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Thomas Calligaro

Thomas Calligaro
Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musées de France · Research Department

Dr

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192
Publications
82,705
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3,351
Citations
Citations since 2017
52 Research Items
1246 Citations
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Introduction
• Non-destructive characterisation of cultural heritage materials. Research programs on ancient gemstones, lithic tools and minerals from museums : rubies, emeralds, garnets, obsidian, jade, turquoise, paint pigments • Development of analytical methods based on ion beams and photons specifically designed for the characterization of Art and Archaeology materials • presently: coupling XRF/photoluminescence/reflectance imaging. Characterizing lead white pigment. Provenancing Merovingian Garnets

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
Full-text available
Historical paintings with important iconographical changes represent an analytical challenge. Considering the case study of a fifteenth-century French painting studied during its restoration, the efficiency of a combined noninvasive approach of two-dimensional scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence imaging (MA-XRF) and a laboratory-based depth-resolved...
Chapter
Most inorganic pigments, as earths and ochres, have no luminescence emission. Sporadically, the literature has reported the presence of a weak optical emission for some of these pigments. However, this should be attributed to the presence of material impurities within pigments. In addition to this, a small number of inorganic pigments exhibit a cle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Active thermography was used as a multispectral non-destructive approach for characterisation of multi-layered panel paintings and analysis of their defects caused by aging and environmental effects. Two oil compositions painted on canvas, provided by C2RMF in the Louvre museum (Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France) were unde...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article rapporte l’étude des grenats ornant des objets mérovingiens en style cloisonné conservés au département des Monnaies, médailles et antiques de la Bibliothèque nationale de France et au musée des Beaux- Arts et d’archéologie de Troyes. La composition chimique des grenats a été déterminée in situ et sans contact par fluorescence de rayons...
Poster
Full-text available
Transparent materials like gemstones tint easily under photon or electron irradiation. During PIXE analyses, a high current proton beam can cause irreversible damage on a white paper sample (degradation of cellulose chains and oxidation processes); in extreme cases the paper will structurally collapse. In opaque materials, such as polychrome layers...
Article
Full-text available
Non-destructive characterization of decorated porcelain artifacts requires the joint use of surface-analytical methods for the decorative surface pattern and methods of high penetration depth for bulk-representative chemical composition. In this research, we used position-sensitive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) and Prompt-gamma activation a...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article présente la typologie du flaconnage de parfumerie découvert dans l'épave du Casimir. Ce brick de commerce havrais fit naufrage le 27 avril 1829 sur la côte septentrionale d'Haïti (aujourd'hui située en République Dominicaine). l'étude morphométrique des contenants, pots en faïence et flacons en verre, est enrichie de l'analyse vibration...
Article
There is a considerable interest in developing new analytical tools to fight the illicit trafficking of heritage goods and particularly of easel paintings, whose high market values attract an ever-increasing volume of criminal activities. The objective is to combat the illicit traffic of smuggled or forged paintworks and to prevent the acquisition...
Article
The carbon content distribution of ferrous archaeological artefacts in a quantitative way allows us to understand the nature of the materials. Our previous works have ever proved that the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) could be an efficient method to solve problems of in situ analysis and offer a high spatial resolution. To asse...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific investigation in the cultural heritage field is generally aimed at the characterization of the constituent materials and the conservation status of artworks. Since the 1990s, reflectance spectral imaging proved able to map pigments, reveal hidden details and evaluate the presence of restorations in paintings. Over the past two decades, h...
Chapter
At the European recent Prehistory variscite was a precious gemmological material that appears in scarce megalithic burials of the Atlantic facade, especially at the Iberian peninsula and West France. Here we describe the main results of the mineralogical and geochemical analysis of a great and diverse group of archaeological and geological variscit...
Article
We report the development of a 3D positioner for the elemental mapping of non-flat surfaces of heritage targets and its implementation in the external beam of the AGLAE accelerator, a joint research activity of the IPERION-CH European program. The positioner operates in two steps: 1) object surface is digitized using a 3D scanner implemented in the...
Chapter
Full-text available
La micro-fluorescence de rayons x en mode confocal (CXRF) est d’un intérêt considérable pour les sciences du patrimoine en raison de sa capacité à fournir des informations résolues spatialement sur la composition chimique du matériel analysé de manière non-invasive. Le défi consiste à déterminer la séquence stratigraphique de matériaux multicouches...
Chapter
Full-text available
Le présent chapitre fait le point sur l’analyse par fluorescence de rayons X (XRF) à l’aide d’instruments portables (p-XRF). Du fait de ses nombreux avantages, notamment des performances analytiques attractives combinées à une apparente facilité de mise en oeuvre, cette méthode s’est rapidement répandue dans le milieu de l’archéométrie. Cependant,...
Article
Full-text available
L’existence à l’époque gréco-romaine d’un grand commerce, principalement maritime mais aussi terrestre, entre le monde indien et la Méditerranée est bien attestée par les textes ainsi que par des indices archéologiques, davantage, en ce qui concerne ces derniers, pour l’Inde que pour l’Occident (Suresh, 2004, 2007). Néanmoins, les sources écrites p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
747 perles et pendeloques en callaïs sur les 841 connues actuellement provenant de 27 occupations néolithiques de la moitié nord de la France ont été analysées par PIXE, afin de déterminer leur nature minéralogique et leur provenance. La grande majorité de ces éléments de parure est concentrée autour du golfe du Morbihan, dans la région de Carnac (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
747 perles et pendeloques en callaïs sur les 841 connues actuellement provenant de 27 occupations néolithiques de la moitié nord de la France ont été analysées par PIXE, afin de déterminer leur nature minéralogique et leur provenance. La grande majorité de ces éléments de parure est concentrée autour du golfe du Morbihan, dans la région de Carnac (...
Article
Full-text available
Depuis sa création jusqu’à son altération, la vie d’une œuvre d’art ou d’un objet archéologique s’inscrit au cœur de sa matière. L’enjeu des sciences du patrimoine est d’interroger cette matière sur l’activité des hommes, tout en préservant ces témoins de notre histoire. Retrouver les savoir-faire du passé, comprendre le choix des matériaux employé...
Chapter
At the European recent Prehistory variscite was a precious gemmological material that appears in scarce megalithic burials of the Atlantic facade, especially at the Iberian peninsula and West France. Here we describe the main results of the mineralogical and geochemical analysis of a great and diverse group of archaeological and geological variscit...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a multi-technique investigation of the Paris carbonaceous chondrite directly applied on two selected 500 × 500 µm² areas of a millimetric fragment, without any chemical extraction. By mapping the partial hydration of the amorphous silicate phase dominating the meteorite sample matrix, infrared spectroscopy gave an interesting glimpse...
Poster
Full-text available
*Computational Nuclear Physics *Applied Nuclear Physics *Reactor Technology *Accelerator Physics *Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection *Nuclear Application in Life Sciences *Radiation Measurement and Radiation Dosimetry *Nuclear Astrophysics *Nuclear Energy *Nuclear Reactions *Medical Physics *Health Physics *Radiopharmaceuticals *Luminescenc...
Article
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of carbonaceous, volcanic, tidal sediments from the 3.33 Ga-old Josefsdal Chert (Kromberg Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt), documents the presence of two types of insoluble organic matter (IOM): (1) IOM similar to that previously found in Archean cherts from numerous other sedimentary rocks in the...
Article
Since at least 1742, the mineralogical collection of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) in Paris has hosted under the reference number 22.U a biconvex lens-shaped obsidian artifact, also described as a mirror, measuring 250 mm in diameter and finely polished on both faces. It has usually been ascribed to the shipment sent by Hernán Cor...
Article
Since at least 1742, the mineralogical collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) in Paris has hosted, under the reference number 22.U, a biconvex lens-shaped obsidian artifact, also described as a mirror, measuring 250 mm in diameter and finely polished on both faces. It has usually been ascribed to the shipment sent by Hernán C...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent archaeological investigations (2009-2016) in the Sistema 7 Venado, a ceremonial complex located on the south part of the Monte Albán hill, Oaxaca, Mexico, demonstrates that occupation and ceremonial activity on the site can be traced back until 800 BCE. Around 200-300 CE, this site was ritually abandoned and its structures covered by a thick...
Chapter
Mise en évidence de la polychromie métallique des statuettes de Bavay par cartographie de fluorescence X, p. 196-197, in Nouveaux regards sur le Trésor des bronzes de Bavay
Article
Traditional “stack “manufacturing process (16–19th c.) of lead white pigment by lead corrosion is explored by exposing metal to acetic acid, carbon dioxide, dioxygen and water vapor. Global reaction scheme is revealed, along with stratification of corrosion products with CO2 gradient, leading to flakiness of corrosion layer. Kinetic and epitaxial f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the frame work of multi-elemental analysis, we have used the X-ray fluorescence technique (XRF) for simultaneous determination of the elements present in samples of ancient pottery shards of the romans ruins of Tipaza and Tamentfoust archaeological site near Algiers, ALGERIA. The XRF technique is used because it is non-destructive and offers the...
Poster
Full-text available
Hair is a powerful bioindicator used in toxicological and environmental studies since it can incorporate toxic elements during its growth. As part of a project on the characterization of mummy hair, elemental analyses by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were carried out using the AGLAE accelerator from the C2RMF. The objective was to detect t...
Conference Paper
Quentin Lemasson, Brice Moignard, Claire Pacheco, Laurent Pichon, Thomas Calligaro, et al.. IBA and VIS-NIR- spectroscopic mappings applied to the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts: last improviments on the AGLAE facility. TECHNART 2017 "Non-destructive and microanalytical techniques in art and cultural heritage", May 2017, Bilbao, Spain. ⟨ha...
Article
Full-text available
Micro-samples collected on 28 major paintings by Old European Masters dating from the Middle Ages to the late 19th c. were analyzed using Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. Two complementary analytical configurations were used at beamlines ID22 (high-angle resolution) and ID21 (high lateral resolution), in order to highlight markers of the differ...
Article
Analytical techniques using proton beams with energy in the MeV range are commonly used to study archeological artefact and artistic objects. However ion beams can induce alteration of fragile materials, which is notably the case of easel paintings, limiting the use of these techniques. We used continuous wave EPR and pulse EPR spectroscopy to reve...
Article
Full-text available
Despite that the Badakhshan Province (Afghanistan) remains the most plausible hypothesis for the lapis lazuli used in antiquity, alternatives proposed in literature are worth to study to confirm or disprove their historical reliability. In this work, a protocol for determining the provenance of lapis lazuli rocks used for carved artefacts is descri...
Article
Full-text available
The lead white pigment, composed of two main mineral phases cerussite PbCO3 and hydrocerussite 2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2, has been used in paintings since the Antiquity. The study of historical sources revealed that a large variety of lead white qualities were proposed, depending on the degree of sophistication of the pigment synthesis. Investigation of photo...
Article
Full-text available
The archaeological site of Arikamedu, located in Tamil Nadu State on the east coast of India, was the centre for many centuries of a significant bead-producing industry. Beads were made of both glass and stone, including garnet, but the source of the garnet rough material has not been confirmed. To probe this question, garnet beads found at Arikame...
Article
Cet article présente la typologie du flaconnage de parfumerie découvert dans l’épave du Casimir. Ce brick de commerce havrais fit naufrage le 27 avril 1829 sur la côte septentrionale d’Haïti (aujourd’hui située en République Dominicaine). L’étude morphométrique des contenants, pots en faïence et flacons en verres, est enrichie de l’analyse vibratio...
Article
Full-text available
Un Luxembourgeois, deux obsidiennes, des volcans et des mines. Détermination chimique par accélérateur de particules (PIXE, Louvre) de l’origine gîtologique de deux armatures en obsidienne inédites collectées au Mexique au milieu du XIXe siècle par le Luxembourgeois François Majerus (1819-1887).
Article
Full-text available
The painting L’Homme blessé by Gustave Courbet kept at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris has been recently studied by X-ray radiography, SEM–EDX observation of paint cross sections and confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence analyses (CXRF) at locations where the cross section samples were taken. This study allowed the establishment of the paint palette used by...
Article
Full-text available
Native American quillwork collections remain little studied due to the limited availability of quillwork material for sampling. In this paper we explore the use of non-invasive Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to characterise metallic residues in a set of modern porcupine quills prepared with a...
Article
Full-text available
Non-European dyed materials other than textiles have received comparatively little systematic analysis, this is particularly true for objects made with dyed porcupine quills. This paper presents a comprehensive study of a group of Athapaskan porcupine quill specimens collected in 1862 which are held within the collections of National Museums Scotla...
Article
Full-text available
The Indo-French research program ‘Siwaliks’ has been surveying the Late Pliocene Formation of the Chandigarh anticline (NW India) since 2008. These sub-Himalayan floodplain deposits are known for their Tertiary-Quaternary transitional fauna, especially those from the Quranwala zone in the Masol Formation, whose basal member is approximately 130 met...
Article
Full-text available
The Siwaliks came to be known worldwide since the discovery in 1830 of a great ape in the Miocene molasses of the Potwar. One century later, pebble tools, flakes and handaxes attracted Prehistorians. A re-reading of the Yale-Cambridge Expedition in India (1935), during which Ramapithecus brevirostris was discovered, reveals that stone tools were di...
Article
Full-text available
The Indo-French research program ‘Siwaliks’ has been surveying the Late Pliocene Formation of the Chandigarh anticline (NW India) since 2008. These sub-Himalayan floodplain deposits are known for their Tertiary-Quaternary transitional fauna, especially those from the Quranwala zone in the Masol Formation, whose basal member is approximately 130 met...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Notes on the Garnets Used by Early Medieval Western European Goldsmiths Since 1999 more than 4000 garnets dating the Merovingian period have been studied through non-destructive chemical analyses, conducted with the AGLAE particle accelerator of the Grand Louvre using PIXE methodology and a RAMAN probe. These archaeological garnets, coming from col...
Article
Full-text available
Scanning XRF is a powerful elemental imaging technique introduced at the synchrotron that has recently been transposed to laboratory. The growing interest in this technique stems from its ability to collect images reflecting pigment distribution within large areas on artworks by means of their elemental signature. In that sense, scanning XRF appear...