Thirupathirao Vishnumukkala
, Kuala Lumpur

Anatomy

Master of Medical Anatomy
1.92

Publications

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    Ashfaq Akram · Maher Fuad · Ulfat Bashir · Thirupathi Vishnumukkala · Melinda Madlena
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Universal system, Palmer notation and FDI system are used to record dental problems which give different numbers to same tooth. For example, central incisor is #8 (Universal system) and #11 (FDI system).Thus they create confusion in transferring dental information. A new tooth notation uses letters I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, M-molar (MICAP) and digits 1, 2, 3. The digits are printed as superscript and subscript on the relevant letters (I, C, P, M) to indicate the maxillary and mandibular teeth. Aim: to assess the learning of format of MICAP system by students of undergraduate dental degree and dental allied health programmes using a mock MICAP dental chart. Materials and Methods: A mock MICAP dental chart was prepared. Students of undergraduate dental degree [group A (n=39)] and dental allied health programme [group B (n=39)] who were further subdivided base on age such as [group 1=15-25 yrs, group 2=26-35 yrs, group 3=36-45 yrs], translated four MICAP symbols and vice versa in a cross sectional study after an hour lecture and video demonstration about the MICAP format. One way ANOVA and independent t test were performed to analyse the data. Results: Group A was better in translation of # 1 C (maxillary right canine) than group B [mean difference 95% CI:-0.128 (-0.285, 0.028) p=0.001]. In terms of age, group 1 was better in translation of MICAP format (p<0.001) as compared to other groups. Participants >50% agreed that MICAP notation system was easy to understand. Conclusion: Format of new notation is easy to learn. Teeth can be identified by new method. However, additional data is required before the reliability of the system is suggested as alternate dental charting system.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Various tooth notations are taught and demonstrated to students in undergraduate dental programme. Aim to identify the primary teeth using a new notation ‘MICAP’ (M-molar, I –incisor, C- canine, P – premolar) as dental charting tool. Subjects & methods A mock dental charting based on MICAP format was developed. Undergraduate dental students (N = 176) divided into Group A [(pre clinical) n = 85] and Group B [ (clinical) n = 91], identified & notified five randomly selected primary teeth after MICAP demonstration by video and lecture. Pearson chi square test was used to analyse the data. Results Approximately ≥80% students correctly notified the teeth in MICAP format. Group B, comparing to A, had a better association to recognize #2dM [X2, 95% CI: 11.82, 0.278 (0.131, 0.591), p = 0.001] as mandibular deciduous right 2nd molar and write correctly ‘Maxillary deciduous left 2nd molar’ [X2, 95% CI: 16.98, 0.186 (0.79, 0.437), p = <0.001] into MICAP format [#dM2]. In addition, group B had more association (X2: 18.8, P = 0.001) on the response ‘MICAP could be adopted in dental charting’. Conclusion Primary teeth could be identified by new notation (MICAP) format by undergraduate dental students. However, study module in dental curriculum and further more data are required before it may serve an alternate method of dental charting.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Pediatric Dental Journal
  • A. Akram · M.D. Fuad Fuad · U. Bashir · N.J. Pandiyan · K. Chakravathy · T. Rao Vishnumukkala · M. Madlena
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    ABSTRACT: A new tooth notation system records primary tooth classes and their types by letters 'dI, dC, dM' termed as ANAASEA letters and numbers (1,2) called as TOT digits respectively. The TOT digits are printed as superscript and subscript at both right and left sides of ANAASEA letters to indicate upper and lower teeth respectively. The new method is called MICAP (M-molar, I-incisor, C-canine, P- premolar) system. To assess the clinical application of new tooth notation by dental health professionals. Study design was cross sectional and tool was mock e dental chart based on MICAP format. The study participants were dental health professionals (N=225) who were divided into group A [dental specialists (n=44), dentists (n=60)] and group B [dental assistants (n=58), dental hygienists (n=38), dental technicians (n=25)]. They were demonstrated by video on MICAP format before they identified five primary teeth; three teeth to be written from word form to MICAP format and two teeth vice versa. Simple logistic regression and Pearson chi-square tests were performed to analyse the data. From group A, specialists performed significantly better (p value = 0.031) as compared to dentists in correct writing of 'deciduous maxillary right canine' into MICAP format [#1dC]. From group B, dental hygienists had significantly higher association in correct translation of [#2dM] as 'deciduous mandibular right 2nd molar' compared to dental assistants (P value =0.043). Furthermore, dental technicians compared to dental assistants significantly performed better (p value =0.047) in writing 'deciduous mandibular left central incisor' into MICAP format [#dI1]. Majority of dental health professionals were able to translate and write MICAP format. Doctors were better than paramedics. However, reliability of the new system requires additional data. Further research is recommended to compare MICAP notation with currently used notations such as FDI & Universal systems.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of International Dental and Medical Research
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    vishnumukkala.t

    Full-text · Article · May 2013
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    Vishnumukkala Thirupathirao · Yalakurthi Srinivasarao
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    ABSTRACT: The Thoracic duct is generally accepted as the major pathway of lymphocytes enroute to the circulating blood, accounting for approximately 70 per cent of all the lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The variations in the length and position of the Thoracic duct is great clinical importance during surgeries related to the upper abdomen, posterior mediastinum and in cervical region, but still now a detailed study had not been done in Andhra Pradesh state, it was decided to undertake this present study. Isolation of the thoracic duct and tracing the course and length were done to know more about it than already documented and thereby hoping to add more information to guide the radiologists and operating surgeons. A total number of 45 cadavers were studied, of these 15 were female and 13 were male cadavers. The material consisted of adult cadavers between the ages of 42-81 from the dissection halls of department of anatomy of 3 different medical colleges in costal Andhra Pradesh. The observations of the course, length and vertebral levels are documented in this study. The present findings showed a great variability compare the previous studies. The findings noted in the present study regarding thoracic duct had contributed to a better understanding the length, and will prove definitely useful to clinicians in their respective fields.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Back ground: The Thoracic duct is the major lymphatic duct in the human body, the variations in the termination of the thoracic duct are of great clinical importance during surgeries related to the cervical region, but still now a detailed study had not been done in Andhra Pradesh state, it was decided to undertake this present study.Isolation of the thoracic duct and tracing the termination were done to know more about it than already documented and thereby hoping to add more information to guide the radiologists and operating surgeons.Materials and methods: A total number of 45 cadavers were studied, of these 15 were female and 13 were male cadavers. The material consisted of adult cadavers between the ages of 42-81 from the dissection halls of department of anatomy of 3 different medical colleges in costal Andhra Pradesh. Results:The observations of the variations in the termination in cervical region are documented in this study. The present findings showed a great variability compare the previous studies. Conclusion:The findings noted in the present study regarding termination of the thoracic duct will provide better understanding of the anatomy of the thoracic duct and they will be useful to clinicians in their respective fields.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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    Srinivasarao Yalakurthy · Thirupathi Rao Vishnumukkala · Polavarapu Srikanth · K I M S&r · W G Amalapurum
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Knowledge of hepatic arterial vascularization and its variations have a significant relevance for the daily practice of hepato-biliary surgeon as well as radiologists and anatomists. The right hepatic artery normally arises from the hepatic artery proper, the continuation of the common hepatic artery which is a branch of celiac trunk. Sometimes the anatomical arterial variations are also very common in human beings especially in hepatic region. During routine dissections for undergraduate medical students at Department of Anatomy, in a 75 -year-old male cadaver, we found the right accessory hepatic artery arises from the superior mesenteric artery which supplied the right lobe of the liver along with normal right hepatic artery. In addition, a direct branch to the left lobe of the liver was seen arising from common hepatic artery. The arterial anomaly can be enlightened by embryonic development. The knowledge of existence of aberrant hepatic arteries, either accessory or replacing, is important because they may influence surgical and interventional radiological procedures.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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    Thirupathi Rao Vishnumukkala · Srinivasarao Yalakurthy · Swayam Jothi · Dorai Raj
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Obturator artery is one of the medium sized parietal branches of the anterior division of internal iliac artery and it supplies the medial side of the thigh. It is the most variable vessel among the branches of the internal iliac artery. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on a total of 45 pelvic halves had been studied. The material consisted of adult subjects between the ages of forty and eighty five, from the dissection hall of department of anatomy of Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru, and Andhra Pradesh. The findings were observed and recorded. Results: Origin of obturator artery was most fre-quently a direct branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, in 16 specimens (35.55%). It was arising from the inferior epigastric artery in 12 specimens (26.66%). It arose from the common trunk of inferior gluteal and internal pudendal artery in 6 specimens (13.33%) etc. Conclusion: The variations in obturator artery may lead to surgical complications during pelvic surgeries requiring suturing along the pelvic brim. The anomalies affecting the arterial patterns of the limbs are based on unusual selection of channels from primary capillaries. The most appropriate channel enlarges, whilst the others retract and disappear, thereby establish-ing the final arterial pattern and resulting in variations in the origin. Prior knowledge of the anatomical varia-tions may be beneficial for vascular surgeons ligating the internal iliac artery or its branches and the radiolo-gists interpreting angiograms of the pelvic region.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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    Thirupathi Rao Vishnumukkala · Srinivasarao Yalakurthi · Bharath N Ch
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    ABSTRACT: The axilla is a pyramidal space, situated between the upper lateral part of the chest and the medial side of the arm. Axilla is the area connects the cervical and upper limb regions; most of the important structures from neck region passes through the axilla and reach the upper limb. Knowledge of muscular, vascular, and neural variations in the axilla is of great clinical importance, especially in mastectomies, breast reconstruction, and axillary bypass operations. During routine dissections for undergraduate medical students at Department of Anatomy, in an 84-year-old male cadaver, we found a muscular slip on the right axillary fossa that originated from latissimus dorsi muscle and attached to the deep surface of the tendon of pectoralis major muscle.The axillary artery proximal to the arch muscle showed variable course. The compression of neurovascular bundle of axilla by an axillary arch muscle is discussed in literature. Presence of an axillary arch muscle has immense clinical and morphological significance.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    Thirupathi Rao Vishnumukkala · Srinivasarao Yalakurthy · Bharath N Ch · S Swayam · Jothi Dorai · Bapuji Puttagunta
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    ABSTRACT: Back ground and Aims: The variations in the origin of the parietal branches of the internal iliac artery are of great clinical importance during pelvic surgeries, but still now a detailed study had not been done in Andhra Pradesh state, it was decided to undertake this present study.Isolation of internal iliac artery and tracing of the major parietal branches were done to know more about it than already documented and thereby hoping to add more information to guide the radiologists and operating surgeons.Materials and methods: A total of 45 pelvic halves had been studied after a clear dissection and observed for the variations of major parietal branches of the internal iliac artery (The superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, and internal pudendal artery) based on adachi types. Results: Among the 45 pelvis halves based on adachis classification Type I: 66.68%, Type II: 2.22%, Type III: 24.4%, Type IV: 4.44%and Type V: 2.22%. Conclusion: The present findings showed a higher incidence from the common trunk of inferior gluteal-internal pudendal arteries than previous studies.The findings noted in the present study regarding the parietal branching pattern of internal iliac artery had contributed to a better understanding of the branching pattern of this important vessel and will prove definitely useful to clinicians in their respective fields.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013

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