Thiravat Hemachudha

Thiravat Hemachudha
Chulalongkorn University · Department of Medicine

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301
Publications
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Publications

Publications (301)
Article
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Background We report the first case of COVID-19 associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) without pulmonary disease in a patient with an extremely high interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and Ran Binding Protein 2 ( RANBP2 ) mutation. Case presentation A 29-year-old woman recently immunized with inactivated viral vaccine—BBIBP32-CorV (Sinopharm) pr...
Article
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Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus that can pose a serious threat to human and livestock health. Old-world fruit bats (Pteropus spp.) are the natural reservoir hosts for NiV, and Pteropus lylei, Lyle's flying fox, is an important host of NiV in mainland Southeast Asia. NiV can be transmitted from bats to humans directly via bat-contaminated food...
Article
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Background Interactions between humans and animals are the key elements of zoonotic spillover leading to zoonotic disease emergence. Research to understand the high-risk behaviors associated with disease transmission at the human-animal interface is limited, and few consider regional and local contexts. Objective This study employed an integrated...
Article
Objective: To report the first case of COVID-19 associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) without pulmonary disease in a patient with an extremely high interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and Ran Binding Protein 2 (RANBP2) mutation. Background: NA Design/Methods: A 29-year-old Burmese woman recently immunized with BBIBP32-CorV (Sinopharm) presente...
Article
Introduction: Duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding is important for infection control. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) leader indicates that the virus is replicative. This study examined the shedding duration of SARS-CoV-2 sgRNA leader and genomic RNA (gRNA) in diverse respiratory spec...
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COVID-19 infection often results in an excessive inflammatory response with a spectrum of neurological manifestations. Here, we describe an 81-year-old female with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequent alteration of consciousness after high-dose intravenous dexamethasone and remdesivir. A non-contrast head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated b...
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We report multiple single nucleotide polymorphism taken at different time interval during treatment of COVID-19. Gene sequencing showed mutation within ORF1b at position P314L. Mutation at this point has been shown to impose structural remodelling that increases the affinity for remdesivir binding and may also affect binding affinity for favipiravi...
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Introduction The Innate immune system senses danger signals of COVID-19 infection and produce an orchestration of cellular, complement and cytokines cascades. These led to the approach using immunosuppressive agents. It is intriguing whether certain biomarkers can aid the proper administration of such drugs. Methods Plasma specimens of 58 COVID-19...
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Background Nipah virus (NiV) infection causes encephalitis and has > 75% mortality rate, making it a WHO priority pathogen due to its pandemic potential. There have been NiV outbreak(s) in Malaysia, India, Bangladesh, and southern Philippines. NiV naturally circulates among fruit bats of the genus Pteropus and has been detected widely across Southe...
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From 2013 to 2018, the Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Disease–Health Science Center (TRC-EID-HS), in collaboration with the Department of Disease Control (DDC) and the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) Thailand, conducted encephalitis surveillance. A total of 1700 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with encephalitis were tested by a...
Article
Early in January 2020, Thailand became the first country where a Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID‐19) patient was identified outside China. In this study, 23 whole genomes of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) from patients who were hospitalized during January to March 2020 were analyzed, along with their travel histories. Si...
Article
Several Lyssaviruses are known to be a causative agent of rabies and rabies like syndrome. There are no proven effective treatment strategies for symptomatic rabies patient. Risk of infection from dog variant of rabies virus is highest with deep bite reaching muscular layer and much higher when compared to scratch. Failure of viral eradication at t...
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21768-2
Preprint
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Background Nipah virus (NiV) infection causes encephalitis and has > 75% mortality rate, making it a WHO priority pathogen due to its pandemic potential. There have been NiV outbreak(s) in Malaysia, India, Bangladesh, and southern Philippines. NiV naturally circulates among fruit bats of the genus Pteropus and has been detected widely across Southe...
Article
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Background The presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is an indicator of protective immunity for most viral infections. A newly developed surrogate viral neutralization assay (sVNT) offers the ability to detect total receptor binding domain-targeting NAbs in an isotype-independent manner, increasing the test sensitivity. Thus, specimens with lo...
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Among the many questions unanswered for the COVID-19 pandemic are the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential role of intermediate animal host(s) in the early animal-to-human transmission. The discovery of RaTG13 bat coronavirus in China suggested a high probability of a bat origin. Here we report molecular and serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 rel...
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In resource-limited countries, early detection of novel pathogens is often challenging, due to financial and technical constraints. This study reports the efficacy of family-wide polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in screening, detecting, and identifying initial cases of the novel SARS-CoV-2 in Thailand. Respiratory secretions were collected from susp...
Preprint
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In the age of a pandemic, such as the ongoing one caused by SARS-CoV-2, the world faces limited supply of tests, PPE and reagents, and factories are struggling to meet the growing demands. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pooling specimen for testing of SARS-CoV-2 virus, to determine whether costs and resource savings could be achieved...
Chapter
Human rabies vaccines have changed dramatically since Pasteur and his colleagues produced and administered a crude mixture of infected rabbit spinal cord to two severely bitten young boys in 1881. The evolution in the development of rabies vaccines has improved the efficacy and safety of treatment but human rabies vaccines are still costly and unav...
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Full-text available
In the age of a pandemic, such as the ongoing one caused by SARS‐CoV‐2, the world faces a limited supply of tests, personal protective equipment, and factories and supply chains are struggling to meet the growing demands. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of specimen pooling for testing of SARS‐CoV‐2 virus, to determine whether costs and re...
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Recent ecological theories propose that species reach their highest abundance and genetic diversity in the center of their ecological niche and decline toward the edges. We assessed whether Lyle's flying fox, Pteropus lylei, abundance and genetic diversity were correlated with niche centroid distance using an ecological niche model as a proxy for f...
Article
Amatoxin poisoning is the main cause of death from accidental ingestion of poisonous mushrooms and a mortality rate of 27.3% has been reported in Thailand. Symptoms of mushroom ingestion are often confused with food poisoning; thus, gastroenteritis is not recognised as the first phase of poisoning. Our study assessed the efficacy of N-acetylcystein...
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Background: The incidence of autoimmune encephalitis has risen globally. There are two general categories of disease-associated antibodies that can be tested for: neuronal surface and intracellular. However, testing both groups of autoantibodies are costly. This study aims to identify differences between groups by comparing clinical presentations,...
Preprint
Background The incidence of autoimmune encephalitis has risen globally. There are two general categories of disease-associated antibodies that can be tested for: neuronal surface and intracellular. However, testing both groups of autoantibodies are costly. This study aims to identify differences between groups by comparing clinical presentations, r...
Preprint
Background The incidence of autoimmune encephalitis has risen globally. There are two general categories of disease-associated antibodies that can be tested for: neuronal surface and intracellular. However, testing both groups of autoantibodies are costly. This study aims to identify differences between groups by comparing clinical presentations, r...
Preprint
Background Since the discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antibody in 2007, the incidence of autoantibody-mediated encephalitis has risen globally. Here we analyzed and compared groups of autoantibody-associated encephalitis patients based on clinical findings and laboratory results in order to find differences between two major group...
Preprint
Background Since the discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antibody in 2007, the incidence of autoantibody-mediated encephalitis has risen globally. Here we analyzed and compared groups of autoantibody-associated encephalitis patients based on clinical findings and laboratory results in order to find differences between two major group...
Article
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Duengkae, P., Srikhunmuang , P., Chaiyes, A., Suksavate, W., Pongpattananurak, N., Wacharaplues-adee, S., Hemachudha, T., 2019. Patch metrics of roosting site selection by Lyle's flying fox (Pteropus lylei Andersen, 1908) in a human-dominated landscape in Thailand. Folia Oecologica, 46: 63-73. The association between patch metrics and roosting site...
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Zika virus (ZIKV) continues to affect certain parts of the World. Here we report a case that supports breastfeeding regardless of mother ZIKV status by providing clinical and virological studies.
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Prisoners are at risk for both physical and psychological diseases. Here, we report an outbreak of peripheral neuropathy in a prison in northeast Thailand. Between July and December 2014, there were 88 male prisoners at Bueng Kan Provincial Prison in Bueng Kan, Thailand suffering from peripheral neuropathy out of a total of 1,464 prisoners (6.01%)....
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Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) was first detected in a patient with viral pneumonia from Hong Kong in 2004. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of HCoV-HKU1 from Thailand, obtained from a nonill person who worked in a bat cave. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed it as a group B HCoV-HKU1.
Article
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Pre- as well as post-exposure prophylaxis plays an important role in controlling the number of deaths associated with human rabies. Rabies vaccines, classically injected intramuscularly, are now also administered by intradermal (ID) route. Vaccines to be administered by the ID route should meet the same quality, safety and efficacy specifications a...
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Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV infection has been described as an emerging disease in Thailand and many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Specific...
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Lyle's flying fox (Pteropus lylei) is a large frugivorous bat found in central Thailand that usually roosts in temples in the middle of towns in close proximity to humans. Pteropus lylei is considered a reservoir for Nipah encephalitis viral outbreaks reported in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Thailand is bordered to the south by Malaysia. Information on...
Article
Rabies is a global issue, and kills tens of thousands of people every year, despite being a preventable disease. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to eliminate dog-mediated rabies by 2030 requires serious collaborative efforts across Ministries and countries. This cross-sector coopera...
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Dengue virus, an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is characterized by its exceptional genetic diversity, starting with its four viral serotypes, an intra-serotype genetic diversity illustrated by phenotypic variations (i.e. pathogenicity) and phylogeographic clusters. Cycles within its mosquito vector play an important role in this genetic div...
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Background: Bats are natural reservoirs for several highly pathogenic and novel viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) (mainly Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus). Lyle's flying fox (Pteropus lylei)'s roosts and foraging sites are usually in the proximity to humans and animals. Knowledge about age-specific pattern of CoV infection in P. lylei, p...
Article
Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of...
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Lyle's flying fox (Pteropus lylei) is classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; therefore, assessing the population distribution and density of P. lylei is fundamental to its conservation and management. We combined community-based and field surveys to update information on the distributio...
Article
Purpose of review: Despite great progress in decoding disease mechanisms, rabies remains one of the leading causes of human death worldwide. Towards the elimination of human rabies deaths by 2030, feasible and affordable post (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) must be available with expansion to rural areas in rabies endemic countries. Vacc...
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Background Previous reports of infectious encephalitis in Thailand showed viruses as major pathogens similar to worldwide data. Major viruses in studies varied among Japanese encephalitis, Enteroviruses and Herpesviruses. Infectious etiologies vary by regions, seasons and preventive strategies done. Dynamic change of pathogen is believed to occur c...
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Caves provide critical roosting habitats for bats globally, but are increasingly disturbed or destroyed by human activities such as tourism and extractive industries. In addition to degrading the habitats of cave-roosting bats, such activities often promote contact between humans and bats, which may have potential impacts on human health. Cave-roos...
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Thailand reported the first Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case on 18 June 2015 (day 4) in an Omani patient with heart condition who was diagnosed with pneumonia on hospital admission on 15 June 2015 (day 1). Two false negative RT-PCR on upper respiratory tract samples on days 2 and 3 led to a 48-hour diagnosis delay and a decision to tran...
Article
Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection was diagnosed in a Thai patient with chronic progressive myelopathy. The phylogenetic tree of the ltr sequencing of HTLV-1 indicated the virus belongs to the Transcontinental genotype of the Cosmopolitan subtype A. This is the first case report of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in South East Asia....
Chapter
This article has been almost completely revised, not only keeping in mind new research but also focusing on the potential application of new knowledge. Analysis of available immunogenicity data following postexposure rabies prophylaxis (PEP) led to evidence-based reduction in the length of postexposure vaccine schedules, which previously required 3...
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In 2014, two unusual peaks of H1N1 influenza outbreak occurred in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, in Thailand. Among 2,406 cases, one of the 22 deaths in the province included a 6-year-old boy, who initially presented with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. On the other hand, his sibling was mildly affected by the same influenza virus strain, confirmed...
Chapter
This article has been almost completely revised, keeping in mind new research, but also focusing on the potential application of new knowledge. Analysis of available immunogenicity data following postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) rabies led to evidence-based reduction in the length of postexposure vaccine schedules which previously required 3. months...
Article
Sub-passaging of QS-05, a street rabies virus (RABV) isolate, in non-neuronal cells resulted in a virus with higher pathogenicity, QS-BHK-P7. Four full-length cDNA plasmids were constructed and the corresponding recombinant viruses were recovered: rQS-05, rQS-BHK-P7 and rQS05-2475G/rQS-BHK-P7-2475A (made by switching of intergenic P-M between these...
Article
Combined active and passive immunization has been established to be an optimal strategy for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Prompt administration of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) can reliably prevent the disease. However, RIG is unavailable and unaffordable in the majority of cases. On the basis of a model experiment using hamster...
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Studies of the furious and paralytic forms of canine rabies at the early stage of disease have shown a more rapid viral colonization of the cerebral hemispheres in the furious form, as measured by viral antigen within neuronal cell bodies and viral RNA levels. Measurement of cellular processes separate from neuronal cell body provides a visual reco...
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Background: Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in Malaysia in 1998, with two bat species (Pteropus hypomelanus and P. vampyrus) as the putative natural reservoirs. In 2002, NiV IgG antibodies were detected in these species from Thailand, but viral RNA could not be detected for strain characterization. Two strains of NiV (Malaysia and Bangladesh) have...
Article
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Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. The high mortality rate (70–80 %) of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be reduced to 20–30 % by antiviral therapy. However, normocellular CSF can lure physicians to look for non-infectious causes, resulting in delayed treatment. This study aimed t...
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Bats are reservoirs for a diverse range of coronaviruses (CoVs), including those closely related to human pathogens such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV. There are approximately 139 bat species reported to date in Thailand, of which two are endemic species. Due to the zoonotic potential of Co...
Article
In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide clues for the differential diagnosis of rabies and other encephalitides. Clinical status of the subjects, conscious or comatose, must be taken into account. Blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and lesional extent can vary accordingly. Subtle brain MR abnormalities in symmetrical distributi...