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Introduction

## Publications

Publications (131)

In Mathematical Morphology, the max-tree is a region-based representation that encodes the inclusion relationship of the threshold sets of an image. This tree has proved useful in numerous image processing applications. For the last decade, work has led to improving the construction time of this structure; mixing algorithmic optimizations, parallel...

C++ is a multi-paradigm language that enables the programmer to set up efficient image processing algorithms easily. This language strength comes from many aspects. C++ is high-level, so this enables developing powerful abstractions and mixing different programming styles to ease the development. At the same time, C++ is low-level and can fully tak...

Interactive image segmentation is an important application in computer vision for selecting objects of interest in images. Several interactive segmentation methods are based on distance transform algorithms. However, the most known distance transform, geodesic distance, is sensitive to noise in the image and to seed placement. Recently, the Dahu ps...

In mathematical morphology, connected filters based on dynamics are used to filter the extrema of an image. Similarly, persistence is a concept coming from persistent homology and Morse theory that represents the stability of the extrema of a Morse function. Since these two concepts seem to be closely related, in this paper we examine their relatio...

In this paper, we prove that the self-dual morphological hierarchical structure computed on a n-D gray-level wellcomposed image u by the algorithm of G{\'e}raud et al. [1] is exactly the mathematical structure defined to be the tree of shape of u in Najman et al [2]. We recall that this algorithm is in quasi-linear time and thus considered to be op...

In Mathematical Morphology (MM), connected filters based on dynamics are used to filter the extrema of an image. Similarly, persistence is a concept coming from Persistent Homology (PH) and Morse Theory (MT) that represents the stability of the extrema of a Morse function. Since these two concepts seem to be closely related, in this paper we examin...

Segmentation of curvilinear structures is important in many applications, such as retinal blood vessel segmentation for early detection of vessel diseases and pavement crack segmentation for road condition evaluation and maintenance. Currently, deep learning-based methods have achieved impressive performance on these tasks. Yet, most of them mainly...

Segmentation of curvilinear structures is important in many applications, such as retinal blood vessel segmentation for early detection of vessel diseases and pavement crack segmentation for road condition evaluation and maintenance. Currently, deep learning-based methods have achieved impressive performance on these tasks. Yet, most of them mainly...

In this paper, we prove that when a n-D cubical set is continuously well-composed (CWC), that is, when the boundary of its continuous analog is a topological (n-1)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlengt...

Most contemporary supervised image segmentation methods do not preserve the initial topology of the given input (like the closeness of the contours). One can generally remark that edge points have been inserted or removed when the binary prediction and the ground truth are compared. This can be critical when accurate localization of multiple interc...

This paper presents the final results of the ICDAR 2021 Competition on Historical Map Segmentation (MapSeg), encouraging research on a series of historical atlases of Paris, France, drawn at 1/5000 scale between 1894 and 1937. The competition featured three tasks, awarded separately. Task 1 consists in detecting building blocks and was won by the L...

This paper presents the final results of the ICDAR 2021 Competition on Historical Map Segmentation (MapSeg), encouraging research on a series of historical atlases of Paris, France, drawn at 1/5000 scale between 1894 and 1937. The competition featured three tasks, awarded separately. Task~1 consists in detecting building blocks and was won by the L...

In Mathematical Morphology (MM), dynamics are used to compute markers to proceed for example to watershed-based image decomposition. At the same time, persistence is a concept coming from Persistent Homology (PH) and Morse Theory (MT) and represents the stability of the extrema of a Morse function. Since these concepts are similar on Morse function...

Many approaches exist to compute the distance between two trees in pattern recognition. These trees can be structures with or without values on their nodes or edges. However, none of these distances take into account the shapes possibly associated to the nodes of the tree. For this reason, we propose in this paper a new distance between two trees o...

In myocardium segmentation of cardiac magnetic resonance images, ambiguities often appear near the boundaries of the target domains due to tissue similarities. To address this issue, we propose a new architecture, called FOANet, which can be decomposed in three main steps: a localization stepa Gaussian-based contrast enhancement step, and a segment...

Atrial fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disease. Due to a lack of understanding in matter of underlying atrial structures, current treatments are still not satisfying. Recently, with the popularity of deep learning, many segmentation methods based on fully convolutional networks have been proposed to analyze atrial structures, especiall...

Segmentation of medical images, particularly late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) used for visualizing diseased atrial structures, is a crucial first step for ablation treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, direct segmentation of LGE-MRIs is challenging due to the varying intensities caused by contrast agents. Since mos...

In discrete topology, we like digitally well-composed (shortly DWC) interpolations because they remove pinches in cubical images. Usual well-composed interpolations are local and sometimes self-dual (they treat in a same way dark and bright components in the image). In our case, we are particularly interested in n-D self-dual DWC interpolations to...

Among the different flavors of well-composednesses on cubical grids, two of them, called, respectively, digital well-composedness (DWCness) and well-composedness in the sense of Alexandrov (AWCness), are known to be equivalent in 2D and in 3D. The former means that a cubical set does not contain critical configurations, while the latter means that...

In this paper, we prove that the two flavours of well-composedness called Continuous Well-Composedness (shortly CWCness), stating that the boundary of the continuous analog of a discrete set is a manifold, and Digital Well-Composedness (shortly DWCness), stating that a discrete set does not contain any critical configuration, are not equivalent in...

Distance transforms and the saliency maps they induce are widely used in image processing, computer vision, and pattern recognition. The minimum barrier distance (MBD) has proved to provide accurate results in this context. Recently, Géraud et al. have presented a fast-to-compute alternative definition of this distance, called the Dahu pseudo-dista...

The work presented in this paper addresses the MICCAI BraTS 2019 challenge devoted to brain tumor segmentation using magnetic resonance images. For each task of the challenge, we proposed and submitted for evaluation an original method. For the tumor segmentation task (Task 1), our convolutional neural network is based on a variant of the U-Net arc...

Segmentation of cardiac images, particularly late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) widely used for visualizing diseased cardiac structures, is a crucial first step for clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, direct segmentation of LGE-MRIs is challenging due to its attenuated contrast. Since most clinical studies have rel...

Digital hologram rendering can be performed by a convolutional neural network, trained with image pairs calculated by numerical wave propagation from sparse generating images. 512-by-512 pixeldigital Gabor magnitude holograms are successfully estimated from experimental interferograms by a standard UNet trained with 50,000 synthetic image pairs ove...

Automatic segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) of a living human heart in a magnetic resonance (MR) image (2D+t) allows to measure some clinical significant indices like the regional wall thicknesses (RWT), cavity dimensions, cavity and myocardium areas, and cardiac phase. Here, we propose a novel framework made of a sequence of two fully convol...

Classical hierarchical image representations and connected filters work on sets of connected components (CC). These approaches can be defective to describe the relations between disjoint objects or partitions of images. In practice, objects can be made of several connected components in images (due to occlusions for example), therefore it can be in...

The knowledge of the noise level within an image is a valuable information for many image processing applications. Estimating the noise level function (NLF) requires the identification of homogeneous regions, upon which the noise parameters are computed. Sutour et al. have proposed a method to estimate this NLF based on the search for homogeneous r...

In 2013, Najman and Géraud proved that by working on a well-composed discrete representation of a gray-level image, we can compute what is called its tree of shapes, a hierarchical representation of the shapes in this image. This way, we can proceed to morphological filtering and to image segmentation. However, the authors did not provide such a re...

As there are as many clients as many usages of an Image Processing library, each one may expect different services from it. Some clients may look for efficient and production-quality algorithms, some may look for a large tool set, while others may look for extensibility and genericity to inter-operate with their own code base...but in most cases, t...

In the context of the challenge of “automatic InterVertebral Disc (IVD) localization and segmentation from 3D multi-modality MR images” that took place at MICCAI 2018, we have proposed a segmentation method based on simple image processing operators. Most of these operators come from the mathematical morphology framework. Driven by some prior knowl...

Component trees are region-based representations that encode the inclusion relationship of the threshold sets of an image. These representations are one of the most promising strategies for the analysis and the interpretation of spatial information of complex scenes as they allow the simple and efficient implementation of connected filters. This wo...

Preterm birth is a multifactorial condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) has been recently described on T2-weighted MR sequences in this population and thought to be associated with neuropathologies. To date, no robust and reproducible method to assess the presence of white matte...

Due to digitization, usual discrete signals generally present topological paradoxes, such as the connectivity paradoxes of Rosenfeld. To get rid of those paradoxes, and to restore some topological properties to the objects contained in the image, like manifoldness, Latecki proposed a new class of images, called well-composed images, with no topolog...

In this paper, we propose a fast automatic method that segments white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in 3D brain MR images, using a fully convolutional network (FCN) and transfer learning. This FCN is the Visual Geometry Group neural network (VGG for short) pre-trained on ImageNet for natural image classification, and fine tuned with the training da...

Ancient maps are an historical and cultural heritage widely recognized as a very important source of information, especially for dialectological researches, the cartographical heritage produces first-rate data. However, exploiting such maps is a quite difficult task to achieve, and we are focusing our attention on this major issue. In this paper, w...

In digital topology, it is well-known that, in 2D and in 3D, a digital set \(X \subseteq \mathbb {Z} ^n\) is digitally well-composed (DWC), i.e., does not contain any critical configuration, if its immersion in the Khalimsky grids \(\mathbb {H}^{n} \) is well-composed in the sense of Alexandrov (AWC), i.e., its boundary is a disjoint union of discr...

A method of text detection in natural images, to be turned into an effective embedded software on a mobile device, shall be both efficient and lightweight. We observed that a simple method based on the morphological Laplace operator is very appropriate: we can construct in quasi-linear time a hierarchical image decomposition/simplification based on...

The minimum barrier (MB) distance is defined as the minimal interval of gray-level values in an image along a path between two points, where the image is considered as a vertex-valued graph. Yet this definition does not fit with the interpretation of an image as an elevation map, i.e. a somehow continuous landscape. In this paper, based on the disc...

The progress of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a precise exploration of the brain of premature infants at term equivalent age. The so-called DEHSI (diffuse excessive high signal intensity) of the white matter of premature brains remains a challenging issue in terms of definition, and thus of interpretation. We propose a semi-automatic...

Current trends in image segmentation are to compute a hierarchy of image segmentations from fine to coarse. A classical approach to obtain a single meaningful image partition from a given hierarchy is to cut it in an optimal way, following the seminal approach of the scale-set theory. While interesting in many cases, the resulting segmentation, bei...

Hierarchies, such as the tree of shapes, are popular representations for image simplification and segmentation thanks to their multiscale structures. Selecting meaningful level lines (boundaries of shapes) yields to simplify image while preserving intact salient structures. Many image simplification and segmentation methods are driven by the optimi...

The topographic map of a gray-level image, also called tree of shapes, provides a high-level hierarchical representation of the image contents. This representation, invariant to contrast changes and to contrast inversion, has been proved very useful to achieve many image processing and pattern recognition tasks. Its definition relies on the total o...

Connected filters are well-known for their good contour preservation property. A popular implementation strategy relies on tree-based image representations: for example, one can compute an attribute characterizing the connected component represented by each node of the tree and keep only the nodes for which the attribute is sufficiently high. This...

Tree-based image representations are popular tools for many applications in mathematical morphology and image processing. Classically, one computes an attribute on each node of a tree and decides whether to preserve or remove some nodes upon the attribute function. This attribute function plays a key role for the good performance of tree-based appl...

Latecki et al. introduced the notion of 2D and 3D wellcomposed images, i. e., a class of images free from the “connectivities paradox” of digital topology. Unfortunately natural and synthetic images are not a priori well-composed. In this paper we extend the notion of “digital well-composedness” to nD sets, integer-valued functions (graylevel image...

In digital topology, the use of a pair of connectivities is required to avoid topological paradoxes. In mathematical morphology, selfdual operators and methods also rely on such a pair of connectivities. There are several major issues: self-duality is impure, the image graph structure depends on the image values, it impacts the way small objects an...

The Tree of Shapes (ToS) is a morphological tree that provides a high-level, hierarchical, self-dual, and contrast invariant representation of images, suitable for many image processing tasks. When dealing with color images, one cannot use the ToS because its definition is ill-formed on multivariate data. Common workarounds such as marginal process...

Latecki et al. have introduced the notion of well-composed images, i.e., a class of images free from the connectivities paradox of discrete topology. Unfortunately natural and synthetic images are not a priori well-composed, usually leading to topological issues. Making any nD image well-composed is interesting because, afterwards, the classical co...

The tree of shapes is a self-dual tree-based image representation belonging to the field of mathematical morphology. This representation is highly interesting since it is invariant to contrast changes and inversion, and allows for numerous and powerful applications. A new algorithm to compute the tree of shapes has been recently presented: it has a...

The tree of shapes is a morphological tree that provides an high-level hierarchical representation of the image suitable for many image processing tasks. This structure has the desirable properties to be self-dual and contrast-invariant and describes the organization of the objects through level lines inclusion. Yet it is defined on gray-level whil...

Removing the staff in music score images is a key to improve the recognition of music symbols and, with ancient and degraded handwritten music scores, it is not a straightforward task. In this paper we present the method that has won in 2013 the staff removal competition, organized at the International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognitio...

An important topic for the image processing and pattern recognition community is the construction of open source and efficient libraries. An increasing number of software frameworks are said to be generic: they allow users to write reusable algorithms compatible with many input image types. However, this design choice is often made at the expense o...

This paper introduces a topological approach to local invariant feature detection motivated by Morse theory. We use the critical points of the graph of the intensity image, revealing directly the topology information as initial "interest" points. Critical points are selected from what we call a treebased shape-space. Specifically, they are selected...

Many methods based on the morphological notion of shapes (i.e., connected components of level sets) have been proved to be very efficient in shape recognition and shape analysis. The inclusion relationship of the level lines (boundaries of level sets) forms the tree of shapes, a tree-based image representation with a high potential. Numerous applic...

Natural and synthetic discrete images are generally not well-composed, leading to many topological issues: connectivities in binary images are not equivalent, the Jordan Separation theorem is not true anymore, and so on. Conversely, making images well-composed solves those problems and then gives access to many powerful tools already known in mathe...

This paper investigates the speckle spot detection task in ultrasound images. Speckle spots are described by structural criteria: dimensions, shape, and topology. We propose to represent the image using a morphological inclusion tree, from which speckle spots are detected using their structural appearance. This makes the method independent of contr...

In mathematical morphology the tree of shapes of a gray level image is a versatile representation that allows for multiple powerful applications. That structure is highly interesting because it is a self-dual representation invariant by contrast changes and since many authors state that object contours are well described by level lines. Such a repr...

Connected operators are morphological tools that have the property of filtering images without creating new contours and without moving the contours that are preserved. Those operators are related to the max-tree and min-tree representations of images, and many algorithms have been proposed to compute those trees. However, no exhaustive comparison...

Mathematical morphology, when used in the field of document image analysis and processing, is often limited to some classical yet basic tools. The domain however features a lesser-known class of powerful operators, called connected filters. These operators present an important property: they do not shift nor create contours. Most connected filters...