Thierry Devos

Thierry Devos
San Diego State University | SDSU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D. in Social Sciences

About

94
Publications
43,261
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Introduction
My research focuses on understanding how implicit intergroup biases (stereotypes and prejudices) are embedded in social and cultural contexts. Current directions of research include: 1) Documenting reliable relations between implicit intergroup biases and characteristics of social contexts, 2) Examining the stability and fluctuation of implicit intergroup biases across space and time, and 3) Identifying important psycho-social correlates of context-levels implicit intergroup biases.
Additional affiliations
September 2002 - present
San Diego State University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (94)
Article
The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the USA is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly conceived of as being m...
Article
Full-text available
In academic settings, Asian students are often described as less talkative than White students. We provide an account of this phenomenon based on research on cultural influences on the self, self-categorization, and implicit social cognition. We hypothesized that the classroom context activates a process of implicit self-stereotyping. Asian and Whit...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 128 undergraduate women reported stronger identification with college education than with motherhood. In contrast, an Implicit Association Test revealed a slightly stronger identification with motherhood than with college education. Implicit attitudes toward college education and motherhood correlated with implicit (but not explicit) id...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attri...
Article
In two studies conducted during the 2012 U.S. presidential election, we sought to determine whether the relative ascription of the American identity to Barack Obama and Mitt Romney was distinct from attitudinal responses and from associations about racial categories. We also tested the degree to which these associations accounted for voter support....
Preprint
Although replication is a central tenet of science, direct replications are rare in psychology. This research tested variation in the replicability of thirteen classic and contemporary effects across 36 independent samples totaling 6,344 participants. In the aggregate, ten effects replicated consistently. One effect – imagined contact reducing prej...
Preprint
This manuscript contains our responses to several commentaries about the Many Labs Project (Klein et al., 2014).
Preprint
This dataset is from the Many Labs Replication Project [1] in which 13 effects were replicated across 36 samples and over 6,000 participants. Data from the replications are included, along with demographic variables about the participants and contextual information about the environment in which the replication was conducted. Data were collected in...
Article
The present research tested whether cultural tightness–looseness accounts for implicit associations between American and ethnic identities. Two datasets from Project Implicit were used to assess the extent to which the concepts American vs. foreign were associated with Asian or European Americans (N = 357,961) and Native or White Americans (N = 230...
Preprint
The perpetual foreigner stereotype posits that members of ethnic minorities will always be seen as the “other” in the White Anglo-Saxon dominant society of the US (Devos & Banaji, 2005), which may have negative implications for them. The goal of the present research was to determine whether awareness of this perpetual foreigner stereotype predicts...
Preprint
Full-text available
We provide an overview of research on the implicit social cognition of self and identity. We limit our coverage to aspects of the self that emerge when (1) viewed in the context of social group memberships and (2) measured via thoughts and feelings that are not consciously controllable or within awareness. We begin with research paradigms that link...
Preprint
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identificat...
Preprint
We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attri...
Preprint
When studying discrimination, it is important to examine both perceived frequency and stress associated with these experiences, as well as the interplay between these two dimensions. Using data from Latino/a participants (N = 168), we found an interaction effect of the reported frequency and reported stressfulness of discrimination on psychological...
Preprint
The present research examined whether temporal fluctuations in context ethnic diversity account for current levels of implicit ethnic-American associations. Temporal fluctuations in ethnic diversity at the metropolitan level were assessed using data from four decennial U.S. censuses (1980-2010) and distinguishing three dimensions of context ethnic...
Preprint
Using a nationally representative sample, the present research tested whether conceptions of national identity differentially predicted attitudes toward bicultural policies among New Zealanders of European, Māori, Asian, and Pacific descent. A series of multi-group structural equation models revealed that among members of the majority group and all...
Preprint
Prior research documents that Asian Americans are implicitly seen as less American than European Americans (implicit American = White effect). The aim of the present research was to test whether this effect is weaker in more ethnically diverse metropolitan areas. Data from the 2010 U.S. Census were utilized to compute three indicators of context et...
Preprint
Weapons are implicitly associated with Black Americans. We examined the extent to which this implicit stereotype fluctuates as a function of the ethnic diversity of contexts. Across 351 U.S. metropolitan areas, we tested whether three distinct indicators of ethnic diversity predicted implicit associations between the concept of “weapons” (vs. “harm...
Preprint
The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the United States of America is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly co...
Preprint
This chapter provides an overview of core principles accounting for stereotypes and intergroup attitudes. The first three sections focus on the role of intraindividual processes: the contributions of cognitive, motivational, and affective processes are emphasized. The remaining sections examine how intergroup contexts shape stereotypes and intergro...
Preprint
The present research sought to distinguish the role of socio-cultural negativity and social identification underlying gay men’s implicit attitudes towards sexual orientation. Fifty gay men completed two Implicit Association Tests. In both cases, the task required categorizing, as quickly as possible, pictures of gay vs. straight couples, but these...
Article
Published studies point to heterogeneity in the relations between context diversity and implicit associations. To rule out methodological variations as an explanation, the relations between three dimensions of context diversity and four implicit associations were examined across 747 counties and 341 metropolitan areas, keeping constant as many fact...
Article
A repeated cross‐sectional design was used to examine whether temporal changes in implicit Black‐weapon associations were dependent on the changing ethnic diversity of metropolitan areas over the course of a decade (2009–2018). Data on implicit Black‐weapon associations were obtained from Project Implicit. Three indicators of ethnic diversity were...
Preprint
A repeated cross-sectional design was used to examine whether temporal changes in implicit Black-weapon associations were dependent on the changing ethnic diversity of metropolitan areas over the course of a decade (2009-2018). Data on implicit Black-weapon associations were obtained from Project Implicit. Three indicators of ethnic diversity were...
Article
In the context of recent policies aimed at deterring immigration and criminalizing undocumented Latino immigrants, we examined factors predicting implicit and explicit attitudes toward this population. We hypothesized that more positive implicit and explicit attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants would be displayed by Latinxs (compared to...
Article
This meta-analysis evaluated theoretical predictions from balanced identity theory (BIT) and evaluated the validity of zero points of Implicit Association Test (IAT) and self-report measures used to test these predictions. Twenty-one researchers contributed individual subject data from 36 experiments (total N = 12,773) that used both explicit and i...
Article
Using a nationally representative sample, the present research tested whether conceptions of national identity differentially predicted attitudes toward bicultural policies among New Zealanders of European, Māori, Asian, and Pacific descent. A series of multi-group structural equation models revealed that among members of the majority group and all...
Preprint
Approach/avoidance paradigms could constitute an interesting alternative in measuringintergroup attitudes, notably if they overcome one criticism often addressed toward classic indirect tasks: measuring attitudes beyond the influence of cultural knowledge. Using intergroup stimuli and a population likely to be exposed to a similar cultural knowledg...
Article
Full-text available
Approach/avoidance paradigms could constitute an interesting alternative in measuring intergroup attitudes, notably if they overcome one criticism often addressed toward classic indirect tasks: measuring attitudes beyond the influence of cultural knowledge. Using intergroup stimuli and a population likely to be exposed to a similar cultural knowled...
Article
The present research examined whether temporal fluctuations in context ethnic diversity account for current levels of implicit ethnic-American associations. Temporal fluctuations in ethnic diversity at the metropolitan level were assessed using data from four decennial U.S. censuses (1980–2010) and distinguishing three dimensions of context ethnic...
Article
Full-text available
In the aftermath of the horrific terrorist attack against Muslims in Christchurch, it is important to examine what psychological factors predict positive attitudes toward Muslims and acceptance of diversity, more broadly. The present work examines how beliefs about national identity predict attitudes toward Muslims and support for diversity in New...
Article
Prior research documents that Asian Americans are implicitly seen as less American than European Americans (implicit American = White effect). The aim of the present research was to test whether this effect is weaker in more ethnically diverse metropolitan areas. Data from the 2010 U.S. Census were utilized to compute three indicators of context et...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories....
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance to examine variation in effect magnitudes across sample and setting. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples and 15,305 total participants from 36 countries and territories. Using co...
Article
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories....
Article
Weapons are implicitly associated with Black Americans. We examined the extent to which this implicit stereotype fluctuates as a function of the ethnic diversity of contexts. Across 351 U.S. metropolitan areas, we tested whether three distinct indicators of ethnic diversity predicted implicit associations between the concept of “weapons” (vs. “harm...
Article
The goal of the present research was to document ingroup prototypicality effects in implicit associations between ethnic groups and the American identity. Across four studies, we compared implicit associations displayed by perceivers who either belonged to or did not belong to the target ethnic groups. In Studies 1 and 2, African, Asian, Latino, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-report...
Article
The university participant pool is a key resource for behavioral research, and data quality is believed to vary over the course of the academic semester. This crowdsourced project examined time of semester variation in 10 known effects, 10 individual differences, and 3 data quality indicators over the course of the academic semester in 20 participa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many Labs 3 is a crowdsourced project that systematically evaluated time-of-semester effects across many participant pools. See the Wiki for a table of contents of files and to download the manuscript.
Article
Full-text available
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We a...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested nine interventions (eight real and one sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In two studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all nine interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to seve...
Article
Full-text available
Based on Schwartz's (1992) theory of human values, we hypothesized that the level of trust in institutions should be related to the extent to which individuals cherish values linked to conservation vs. openness to change. We tested the stability of these relations across eleven European countries and between two versions of the Portrait Value Quest...
Article
Full-text available
Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a teaching module on students’ perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and discri...
Article
While direct replications such as the “Many Labs” project are extremely valuable in testing the reliability of published findings across laboratories, they reflect the common reliance in psychology on single vignettes or stimuli, which limits the scope of the conclusions that can be reached. New experimental tools and statistical techniques make it...
Article
Full-text available
The present research sought to distinguish the role of sociocultural negativity and social identification underlying gay men’s implicit attitudes towards sexual orientation. Fifty gay men completed two Implicit Association Tests. In both cases, the task required cat- egorising, as quickly as possible, pictures of gay vs. straight couples, but these...
Data
Full-text available
This dataset is from the Many Labs Replication Project [1] in which 13 effects were replicated across 36 samples and over 6,000 participants. Data from the replications are included, along with demographic variables about the participants and contextual information about the environment in which the replication was conducted. Data were collected in...
Article
Full-text available
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identificat...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore the relevance of the implicit social cognition framework to research on multicultural identities. We posit that self-related mental processes underlying multicultural identities often operate at a largely automatic or non-conscious level. We propose a conceptualization of implicit multicultural identities as associative...
Article
Full-text available
Although replication is a central tenet of science, direct replications are rare in psychology. This research tested variation in the replicability of 13 classic and contemporary effects across 36 independent samples totaling 6,344 participants. In the aggregate, 10 effects replicated consistently. One effect – imagined contact reducing prejudice –...
Article
Full-text available
Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of...
Article
Against the backdrop of the 2008 presidential election, we examined the extent to which the American identity was implicitly and explicitly associated with Barack Obama compared to Tony Blair (Study 1), Hillary Clinton (Study 2), and John McCain (Studies 3 and 4). When conscious control was relatively limited and targets were categorized based on r...
Article
Full-text available
Although replication is a central tenet of science, direct replications are rare in psychology. This research tested variation in the replicability of thirteen classic and contemporary effects across 36 independent samples totaling 6,344 participants. In the aggregate, ten effects replicated consistently. One effect – imagined contact reducing prej...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this article was to show how structural equation modelling associated to multilevel regressions represents a powerful tool to examine innovative cross-cultural research questions. The relationship between values and trust in institutions was investigated in four cross-cultural datasets: three were students and teacher samples; the last...
Article
Full-text available
When studying discrimination, it is important to examine both perceived frequency and stress associated with these experiences, as well as the interplay between these two dimensions. Using data from Latino/a participants (N = 168), we found an interaction effect of the reported frequency and reported stressfulness of discrimination on psychological...
Chapter
Full-text available
The human ability for self-awareness and self-reflection is so unique that tapping it as a primary source of information about mind and social behavior has come at the expense of confronting the severe problems of the knower also being the known and of using introspection as the primary path to discovery. In this chapter, we argue that at least one...
Article
Full-text available
It is common to observe an asymmetry in judgements of intragroup variability: sometimes the outgroup is perceived as being more homogeneous than the ingroup, while the opposite is true at other times. A review of the literature on this theme is presented, including information on the techniques used to measure perceived variability within groups. T...
Chapter
Despite the outcome of the 2008 presidential election, the scientific literature reveals that race and racial attitudes continue to shape how political candidates are perceived and voting behavior. This chapter discusses the multiple ways in which racial attitudes and identity play aubiquitous role in American politics. Blatant expressions of resen...
Article
Full-text available
The perpetual foreigner stereotype posits that members of ethnic minorities will always be seen as the "other" in the White Anglo-Saxon dominant society of the United States (Devos & Banaji, 2005), which may have negative implications for them. The goal of the present research was to determine whether awareness of this perpetual foreigner stereotyp...
Article
Full-text available
Implicitly, Americans of several ethnicities associate being American with being White (American = White effect). Three studies investigated the basis for this effect and tested its malleability. We predicted that African Americans would be included into the category American when they were perceived positively, but would be excluded when they were...
Article
Full-text available
In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and L...
Article
Full-text available
About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-report...
Article
Full-text available
The present research strives to identify one possible mechanism accounting for the American = White effect. In three experiments, a sequential priming task was used to examine the influence of Asian or White faces on the categorization of American or foreign landmarks. Process dissociation analyses revealed a stronger automatic tendency to respond...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the associations that underlie the orientations of bilingual Latino college students toward family and school. Participants completed, in English or Spanish, 3 implicit association tests assessing their attitude toward family vs. school, identifications with these concepts, and self-esteem. Results revealed a more positive atti...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the extent to which parenthood and college education are incorporated into the self-concept of college students. A US sample of undergraduates (90 men, 87 women) attending a large and ethnically diverse university completed explicit and implicit measures of identification with “parenthood” and “college education,” association...
Article
In four studies, we investigated the role of person construal on the implicit ascription of a national identity. Participants completed Implicit Association Tests (Studies 1 and 3) or Go/No-go Association Tasks (Studies 2 and 4) assessing the extent to which the concept American was linked to an Asian American celebrity (Lucy Liu) and to a White Eu...
Article
Full-text available
http://implicit.harvard.edu/ was created to provide experience with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a procedure designed to measure social knowledge that may operate outside awareness or control. Significant by-products of the website's existence are large datasets contributed to by the site's many visitors. This article summarises data from m...
Article
Despite notable steps toward gender equality and significant changes in gender roles, women continue to face tension between academic aspirations and the more traditional role of caregiver. The goal of the present research was to examine how this conflict might be revealed through assessments of associations that cannot be consciously controlled. I...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that identification with academic achievement among Latino college students was related to the extent to which their ethnic group and significant others were linked to academic achievement. Participants completed a series of implicit association tests measuring the interrelations among academic achi...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies examined the explicit and implicit self-concepts of college women. Participants completed self-report measures and implicit association tests measuring identification with the concepts “college education” and “motherhood.” Explicitly, participants identified more with college education than with motherhood. Implicitly, however, partic...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary research on ethnic identity, acculturation, and cultural orientation suggests that, at least under some circumstances, individuals can successfully internalize or identify with more than one culture. Previous research on multicultural identity has relied almost exclusively on self-report measures. Using the Implicit Association Test (I...
Article
Intergroup Emotions Theory (IET) provides a framework for understanding emotional reactions to outgroup members deriving from social identity concerns. IET posits that whenever a social group becomes part of the self, appraisals of situations relevant to that social identity may trigger social emotions. Depending on their appraisal of the intergrou...
Article
Full-text available
Six studies investigated the extent to which American ethnic groups (African, Asian, and White) are associated with the category "American." Although strong explicit commitments to egalitarian principles were expressed in Study 1, Studies 2-6 consistently revealed that both African and Asian Americans as groups are less associated with the national...
Article
Recent advances in research on implicit social cognition offer an opportunity to challenge common assumptions about self and identity. In the present article, we critically review a burgeoning line of research on self-related processes known to occur outside conscious awareness or conscious control. Our discussion focuses on these implicit self-rel...