Thierry Frétey

Thierry Frétey
Association RACINE

Docteur d'Université

About

79
Publications
81,340
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Introduction
Thierry Frétey currently works at Association RACINE. Thierry does research in Systematics (Taxonomy) and Linnaean Taxonomy. Their current project is 'Observatory on Availability in Zoological Nomenclature.'
Additional affiliations
October 2002 - present
Association RACINE
Position
  • Herpetologist
January 1996 - present

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Full-text available
Summary-Taxonomic list of the herpetofauna in the Overseas France: VI Department of La Réunion. We present an updated taxonomic checklist of the Amphibians and "Reptiles" of the French department of Reunion Island located in the Mascarene archipelago, southwestern Indian Ocean. We synthesized information from the most recent publications. In additi...
Article
Full-text available
Comparative studies of mortality in the wild are necessary to understand the evolution of aging; yet, ectothermic tetrapods are underrepresented in this comparative landscape, despite their suitability for testing evolutionary hypotheses. We present a study of aging rates and longevity across wild tetrapod ectotherms, using data from 107 population...
Article
Full-text available
In 1847, Dufour proposed the nomen Salamandra tuberculata, a senior synonym of Hemitriton asper, for the taxon currently recognized as Calotriton asper (Dugès, 1852). In order to sustain stability, the predominant usage should be maintained. We present here the conditions required by article 23.9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature...
Article
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Sonnini & Latreille, 1801b) was long considered the only species of the genus Cryptobranchus Leuckart, 1821. In this genus, Sabatino & Routman (2009) found eight genetic independent unities isolated from each other, which they treated as Management Units. Later, Hime (2017) recovered five strongly supported species-lev...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in temperature is known to influence mortality patterns in ectotherms. Even though a few experimental studies on model organisms have reported a positive relationship between temperature and actuarial senescence (i.e., the increase in mortality risk with age), how variation in climate influences the senescence rate across the range of a s...
Article
According to the Code currently in force, taxonomic works presenting nomenclatural novelties published on optical discs may be nomenclaturally available only if published between 1985 and 2013, and respecting some conditions allowing their nomenclatural promulgation. These works will remain accessible to readers only as long as the technologies all...
Article
According to the Code currently in force, taxonomic works presenting nomenclatural novelties published on optical discs may be nomenclaturally available only if published between 1985 and 2013, and respecting some conditions allowing their nomenclatural promulgation. These works will remain accessible to readers only as long as the technologies all...
Article
According to the Code currently in force, taxonomic works presenting nomenclatural novelties published on optical discs may be nomenclaturally available only if published between 1985 and 2013, and respecting some conditions allowing their nomenclatural promulgation. These works will remain accessible to readers only as long as the technologies all...
Article
The ‘suppression’ (invalidation) for nomenclatural purposes by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature of the work Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares et des Serpens first published by La Cepède from 1788 to 1790 brought no benefit of any kind to zoological taxonomy and nomenclature but generated several nomenclatural proble...
Article
The ‘suppression’ (invalidation) for nomenclatural purposes by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature of the work Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares et des Serpens first published by La Cepède from 1788 to 1790 brought no benefit of any kind to zoological taxonomy and nomenclature but generated several nomenclatural proble...
Article
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La liste taxinomique est actualisée pour les Amphibiens et les « Reptiles » de la Guadeloupe, département et région d' outre-mer dans les Petites Antilles. Elle tient compte des publications les plus récentes. À côté du nom scientifique zoologique international, nous attribuons un nom scientifique français à chaque taxon. Summary: Taxonomic list of...
Article
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The publication date, availability and onymotope of the nomen Scincus cyanurus are assessed. The nomen was validly published by Lesson in 1830 and is based on a holophoront, probably from the island of Tahiti. Elements allowing the identification of the nomina cited in the synonymy of Scincus cyanurus are given. Eumeces lessonii Duméril & Bibron, 1...
Article
A taxon, traditionally referred to the rank order, encompassing all recent taxa of caecilians and their close fossil relatives, is highly supported as holophyletic in all recent cladistic analyses of Amphibia. Under the Duplostensional Nomenclatural System, among 12 nomina available in the literature, only one, Gymnophiona Rafinesque, 1814, qualifi...
Article
The nomenclatural status of 17 class-series nomina (13 diplorhizonyms and 4 haplorhizonyms), based on the single or primary stems Anura, Urodela and Batrachia that had been set aside in our previous papers of this series is examined. None of them is currently valid under the Duplostensional Nomenclatural System, four of them are unavailable (includ...
Article
Under the Duplostensional Nomenclatural System, the valid nomen of the class including all recent amphibians and all the Palaeozoic groups of anamniote tetrapods subsequent to the ‘lissamphibian-amniote phylogenetic split’ is the sozodiaphonym Amphibia Blainville, 1816. This corresponds to the usage that has been in force for two centuries in thous...
Article
A taxon encompassing all recent taxa of amphibians and their close fossil relatives is highly supported as holophyletic in all recent phylogenetic analyses of amphibians. Under the Duplostensional Nomenclatural System, among twenty nomina available for this taxon, only one, Lissamphibia Gadow, 1898, qualifies as a sozodiaphonym and appears to be th...
Article
A taxon, traditionally referred to the rank order, encompassing all recent taxa of frogs and their close fossil relatives, is highly supported as holophyletic in all recent phylogenetic analyses of Amphibia. Under the Duplostensional Nomenclatural System, among more than thirty nomina available for this taxon in the literature, two only qualify as...
Article
A taxon, traditionally referred to the rank order, encompassing all recent taxa of salamanders and their close fossil relatives, is highly supported as holophyletic in all recent phylogenetic analyses of amphibians. Under the Duplostensional Nomenclatural System, among about thirty nomina available for this taxon in the literature, two only qualify...
Article
The nomen Batrachia has been very extensively used in the scientific literature since 1800, but for two different taxa of recent amphibians. The first one, originally introduced by Brongniart (1800), corresponds to a taxon encompassing all recent taxa of frogs and salamanders but excluding the caecilians. The second one, used first by Oppel (1811),...
Article
We offer a review of the correct way of writing the names of authors with a patronymic particle in scientific papers, bibliographic lists and indexes.
Article
This work introduces a series of papers devoted to the ascertainment of the valid nomina, under the revised Duplostensional Nomenclatural System (DONS-2), of the highest taxa (from the rank order to the rank class) of recent amphibians and ‘reptiles’. The main general features of the DONS approach to class-series nomenclature (above the rank superf...
Article
Full-text available
La liste taxinomique de référence est établie pour les Amphibiens et les Sauropsides non aviens (= « Reptiles ») de Mayotte, département français et région d'outre-mer dans l'océan Indien. Elle tient compte des publications les plus récentes sur l'herpétofaune de la région. À côté du nom scientifique zoologique, un nom scientifique français est joi...
Article
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La France, à travers ses territoires ultramarins, porte la responsabilité de la conservation d'une herpétofaune incroyablement diversifiée, avec notamment des représentants des principales lignées de Squamates. Son domaine couvre plusieurs écorégions qui s'étendent des archipels de l'Océan Pacifique, aux îles de l'Océan Indien et de la Caraïbe. C'e...
Article
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In July 2014, the international meeting ‘Burning questions and problems of zoological nomenclature’ was held in Linz (Austria). It acknowledged the presence in the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature of a number of severe problems, and accordingly decided the creation of a new international body, the Linz Zoocode Committee (LZC),...
Article
Starting from a finding concerning a few specific nomina proposed by Linnaeus (1758, 1760) and Linné (1766–1767) in herpetology, we returned to the ‘rules of nomenclature’ followed, more or less explicitly, in taxonomic works of the 18th century, in an attempt to understand the status of capitalised epithets. We conclude that such epithets were vie...
Article
In the scientific literature, the availability, authorship, date and onomatophore of the four generic nomina of lizards "Platydactyles", "Hemidactyles", "Thecadactyles" and Ptyodactyles" published by Cuvier (1816) and of the genus nomen of toads "Otilophes" published by Cuvier (1829) as French scientific nomina in the plural, and of their latinised...
Article
In two distinct works published in 1877, Cope described three fossil genera of vertebrates, Hedronchus, Hemitrypus and Scapherpeton, which are now considered to be based on a single species of urodelan amphibian. The respective dates of publications of these works require to adopt Hedronchus sternbergii as the valid nomen of this taxon, which is no...
Article
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En 2011, lors de la parution de l'ouvrage francophone "Amphibiens d'Afrique centrale et d'Angola" (Frétey et al. 2011), 88 espèces d'Amphibiens étaient connues du Gabon. Ces dernières années, plusieurs équipes de chercheurs et de naturalistes ont mené des inventaires et des études sur le territoire gabonais : leurs contributions respectives portent...
Article
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La Guyane présente une riche communauté de tortues continentales (12 espèces), composée de onze espèces indigènes et d’une espèce introduite. À cette liste, il convient d’ajouter les tortues marines (5 espèces) qui fréquentent les eaux côtières du Plateau des Guyanes et viennent pondre saisonnièrement sur les plages guyanaises. En 2017, l’édition...
Article
A precise terminology is proposed for the distinction between different categories of onymotopes (type localities) in zoological nomenclature. To illustrate these new terms, we give concrete examples taken from nomina of African amphibians. In the course of working on these examples, we are led to designate a lectophoront (lectotype) for the frog s...
Article
The new genus-series nomen Relictus, proposed by Sá et al. (2018) for a subgenus of the frog genus Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904, is unavailable for having been proposed [1] in a paper published online unregistered in Zoobank and [2] without a diagnosis stating in words characters purported to differentiate the taxon. Finally, it is also invalid for be...
Article
During nineteenth century, the early descriptions of amphibians often have very imprecise onymotopes (type localities). We have investigated such descriptions for Gabon. We provide some historical informations about the collectors of the specimens and we refine the places of collections.
Article
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Une mission naturaliste pluridisciplinaire a été organisée par la société Biotope, du 07 au 12 octobre 2017, dans le secteur ouest du site Ramsar des Monts Birougou (Province de la Ngounié). L’objectif était de récolter des données naturalistes préliminaires (Amphibiens, Reptiles, Poissons, Oiseaux et Mammifères) afin de compléter les connaissances...
Article
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Une mission naturaliste pluridisciplinaire a été organisée par la Fondation Biotope pour la biodiversité du 26 février au 07 mars 2017 dans le massif du Koumouna-Bouali, au sud-ouest de la ville de Fougamou (Gabon, Province de la Ngounié). L’objectif était d’évaluer l’accessibilité du site et de récolter des données naturalistes préliminaires (Amph...
Article
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The question whether taxonomic descriptions naming new animal species without type specimen(s) deposited in collections should be accepted for publication by scientific journals and allowed by the Code has already been discussed in Zootaxa (Dubois & Nemésio 2007; Donegan 2008, 2009; Nemésio 2009a–b; Dubois 2009; Gentile & Snell 2009; Minelli 2009;...
Data
This plot is not part of the published stance but derives from it. The plot shows the number of authors by geographic region (courtesy of Dr. Diego Astua).
Article
Full-text available
From 1985 to 1994, Luuc Bauer published 31 new amphibian nomina for taxa at various ranks, including 14 genera. The nomenclatural status of these nomina regarding their availability and validity is evaluated here: 15 of them are considered available, including four or five valid ones according to the classification chosen (one for a species and thr...
Article
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Suite à trois séjours naturalistes à Rodrigues en 2009, 2011 et 2012, l’association RACINE (TF) a entrepris une synthèse bibliographique afin d’établir une liste actualisée de l’herpétofaune de l’île de Rodrigues. Avec les espèces introduites plus ou moins récemment et les espèces éteintes, la liste des Reptiles de Rodrigues atteint 25 espèces. En...
Article
Various nomenclatural errors in a recent revision of the frog family PELODRYADIDAE are corrected, including the necessary change of nomina for a subfamily and a genus.
Article
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Field work was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Nhica do Rovuma, Cabo Delgado province of Mozambique, in order to assess anuran faunal composition of East African coastal dry forest. A total of 31 species were observed and/or collected; 24 of these are new for the province. Discussions on nomenclatural and taxonomic aspects are given for Leptopelis br...
Article
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Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species wer...
Article
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The purpose of this application, under Article 81 of the Code, is to conserve the name dicroglossidae Dubois, 1987 for a family of frogs. Analysis of the publication where the name dicroglossidae was first used (Anderson, 1871) showed that this was an incorrect subsequent spelling of discoglossidae Günther, 1858 and therefore not an available name....
Article
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After recalling some features of Rodrigues, its tortoises and its large lizards, this paper presents a brief biography of Philibert Marragon, the first administrator and governor who took up residence on the island. We then reproduce and translate the full text of a report written by Marragon in 1795 which describes, in a more or less detailed way,...
Article
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The nomenclatural status of the nomen Hyperolius guttatus Peters, 1875 was investigated. The specimens on which the original description was based were collected at Bootry in Ghana and in Cameroon, but their precise collection localities are unknown. We established the chronology of the successive taxonomic allocations of the specimens from Ghana a...
Article
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Dans les années 1970, la Bretagne a été l'objet de remembrements généralisés sur l'immense majorité de ses communes. Certes, personne ne peut nier que la région avait besoin d'évoluer, et que, notamment, beaucoup de parcelles utili-sées par l'agriculture étaient trop étroites et ne permettaient pas le maniement cor-rect des engins agricoles moderne...
Article
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Si dans le passé ce genre de travaux se faisait sans aucun égard pour la faune, il faut reconnaître que, depuis une bonne vingtaine d'années, ils se font toujours en concertation. Ainsi avons-nous été consul-tés à maintes reprises par les services de la DRE (Direction Régionale de l'Équipe-ment) et des DDE (Direction Départe -mentale de l'Équipemen...
Article
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In zoological nomenclature, to be potentially valid, nomenclatural novelties (i.e., new nomina and nomenclatural acts) need first to be made available, that is, published in works qualifying as publications as defined by the International Code of zoological Nomenclature (“the Code”). In September 2012, the Code was amended in order to allow the rec...
Article
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For a long time, and although the two genera are not closely allied, generic allocation of the species of the genera Arthroleptis (Anura, Brevi-cipitidae, Arthroleptinae) and Phrynobatrachus (Anura, Ranidae, Phryno-batrachinae) was found difficult by zoologists. However, Laurent (1941) had pointed to criteria allowing this allocation, bearing on th...
Article
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The precise origin of the specimens described by Ahl (1925) as three new species is shown to be Bouala in République centrafricaine.
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INEICH I., FRETEY T., COLYN M. & BARRIÈRE P., 2007 - Geographic Distribution - Serpentes. Gonionotophis brussauxi (Mocquard's Lesser File Snake). Central African Republic. Herpetological Review, 38(1): 104.
Article
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BARRIERE P., INEICH I. & FRETEY T., 2005 - Un cas de morsure par Atractaspis irregularis (Serpentes : Atractaspididae) en République centrafricaine. Bulletin de la Société herpétologique de France, 116: 51-56.
Article
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In vertebrates exhibiting intermittent breeding, breeding activity is a factor of critical importance in capture-recapture studies using data from individually marked animals. Nonbreeders can be absent from locations used by breeders and can be considered "temporary emigrants". We addressed the influence of sex on survival in common toads, Bufo buf...
Article
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A survey of 41 stations in the rainforests and savannas of the northern and central parts of the Fauna Reserve of La Lopé, and in La Makandé Biological Station, between 11°26' and 11°58' E and 0° 06' and 0°56' S, on the both sides of the Offoué river, produced 43 species of Amphibians belonging to 20 genera and six families. Their distribution betw...
Article
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According to a critical analysis of the 779 available bibliographie références and the récent field surveys unpublished results, the reptilian fauna of Central Africa and Angola involves 531 species in 23 families and 136 généra. Two families, 5 généra and 5 species are sea-turtlcs ; others hâve terrestnal or freslnvater habitats. Snakes biodiversi...
Article
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First fields-surveys in the center of Gabon, in 41 stations inside the Faunal Reserve of the Lopé and Bee Forest records 6 families, 20 genera and 43 species of tailless amphibians. Their main morphological particular, especially size, are provided.
Article
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This first field-survey in the center of Gabon (northern and central parts of the Faunal Reserve of the Lope and the Makande Station in the Bee Forest) lists 38 species of reptiles, distributed in 32 genera and 14 families. Six additional species, not caught and therefore unidentified, raise the biodiversity of the geographical area to a minimum of...
Article
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Amphibian faunas of the seven Central Afncan States and of Angola sum up to 359 species in 53 généra and 10 families, among which two are Gymnophiona and eight Anura. Taxonomie composition at the spécifie level of these faunas are mostly rclated to the geographical position of the country. Oceanic îslands in the Biafra Gulf (Sào Tomé, Principe) dis...
Article
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A list of 38 species of Anuran Amphibians from the Forêt des Abeilles, in Gabon, is provided. One specie is actually undiscribed and two other species are indeterminate. More species are expected when new collections are made. Some collected individuals are larger than those found in Cameroon.
Article
Full-text available
A list of 38 species of Anuran Amphibians from the Forêt des Abeilles, in Gabon, is provided. One specie is actually undiscribed and two other species are indeterminate. More species are expected when new collections are made. Some collected individuals are larger than those found in Cameroon.
Article
This study on common toad (Bufo bufo), demonstrates the identity of structure between femur and phalange of a same individual. That allowed us to use skeletochronology without killing animals, and to study the same population. The periodicity of the lines of arrested growth (LAG) is annual. The absolute age is determined in 96.2% of males and 87.8%...
Article
Full-text available
Des coupes de phalange et de fémur d'un même animal présentent le même nombre de Lignes d'Arrêt de Croissance. Des phalanges prélevées sur un même animal, deux années consécutives, montrent une LAC supplémentaire la deuxième année. La résorption endostéale est plus importante chez les femelles que chez les mâles et variable selon les individus. Les...

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Projects (3)
Project
The Linz Zoocode Committee (LZC) was established in July 2014 in Linz (Austria), as a result of the international meeting ‘Burning questions and problems of zoological nomenclature’, which acknowledged the presence in the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature of several serious problems. The LZC was assigned the task of writing the Linz Zoocode, a set of new proposals regarding the terminology, the Principles and Rules of zoological nomenclature. The first report of the activities of this Committee, covering the period 2014‒2019, was published in Bionomina on 17 December 2019. This text is submitted to the consideration of the international community of zootaxonomists and of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in the perspective of the incorporation of its proposals into the next version of the Code. This document contains the presentation of the LZC work, and the first documents adopted by the Committee: the Preamble and Principles of the Zoocode, the description of its structure and a first instalment of the Zoocode Glossary. Its purpose is to regulate the status of zoological nomina and nomenclatural acts. It provides an explicit detailed, objective and binding nomenclatural system for the unambiguous and universal naming of all zoological taxa recognised by taxonomists, so that, in the frame of a given classification, the nomen of each taxon is unique and distinct. It relies on a Nomenclatural Process consisting in four main stages listed below. Whereas the Code currently in force is based on six stated Principles, the Zoocode recognises 17 distinct ones. The work of the LZC was based on seven consensual statements, which were unanimously adopted by the Linz meeting: [1] The Nomenclatural Process. The identification of the valid nomen of any zoological taxon under any classification consists in four main distinct stages, namely: [1a] nomenclatural availability of nomina, [1b] taxonomic allocation of nomina, [1c] nomenclatural validity and correctness of nomina and [1d] registration of nomina and nomenclatural acts. Accordingly, the plan of the Code will have to be drastically modified. [2] Nomenclatural availability of nomina and nomenclatural acts. [2a] They must be published, i.e. made public, and obtainable by all upon request, in a permanent, immutable form (even in its smallest details like pagination). [2b] Electronic publications raise many problems for zoological nomenclature, that have not all yet been adequately addressed and will have to be so. [2c] Lists of Available Names as recognised in the 1999 edition of the Code will doubtless be incomplete and imperfect, with omissions and mistakes, and they should therefore remain modifiable even after their first publication: whereas the nomenclatural availability of nomina present on these lists is secured, the absence of other nomina from these lists does not mean ipso facto that they should be considered unavailable. [3] Taxonomic allocation of nomina. [3a] Nomina of species and subspecies should be based on preserved specimens permanently accessible to all taxonomists interested, not only on virtual specimens (photographs) or on tissues or nucleic acid sequences, except under codified exceptions. [3b] As this may appear to some contradictory with the conservation of biodiversity, this requires proper communication with non-taxonomist colleagues and with the public opinion to explain the reasons and consequences of this point of view. [3c] the status of ‘nomina dubia’ should be clarified through ‘neotype’ designations or other appropriate procedures. [3d] The concept of ‘hapantotype’ is based on a confusion between taxonomy and nomenclature and should be abandoned. [4] Nomenclatural validity of names and correctness of spellings. [4a] As defined in the current Code, the concept of ‘prevailing usage’ is confusing, and should be replaced by strictly defined categories of usage of nomina. [4b] The basic distinction between nomina and spellings is not clear in the Code and this should be improved. [4c] The plea for nomenclatural stability does not answer a scientific, but a practical need, and it should not take the lead on nomenclatural accuracy: Priority should be reinstated as the only basic Principle of validity of nomina, and usage should be called upon only for very-well-known nomina, objectively defined. [4d] Despite the recent proliferation of so-called ‘taxonomic’ databases of unequal and often poor quality, the absence of several serious nomenclatural databases so far is a real problem that should be addressed as soon as possible. Such serious databases should provide in particular actual dates of publications of works, lists of first reviser actions by taxonomists, and an updated listing of all the decisions taken under the Plenary Power by the Commission since its beginning. [5] The terminology of the Code. New terms are necessary for new nomenclatural concepts or for concepts already present in the Code but that had not been identified as such until the recent years, as well as to replace terms that are inadequate or misleading for some reasons. [6] Higher zoological nomenclature. In our epoch where many cladistic analyses are carried out, resulting in the recognition of many new higher taxa (above the rank superfamily), it is high time to include Rules concerning their nomina into the Code. [7] The governance of zoological nomenclature. The legitimacy of the current Commission, the members of which are not elected by the community of zootaxonomists but co-opted, as well as the current mode of governance of zoological nomenclature, are questionable. If these concerns are not addressed, the establishment of an independent, open international society of zoological nomenclature should be seriously considered. The LZC is not a closed group. It is open to all zootaxonomists who share its concerns and aims. All colleagues who agree with the seven consensual statements listed above are welcome to apply for co-option by the Committee as additional members (active members or observers) by contacting us through the following e-mail address: <sapo421@gmail.com>. 17 December 2019
Project
La fondation Biotope a entamé une série d'explorations préliminaires de zones peu prospectées au Gabon. Une première expédition a été menée dans le massif du Koumouna Bouali près de Fougamou. D'autre expéditions sont d'ores et déjà prévues dans les monts Birougou ou sur le littoral rocheux près du cap Estérias.
Project
The Observatory on Availability in Zoological Nomenclature was established in June 2016 by an international group of zootaxonomists, as an outcome of the International Workshop of Zoological Nomenclature held in Linz (Austria) in July 2014 (see Dumerilia, 2016, 6; accessible at <http://dumerilia.wifeo.com/>). This workshop supported the statement of Dubois et al. (2013, Zootaxa, 3735) that the Amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature “to expand and refined methods of publication” published in 2012 (Zootaxa, 3450) raised serious nomenclatural problems, especially regarding the online publication of new scientific names (nomina) and nomenclatural acts. The first aim of the Observatory is to identify (mostly recent) publications where the Rules of the Code for nomenclatural availability (and particularly those of the 2012 Amendment) were ignored or misinterpreted, resulting in the publication of nomenclatural novelties (nomina and acts) that are nomenclaturally unavailable and must be either ignored by zootaxonomists or corrected in new publications. In the absence of such published corrections, the nomina at stake should not being used as valid in scientific communication. Through its action, the Observatory intends to raise awareness on these problems among the community of zootaxonomists, to facilitate the correction of these errors and to avoid or limit their repetition, particularly in proposing changes to the current Code. In all cases of discovery of such nomenclatural problems, the action of the Observatory will be constructive and collaborative. It will include three steps: [1] warning of the author(s) about the nomenclatural problem(s) raised by their original publication; [2] proposal to publish a paper correcting the problem(s) in the next issue of the journal Dumerilia or elsewhere; [3] if no positive reply is given to this proposal within two months, publication of a notice of the case in Dumerilia. It is important to note that, even if our Observatory did not raise the case, it is extremely likely that, sooner or later, it would be discovered and corrected by the community of zootaxonomists, as it has nearly always been the case during the history of zoological nomenclature—but, the later nomenclatural mistakes are discovered, the more this may have a disrupting effect on nomenclatural stability and, by way of consequence, on appropriate communication about living organisms within the international scientific community. All zoologists interested in zoological nomenclature and aware of the nomenclatural problems raised by electronic publications, are welcome to join the Observatory in order to contribute to the identification of recent publications failing to respect the Rules of the Code for nomenclatural availability and to the solving of these problems. Alain Dubois Emeritus Professor Paris Museum of Natural History <sapo421@gmail.com> 3 November 2016