified on interview of 21 SLE patients for the Body Image Lupus Scale (BILS v1.0). The tool was administered to 70 SLE patients. Based on analysis,...
Article
Full-text available
The Tripartite Influence Model of Body Image was adapted to examine the role of body satisfaction, perceived pressure to have cosmetic surgery, and internalization of societal appearance ideals in understanding cosmetic surgery attitudes. Participants were 2,048 men (N = 445) and women (N = 1,603) American college students from Florida who complete...
Article
Full-text available
The Tripartite Influence Model of Body Image was adapted to examine the role of body satisfaction, perceived pressure to have cosmetic surgery, and internalization of societal appearance ideals in understanding cosmetic surgery attitudes. Participants were 2,048 men (N = 445) and women (N = 1,603) American college students from Florida who complete...
Article
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a multisystemic disease of young women may be disfiguring and affect physical and emotional health. Body image literature in SLE is scant and controversial. We compared body image-related quality of life in subjects with (n = 87) and without (n = 78) SLE and determined its correlates using the body image quality...
Article
This study seeks to determine the impact of prolapse surgery on body image in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Case-control study of 76 sexually active women with greater than or equal to stage II prolapse planning reconstructive surgery and 67 women with lesser than or equal to stage I prolapse. Questionnaires/examinations were completed at basel...
Article
The study's objectives were (a) to characterize physicians' attitudes and practices in relation to treating male pattern hair loss (MPHL), (b) to examine differences vis-à-vis physician distinctions, and (c) to consider the findings in relation to published research on MPHL patients' treatment-seeking experiences. The online survey across six count...
Article
Full-text available
The study's objectives were to characterize the concerns and self-treating efforts of men seeking medical treatment for male pattern hair loss (MPHL) and to describe their expectations and actual experiences of a physician consultation. The online survey in six countries (United States, France, Germany, Spain, Japan, and Korea) involved 604 men (25...
Article
Full-text available
Body image disturbance is considered a core characteristic of eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), however its definition has been unclear within the literature. This study examined the multidimensional nature of body image functioning among individuals with either anorexia nervosa (AN; n=35), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=26), or BDD (n=5...
Article
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2007), the number of cosmetic procedures has increased to over 10 million in 2006, representing a 48% increase from 2000. This increase in cosmetic surgery prevalence is paralleled by a surge in reality cosmetic surgery television programming. The current study examined the relationships among...
Article
Writing a scientific research paper for submission to a peer-reviewed journal requires compositional skill and attention to details. In evaluating submitted manuscripts, journal editors and reviewers often encounter recurrent mistakes in composition and in compliance with the stylistic requirements of the particular publication. This editorial arti...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated changes in both physical and psychosocial quality of life reported by the parent and child after surgical repair of pectus excavatum. As part of a multicenter study of pectus excavatum, a previously validated tool called the Pectus Excavatum Evaluation Questionnaire was administered by the research coordinator, via telephone, t...
Article
Some researchers have argued that evaluative body image may be better assessed by measures that weight dissatisfaction-satisfaction ratings by their subjective importance to individuals. The Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) is a frequently used, standardized assessment of evaluative body image, albeit one that does not use differential item wei...
Article
Most body-image research has focused on the trait level of body-image evaluation, often neglecting the momentary fluctuations many people experience in everyday life. The present prospective study investigated whether theory-relevant body-image measures, perfectionistic self-presentation, and eating attitudes would predict average day-to-day body-i...
Article
No measures exist that specifically assess cognitive distortions related to body image per se, despite their theoretical and clinical significance. Most cognitive-distortion scales pertain to depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. Accordingly, the 37-item Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions (ABCD) was developed and validated in this s...
Article
Full-text available
Proponents of the sociocultural model of eating disorders have suggested that ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction may be diminishing as the thin ideal of beauty becomes more widely disseminated among minority women. In a meta-analysis, the authors examined temporal trends in Black-White differences and also examined whether these differences...
Article
Women’s bodies are often objectified and evaluated, which may result in body dissatisfaction associated with sexual difficulties. This study of 384 college women confirmed that contextual body image during sex was more associated with a lower self-confidence to refuse sex, poorer sexual functioning, and reduced sexual assertiveness than general bod...
Article
Testing self-discrepancy theories of body image, this investigation examined self-perceived and idealized physical attributes among 66 men and 69 women, who were white, heterosexual college students. Physical attributes included body size, weight, height, muscularity, hair color and length, eye color, and female breast size. Physical ideals include...
Article
Overweight people in society face a number of obstacles. Negative attitudes toward overweight people contribute to this experience. This study examined the relationship of antifat attitudes to other prejudicial attitudes (e.g., racism, sexism, homophobia) and gender-related attitudes. A total of 179 undergraduate participants completed measures of...
Article
In the voluminous research on the psychology of physical appearance, the psychosocial effects of common male pattern baldness (MPB) have been largely neglected. The present experiment examined the influence of MPB on the initial social perceptions of men by both sexes. Eighteen pairs of photographic slides of balding and nonbalding control men were...
Article
Skin color has played an historically influential role in the lives of African Americans. The present study examined the role of skin color (i. e., its lightness-darkness) as it pertained to various body-image measures among 66 light-, medium-, and darkskinned Black college females. A Skin Color Assessment Procedure was developed to assess various...
Article
Body image is a multidimensional construct that has received increasing scientific study over the past few decades. Considerable research has examined the determinants of body image development and functioning and their implications for other aspects of psychosocial well-being, especially eating pathology among girls and young women. Cafri, Yamamiy...
Article
Full-text available
Body image change is an important component of the treatment of eating disorders, and cognitive behavioral body image therapy has substantial empirical support as efficacious in the improvement of body image difficulties and disorders. Most evidence comes from randomized, controlled, outcome studies and does not examine effectiveness for persons wi...
Article
Body image is a multidimensional construct that has received increasing scientific study over the past few decades. Considerable research has examined the determinants of body image development and functioning and their implications for other aspects of psychosocial wellbeing, especially eating pathology among girls and young women. Cafri, Yamamiya...
Article
The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instr...
Article
The measurement of the body image construct has become increasingly multidimensional. New assessments are available to measure various facets of body image functioning: The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory, and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory. The present article...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem....
Article
Exposure to media images of thin-and-beautiful women negatively affects the body image and mood states of young women. However, not all women are equally susceptible to these effects. The present experimental investigation with 123 young college women evaluated the moderating effects of the extent of internalization of media ideals. It also examine...
Article
This article summarizes the relationship between body image and obesity among adults. It begins with an overview of the etiology of body image dissatisfaction among obese persons. This section will discuss the prevalence and nature of body image dissatisfaction, and its relationship to symptoms of psychopathology. The article then focuses on the as...
Article
This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of th...
Article
Despite extensive research on both body image and coping, little attention has been given to their interface. This investigation examined the reliability and validity of the newly developed Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory (BICSI), which measures how individuals characteristically manage threats or challenges to body-image experiences. The BI...
Article
Despite numerous measures of facets of the body image construct, no single assessment broadly measures a continuum of body image disturbance. Accordingly, this study developed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ), derived from the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire. Participants were 220 college women and 75 college men who completed...
Article
Full-text available
Body-image dissatisfaction is not uncommon and can adversely affect individuals' psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Various oft-cited surveys and a meta-analysis implicate a worsening of body image over the past several decades, especially among women and possibly among men. The present cross-sectional study examined changes in multiple...
Article
The present study of general and romantic adult attachment among 484 female and male college students compared those who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 and those who did not. Participants completed the Relationship Style Questionnaire (RSQ; general adult attachment), Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R; romanti...
Article
This investigation assessed body image states in the context of everyday life among 108 college women. Participants initially completed measures of body image traits and eating attitudes and subsequently called an automated telephonic response system twice daily for 6 days to convey current body image experiences on the Body Image States Scale. The...
Article
The Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) was recently developed to quantify both the positive and negative effects of body image on one's psychosocial quality of life. The current study was conducted to further validate the measure with both men and women and to evaluate its psychometric reliability and validity among college students (N=60...
Article
A growing literature points to the role of body-image attitudes in human sexual functioning. Specifically, body dissatisfaction and excessive psychological investment in one's physical appearance may lead to physical self-consciousness and body exposure avoidance during sexual relations, which in turn may impair sexual desire, enjoyment, and perfor...
Article
Substantial research has compared obese and nonobese persons on body image and psychosocial adjustment. While differences in body satisfaction are often observed, the literature is less clear on other dimensions. Extant differences are typically thought to result from the social stigmatization and maltreatment experienced by obese persons, especial...
Article
The Appearance Schemas Inventory (ASI) is a 14-item instrument that assesses body image investment in relation to certain beliefs or assumptions about the importance, meaning, and influence of appearance in one's life. Despite empirical support of the ASI, critical examination evinces several limitations of this assessment. These problems entail th...
Article
A growing literature attests to the salience of social factors in body image development and the importance of body image to interpersonal functioning. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationships of specific facets of the multidimensional body image construct to interpersonal anxiety and adult attachment processes for...
Article
This brief editorial article introduces the new scientific journal, Body Image: An International Journal of Research, and describes its rationale and mission in relation to the history and future of the study of body image and human appearance.
Article
Abdominoplasty is an increasingly common aesthetic surgery procedure that has yet to be evaluated using the most recently developed and psychometrically sophisticated measures of body image and quality-of-life outcomes. This study prospectively evaluated 30 consecutive female abdominoplasty patients, preoperatively and postoperatively, using measur...
Article
This study was conducted to determine the ability of 2 questionnaires (ie, child and parent versions) to measure physical and psychosocial quality-of-life changes after surgical repair of pectus excavatum. The authors administered these questionnaires by telephone interviews with 22 parents and 19 children (ages 8 to 18) before surgery and 6 to 12...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for body-image difficulties and disorders. The current study evaluated two combined components of Cash's (1997) self-administered body-image CBT program--psychoeducation and self-monitoring. Twenty-five body-dissatisfied college students enrolled in the three-week program and were requi...
Article
Among the facets of the multidimensional body-image construct is the experience of dysphoric emotions about the body in specific situational contexts. The present article reviews the evidence concerning a unique measure of this facet, the Situational Inventory of Body-Image Dysphoria (SIBID). The reliability and validity of the SIBID were examined...
Article
This study examined the experiences of 360 women receiving bilateral breast augmentation with Dow Corning's Silastic MSI (textured) or Silastic II (smooth) gel-filled mammary implants. Before surgery, the women completed a quantitative assessment of their surgical expectations and concerns. At 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively, they rated their...
Article
Substantial research confirms that body image affects multiple aspects of psychosocial functioning, yet there is no direct assessment to quantify its impact on an individual's quality of life. In the present study, the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory was developed and empirically evaluated with 116 college women. This 19-item assessment was in...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment of body-image dissatisfaction and dysphoria, even when largely self-administered with only modest therapist contact. The present investigation compared the relative effectiveness of selected components of Cash's (1997) body-image CBT program administered in self-help modality....
Article
Full-text available
The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropri...
Article
The psychology of physical appearance is organized around two perspectives—the “outside view” and the “inside view” (Cash, 1990). The first perspective considers how attributes of human appearance, such as physical attractiveness, height, weight, hair color, etc., influence social perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors. From this viewpoint, researc...
Article
The present investigation examined the extent to which participation in a 6-week circuit-weight training program produced changes in participants' body images relative to a matched control group. The weight trainers consisted of 39 college students (27 women and 12 men). The control group of 39 individuals did not weight-train currently or within t...
Article
Hair, especially scalp hair, is imbued with greater social and psychological significance than with biological importance. Hair provides some cranial cushioning and shielding from the sun’s rays; however, throughout history and across cultures, hair conveys considerable symbolism.1‐3 It can serve as a social signal of gender, age, status, values, a...
Article
There is widespread public dissemination of research findings and media messages regarding social advantages of physical attractiveness and liabilities of unattractiveness. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of such information on women's body-image experiences. College women (n = 66) listened to one of two audiotap...
Article
The publication and use of psychological self-help books are ubiquitous in our society. Nevertheless, little research is available concerning the public’s attitudes toward such books and the psychological variables associated with these attitudes. The current investigation involved the development and validation of the Self-Help Reading Attitudes S...
Article
The publication and use of psychological self-help books are ubiquitous in our society. Nevertheless, little research is available concerning the public’s attitudes toward such books and the psychological variables associated with these attitudes. The current investigation involved the development and validation of the Self-Help Reading Attitudes S...
Article
Antidepressant drugs are frequently prescribed for women and have various side effects, including potential effects on body weight. This experiment examined the effects of information about the weight-related side effects of antidepressants on women's attitudes toward the drugs. 60 college women were randomly assigned to read about one of two drugs...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the high prevalence and the accepted psychological aspects of male pattern hair loss, few have characterized the effects of hair loss in representative samples of men in different countries. A representative sample of households in 4 European countries (France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom) was contacted by an interviewer and resid...
Article
Androgenetic alopecia is a common dermatological condition, with potentially adverse psychosocial sequelae. The present review critically examines scientific evidence concerning the effects of androgenetic hair loss on social processes and psychological functioning, as well as the psychosocial outcomes of medical treatments. Research confirms a neg...
Article
A computerized Stroop color-naming task was usedto compare the information processing of 55appearance-schematic and 50 appearance-aschematic women,based on their scores on the Appearance SchemasInventory (ASI). Participants color-named appearancewords (e.g., OVERWEIGHT, LIPSTICK ) and nonappearancewords (e.g., OBNOXIOUS, BRIDEGROOM ) after exposure...
Article
Alpha hydroxy acids are used extensively by patients and consumers for restorative cutaneous purposes. The current study of 32 patients evaluated the clinical and psychosocial effects of this cosmetic therapy. After 12 weeks, significant clinical improvements were found for facial skin tone and fine wrinkling, as well as for patient-reported satisf...
Article
Scientific investigations support the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of body dissatisfaction across a range of populations. Grant and Cash (1995) used CBT with 23 extremely body-dissatisfied women and found equivalent and successful outcomes for body-image CBT administered in group therapy versus a self-directe...
Article
Although body-image disturbance is among the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the nature and extent of this disturbance have not been precisely identified. This is the purpose of this first meta-analysis of extant research on body image and eating disorders. Using contemporary techniques, the meta-analysis systematicall...
Article
Attitudinal body image is a multidimensional construct that includes body-image evaluation, cognitive-behavioral investment, and affect. This study examined the nature and extent of gender differences in body-image attitudes. College students (n = 277) completed 2 standardized measures of each of the 3 facets of body image. As hypothesized, relativ...
Article
LEWIS, ROBIN J, THOMAS F CASH, LORA JACOBI, CRISTINA BUBB-LEWIS. Prejudice toward fat people: The development and validation of the Antifat Attitudes Test. Although the stigma of obesity in our society in well documented, the measurement of antifat attitudes has been a difficult undertaking. Two studies were conducted to construct and validate the...
Article
We live in a world where appearances matter--especially to those who are displeased with their own looks. Mirroring the cultural preoccupation with physical attractiveness and the growing problem of a negative body image is the proliferation of cosmetic surgical procedures and the people who seek them. Obviously, one potential solution to dissatisf...
Article
Few controlled studies have examined the body-image attitudes of male marathon runners. The present investigation compared 139 male participants in a 1993 marathon with 500 demographically matched, normative control subjects on a standardized, multidimensional body-image inventory. These runners were found to evaluate their physical appearance and...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural forces influence body-image development in gender-contingent ways, such that women in our society possess more dysfunctional body-image attitudes than men do. However, few studies have examined how women’s body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. This investigation of 122 college women assessed multiple p...
Book
Recent surveys suggest that nearly half of all women and a quarter of the men in the US dislike their looks. In this book, the author invites us to ignore the onslaught of advertising and other media images and consider the provocative possibility that the problem lies not in our bodies themselves, but in our relationship to them. In "The Body Imag...
Article
The sole purpose of cosmetic surgery is the improvement of patients' body images (their attitudes about their physical appearance). This article offers an overview of contemporary theory and research on body image. The nature and prevalence of negative body image experiences are delineated. A cognitive social learning model elucidates dysfunctional...
Article
The Appearance Schemas Inventory (ASI) is a 14-item scale designed to assess core beliefs or assumptions about the importance, meaning, and effects of appearance in one's life. Reliability and validity was examined for a group of 274 female college students. The ASI is acceptably internally consistent, reasonably free of social desirability, and un...
Article
purpose of this chapter is to enhance the understanding of body image, its dysfunctions, and their assessment and treatment / provides . . . conceptual and empirical foundations for clinicians working with a range of clients experiencing body-image problems / delineates a step-by-step program of cognitive-behavioral body-image therapy body-image...
Article
The present study examined possible social developmental precursors to women's body images, including appearance-related leasing and criticism, sibling social comparisons, and maternal modeling of body-image attitudes and behaviors. One hundred fifty-two college women completed retrospective measures of these experiences from childhood and adolesce...
Article
Body dissatisfaction is a prevalent problem in our society, especially among women, and is clearly associated with a range of psychosocial difficulties and disorders. In the psychotherapeutic treatment of a negative body image, several controlled studies confirm the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to no or minimal treatment....
Article
This investigation was a representative survey, conducted in 1993, of the body images of 803 adult women in the United States. Included in the survey instrument were selected subscales from the standardized Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, which had been used in a U.S. survey in 1985. The results indicated substantial levels of b...
Article
The Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ) was developed as a unique attitudinal body-image assessment that considers one's perceived discrepancy from and degree of investment in personal ideals on multiple physical attributes. Reliability and validity of the 20-item instrument were examined for a sample of 284 college women. The results indicated t...
Article
The present study applied Higgins's (1987) self-discrepancy theory to the assessment of body image, specifically the distinctions of standpoint (own versus other) and self-guide (ideal versus ought). College women (n = 143) evaluated self-discrepancies and rated the importance of self-guides for 11 physical attributes vis-a-vis four standpoint/self...
Article
Among the potential influences on body-image development are experiences of appearance-related teasing and criticism during childhood or adolescence. The present study of 111 female college students examined the recollection of such experiences. Persistent appearance teasing/criticism was commonly recalled and its physical foci were diverse, though...