Thomas J. Bouchard Jr.

Thomas J. Bouchard Jr.
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

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208
Publications
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Publications

Publications (208)
Article
We discuss the idea of experience-producing drives (EPDs) as introduced by Keith J. Hayes and elaborate on the intellectual context in which he developed it, namely behavior genetics, learning theory, motivation, intelligence and evolutionary theory. We then expand the range of application, from the construct of intelligence where it was developed,...
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The chapter argues that the best evidence supports the contention that psychiatric “conditions” are not discrete “disorders” but rather dimensional and part of the personality sphere. The personality traits that imply dysfunction are positively correlated, implying a general “ p ” factor analogous to the “ g ” factor in the domain of mental ability...
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Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Nature of Human Intelligence - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
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Most study samples show less variability in key variables than do their source populations due most often to indirect selection into study participation associated with a wide range of personal and circumstantial characteristics. Formulas exist to correct the distortions of population-level correlations created. Formula accuracy has been tested usi...
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A previous study demonstrated that the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) scales are highly robust and can be recaptured when the items (True/False format) are embedded in a large and diverse pool of individual difference items. We called this scale robustness test the “recaptured scale technique”. Those results strongly supported the...
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Presents an obituary for Irving Isadore Gottesman who passed away on June 29, 2016, at his home in Edina, Minnesota. Gottesman was a gifted writer and clnician who will be best remembered as a courageous psychologist who “swam against the current” and researched genetic influence on human behavior, especially psychopathology, at a time when it was...
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Tellegen and Waller advocated a complex and time-consuming scale construction method that they called “exploratory test construction.” Scales that are constructed by this method—such as the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)—are presumed to be more “psychologically coherent” and “robust” than scales constructed by other means. Using a...
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Experience Producing Drive (EPD) theory is sketched out. The theory, initially proposed to explain the evolution of intelligence, is generalized to all human psychological individual differences (EPD-Revised). Simply put EPD-R theory asserts that human beings are active agents designed to survive in their average expected environment and have evolv...
Chapter
Taking the perspective that it is some kind of confluence of intelligence, keen curiosity, intense interest, creativity, and relentless persistence, we explore how genetic and environmental transaction processes that have been documented in embryology and developmental biology in other species might be relevant to creative genius. As background, we...
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I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the speci...
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Ronald Wilson presented the first clear and compelling evidence that the heritability of IQ increases with age. We propose to call the phenomenon 'The Wilson Effect' and we document the effect diagrammatically with key twin and adoption studies, including twins reared apart, that have been carried out at various ages and in a large number of differ...
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Social attitudes, political attitudes and religiousness are highly inter-correlated. Furthermore, each is substantially influenced by genetic factors. Koenig and Bouchard (2006) hypothesized that these three areas (which they termed the Traditional Moral Values Triad) each derive from an underlying latent trait concerning the tendency to obey tradi...
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This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m(2)) completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Genetic and environmental variance c...
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Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or t...
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Floyd, Shands, Rafael, Bergeron and McGrew (2009) used generalizability theory to test the reliability of general-factor loadings and to compare three different sources of error in them: the test battery size, the test battery composition, the factor-extraction technique, and their interactions. They found that their general-factor loadings were mo...
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Meaning in life, spirituality, and religiousness have been empirically linked in previous research. This study aimed to advance knowledge of the interrelations among these variables by examining their heritable and non-heritable sources of influence, as well as the genetic and environmental contributions to their inter-relations. A sample of 343 mi...
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The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known...
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The heritability of human behavioral traits is now well established, due in large measure to classical twin studies. We see little need for further studies of the heritability of individual traits in behavioral science, but the twin study is far from having outlived its usefulness. The existence of pervasive familial influences on behavior means th...
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Authoritarianism, Religiousness and Conservatism are among the most studied social attitudes in modern psychology . Measures of the three attitudes consistently correlate between 0.50 and 0.70. These strong correlations suggest that they form a higher order factor that I call Traditionalism. I review evidence that supports the idea of such a higher...
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Last month, the Behavior Genetics Association held its annual meeting in Minneapolis, home of the world-famous Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Attendees took the occasion to honor psychologist Thomas Bouchard, the man who started it all. Bouchard, 71, is retiring after 40 years at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, and has moved to St...
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The history and conceptual background of the heritability statistic is briefly discussed. The construct of heritability is embedded in the method of structural equation modeling widely used in modern population genetics and in human behavior genetics. The application of structural equation modeling to behavioral phenotypes is shown to be a useful a...
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The relative influence of genetics and the environment on factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unclear. We performed model-fitting analyses to quantify genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental variance components of factors associated with CVD and MetS [waist circumference, blood...
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The few studies that have examined associations between measured interests and abilities have suffered from small sample sizes, restricted ranges of ability and background, preconceived groupings of interests, and measures of ability that confound general and specific cognitive abilities. In this study of 425 adults from diverse backgrounds, the au...
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Sandra Scarr qualifies as an eminent psychologist. In my opinion Sandra Scarr was largely "correct" in virtually every scientific stance she took. On some issues I believe she was far less disputatious than I think she ought to have been. I try to partially correct that drawback in this chapter. None of the arguments I will put forth are new. Sandr...
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Fluctuating asymmetry is thought to reflect developmental instability, which may in turn indicate genetically influenced fitness. Controversy surrounding these claims has centered on the extent to which fluctuating asymmetry is heritable. Most studies have estimated its heritability to be very low using single-trait measures. This study uses data f...
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Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the non-pathological left–right asymmetry of body traits that are usually left–right symmetrical, such as eye breadths and elbow to wrist lengths in humans, but which can be affected by developmental stressors. It is generally considered throughout biology to be an indicator of developmental instability and thus of lac...
Chapter
This chapter shows that genetic variation is an important feature of virtually every human psychological trait and must be taken into account in any comprehensive explanation (theory) of human behaviour. It begins by discussing the mistaken but widely held belief that 'genetic variance' is an indicator of the biological or evolutionary unimportance...
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In a recent paper, Johnson, Bouchard, Krueger, McGue, and Gottesman (2004) addressed a long-standing debate in psychology by demonstrating that the g factors derived from three test batteries administered to a single group of individuals were completely correlated. This finding provided evidence for the existence of a unitary higher-level general i...
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In previous papers [Johnson, W., & Bouchard Jr., T. J. (2005a). Constructive Replication of the Visual-Perceptual-Image Rotation (VPR) Model in Thurstone's (1941) Battery of 60 Tests of Mental Ability. Intelligence, 33, 417–430.] [Johnson, W., & Bouchard Jr., T. J. (2005b). The Structure of Human Intelligence: It's Verbal, perceptual, and image rot...
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While the role of genetic factors in self-report measures of emotion has been frequently studied, we know little about the degree to which genetic factors influence emotional facial expressions. Twenty-eight pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart were shown three emotion-inducing films and...
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Virtually all human individual differences have been shown to be moderately heritable. Much of this research, however, focuses on measures of dysfunctional behavior and relatively fewer studies have focused on positive traits. The values in action (VIA) project is a comprehensive and ambitious classification of 24 positive traits, also known as cha...
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Recent work with the 42 mental ability tests administered to participants of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) has suggested that there are important dimensions of mental ability that function independently of g. Two of these dimensions, rotation–verbal and focus–diffusion, appear to involve trade-offs: greater residual rotation ab...
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Although religiousness is considered a protective factor against antisocial behaviors and a positive influence on prosocial behaviors, it remains unclear whether these associations are primarily genetically or environmentally mediated. In order to investigate this question, religiousness, antisocial behavior, and altruistic behavior were assessed b...
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In two recent papers, Johnson & Bouchard [Johnson, W., & Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2005a). The structure of human intelligence: It is verbal, perceptual, and image rotation (VPR) , not fluid and crystallized. Intelligence, 33, 393-416, Johnson W., & Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2005b). Constructive replication of the visual perceptual-image rotation model in...
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Empirical data suggest that there is at most a very small sex difference in general mental ability, but men clearly perform better on visuospatial tasks while women clearly perform better on tests of verbal usage and perceptual speed. In this study, we integrated these overall findings with predictions based on the Verbal–Perceptual–Rotation (VPR)...
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Identical twins reared apart constitute two individuals with the same genetic constitution (genotype) reared in two different environments. The study of a series of such twins allows us to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on measured characteristics (phenotypes) of the twins. Studies of twins reared apart have consistentl...
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ABSTRACT We report a genetic and environmental analysis of California Psychological Inventory (CPI) scale scores gathered on a sample of 45 sets of monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA) and 26 sets of dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA) Analysis of twin intraclass correlations and the results of models fit to the twin data demonstrate that the herita...
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In this article, a case is made for the importance of evolutionary processes and behavioral genetics for organizational behavior. First, we present scientific arguments connecting evolutionary biology and psychology, Darwinian theories, behavioral genetics, and individual differences. Second, we provide a review of behavioral genetics research on c...
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In a heterogeneous sample of 436 adult individuals who completed 42 mental ability tests, we evaluated the relative statistical performance of three major psychometric models of human intelligence—the Cattell–Horn fluid-crystallized model, Vernon's verbal–perceptual model, and Carroll's three-strata model. The verbal–perceptual model fit significan...
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We recently evaluated the relative statistical performance of the Cattell–Horn fluid–crystallized model and the Vernon verbal–perceptual model of the structure of human intelligence in a sample of 436 adults heterogeneous for age, place of origin, and educational background who completed 42 separate tests of mental ability from three test batteries...
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Estimates of the degree of genetic and environmental influences on religiousness have varied widely. This variation may, in part, be due to age differences in the samples under study. To investigate the heritability of religiousness and possible age changes in this estimate, both current and retrospective religiousness were assessed by self-report...
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Genetic and environmental influences on reading ability and disability in children are undergoing active exploration, but the same is not true for adults. This study made use of data from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (N = 239, age range 18–79) to evaluate whether a basic model of genetic and environmental influences on general intellig...
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We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in...
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There is now a large body of evidence that supports the conclusion that individual differences in most, if not all, reliably measured psychological traits, normal and abnormal, are substantively influenced by genetic factors. This fact has important implications for research and theory building in psychology, as evidence of genetic influence unleas...
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There is substantial evidence that married people fare better than their unmarried peers on many life outcome variables. The authors asked whether self-selection might partially explain these benefits through genetic influences on personality contributing to propensity to marry. Using a population-based sample of 4,225 women and 2,869 men that incl...
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The concept of a general intelligence factor or g is controversial in psychology. Although the controversy swirls at many levels, one of the most important involves g's identification and measurement in a group of individuals. If g is actually predictive of a range of intellectual performances, the factor identified in one battery of mental ability...
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In 1986, in response to a seminal paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (Martin et al., 1986) the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) incorporated a version of the Wilson-Patterson Conservatism Scale (W-P), developed for the Virginia Twin Study, into the MISTRA test battery. At about the same time, David L...
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How are retrospective accounts of family rearing environments linked to adult personality? We addressed this question by measuring both domains in a sample of 180 reared-apart twins. Twins completed extensive measures of rearing environments (the Minnesota-Briggs History Record, the Block Environmental Questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, a...
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A 28 item version of the Wilson–Patterson Attitude Inventory was administered to 345 participants (twins, spouses, friends, and others) in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. An overall conservatism measure demonstrated impressive construct validity. It had strong convergent validity, demonstrated by correlations of 0.72 and 0.58 with the Al...
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Using a relatively large adult sample (271 participants in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, including 50 pairs of monozygotic and 37 pairs of dizygotic twins), the authors evaluated prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT; J. R. Stroop, 1935) scores. The twin sample allowed the...
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Psychological researchers typically distinguish five major domains of individual differences in human behavior: cognitive abilities, personality, social attitudes, psychological interests, and psychopathology (Lubinski, 2000). In this article we: discuss a number of methodological errors commonly found in research on human individual differences; i...
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Recent studies have demonstrated substantial correlations between normal and abnormal personality traits. Yet little is known about how these correlations are mediated genetically and environmentally: Do normal and abnormal personality traits stem from the same underlying genes and environments? We addressed this question using data from 128 monozy...
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Twin studies have demonstrated that personality traits show moderate genetic influence. The conclusions drawn from twin studies rely on the assumptions that twins are representative of the population at large and that monozygotic and dizygotic twins are comparable in every way that might have bearing on the traits being studied. To evaluate these a...
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There is abundant evidence, some of it reviewed in this paper, that personality traits are substantially influenced by the genes. Much remains to be understood about how and why this is the case. We argue that placing the behavior genetics of personality in the context of epidemiology, evolutionary psychology, and neighboring psychological domains...
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The causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ)-related signs and symptoms are largely unknown. We tested the hypotheses that these signs and symptoms, as well as oral parafunctional habits, are substantially heritable. Questionnaire and clinical data were collected from 494 twins, including pairs of reared-apart and reared-together monozygotic (MZ) an...
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A large sample of identical and fraternal twins who had been reared apart was used to examine the genetic and environmental architecture of the MMPI Subtle-Obvious and Harris-Lingoes subscales. Univariate genetic analyses indicated significant heritability for all 28 of the Harris-Lingoes subscales (estimates ranged from.23 to.61), all five Obvious...
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Historically, authoritarian attitudes have been attributed to influences within the rearing environment, based on the incorrect assumption that similarity between family members demonstrates cultural transmission. To unconfound environmental and genetic influences, this paper examines right-wing authoritarianism [RWA; and , B. (1981). Right-wing au...
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This report presents findings for the Intrinsic (IR) and Extrinsic (ER) religiousness scales from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. The scales were shown to be internally consistent, sufficiently distinct from the scales of the California Psychological Inventory and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and unrelated to a number o...
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IQ and Human Intelligence . N. J. Mackintosh. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998. 429 pp. $98, £55. ISBN 0-19-852368-8. Paper, $35, £19.95. ISBN 0-19-852367-X. Addressing one of the most controversial subjects in science, Mackintosh offers a thorough, balanced, and thoughtful overview of measuring and explaining the general nature of intelligen...
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Both environmental and genetic factors are known to influence clinical measures of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic factors similarly influence the presence of specific periodontal bacteria in subgingival plaque. Reared-together and reared-apart monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) adult twins were examin...
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Arthur Jensen's bibliography is characterized as breathtaking and his scientific work as intensive, detailed, exhaustive, fair-minded, temperate, and courageous. Specific articles and books are targeted as must reading. I argue that Jensen's characterization of the influence of the Berkeley psychology department in the 1940's reflects his own intel...
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Little is known about the causes of the wide variability in circadian rhythms in humans. We present the first report of genetic influence on a circadian phenotype, the morningness-eveningness disposition. Two hundred and five pairs of adult monozygotic reared-together twins, and 55 pairs of adult monozygotic and 50 pairs of adult dizygotic reared-a...
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The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was administered to a sample of 71 pairs of monozygotic and 53 pairs of dizygotic twins reared apart (MZA, DZA, adult twins) and 99 pairs of monozygotic and 99 pairs of dizygotic twins reared together (MZT, DZT, adult male twins). The twin reared apart data was age and sex corrected. The twin reared toge...
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A sample of 66 monozyogtic twins reared apart (MZA) and 51 dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA), and 101 nontwin individuals (mostly spouses of the twins) who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995 completed a self-report food frequency questionnaire. Intraclass-correlations and model-fitting analyses ind...
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History of headache and migraine diagnosed by structured interview utilizing International Headache Society criteria was obtained in two samples of female twin pairs—154 raised together and 43 raised apart since infancy. Zygosity was determined by standard methods. Probandwise concordance rates were determined. Assuming that liability to migraine h...
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A behavior genetic analysis of the personality dimension of ego development, as assessed by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, was carried out on a sample of 45 pairs of monozygotic twins and 28 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins. The twins ranged in age from 16 to 70 years at the time of assessment, had been separated during infanc...
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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to a sample of 61 monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA), 49 dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA), and 92 spouses, who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995. Twins' scores on the continuous scales were subjected to behavior genetic model-fitting procedures....
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I review representative biometric studies of adult twins and adoptees that have been used to generate estimates of genetic and environmental influence on intelligence (IQ) and special mental abilities. The various studies converge on a heritability estimate between 0.60 and 0.80 for IQ. Estimates of common environmental influence from the same stud...
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Human behavioral genetic research aimed at characterizing the existence and nature of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in cognitive ability, personality and interests, and psychopathology is reviewed. Twin and adoption studies indicate that most behavioral characteristics are heritable. Nonetheless, efforts to identify...
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Little is known about the causes of the wide variability in circadian rhythms in humans. We present the first report of genetic influence on a circadian phenotype, the morningness-eveningness disposition. Two hundred and five pairs of adult monozygotic reared-together twins, and 55 pairs of adult monozygotic and 50 pairs of adult dizygotic reared-a...
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A small battery of g loaded mental ability tests were administered to 274 children from 106 Bedouin families (mean age = 15.0 years, range of age = 7.9 – 18.9 years) attending grade schools in the southern region of Israel. The children were chosen on the basis of being members of families in which the father has two wives and the respondent having...