Thierry Bernard

Thierry Bernard
Université de Toulon | USTV · UFR de Sciences et Techniques des Activités Physiques et Sportives (STAPS)

PhD

About

61
Publications
39,400
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1,809
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
591 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Université de Toulon
Position
  • PhD

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
The study aimed to determine the effects of self-regulated and variable intensities sustained during short-term heat acclimation training on cycling performance. Seventeen competitive-level male athletes performed a 20-km cycling time trial before (TT-PRE), immediately after (TT-POST1) and one week after (TT-POST2) a 5-day acclimation training prog...
Article
Full-text available
Retraining and resuming competition following surgery is challenging for athletes due to the prolonged period of reduced physical activity and subsequent alteration in body composition and physical performance. This is even more challenging for master athletes who endure the additional effect of aging. Within this context, the purpose of this study...
Preprint
The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the benefits that evidence-based nutritional and training recommendations could have on the time course of reconditioning following hip arthroplasty in a competitive master triathlete. Methods: During 38 weeks (from 6 weeks prior to surgery through to the return to competition), the athlete was provide...
Article
Full-text available
Master athletes are often considered as exemplars of successful aging thanks to their capacity to maintain a high sports performance during their entire life. A high training capacity, regular participation in sporting competitions and delayed alterations in body composition and physiological capacities have been listed amongst the main factors con...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to determine the neurophysiological mechanisms associated with reduced endurance performance during cognitive-motor dual-task at different levels of cognitive load, compared to a motor task alone. Eighteen healthy men performed isometric quadriceps contractions at 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (blocks of 170s interspaced by neuromus...
Article
Full-text available
Master athletes are genuine examples of successful ageing thanks to their capacity of maintaining a high level of sports performance during their entire life. Within the last decade many studies have focused on the evolution of performance in many sports with ageing, as well as on the training modalities to reach such performance. On the contrary,...
Article
Introduction L’ajout d’une tâche cognitive à un exercice prolongé peut altérer la performance en endurance, tant chez le sportif sain que chez le malade chronique. Les mécanismes neurophysiologiques sous-jacents restent cependant méconnus. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer les ajustements s’opérant lorsqu’une tâche de mémorisation (n-back) es...
Article
Introduction et contexte Nous assistons actuellement à un vieillissement de la population aussi bien au niveau national, qu’européen et mondial. Au 1er janvier 2018, la population française comptait 67,1 millions d’habitants dont un quart (16,8 millions) est âgé de plus de 60 ans. Cette tranche de la population française ne cesse d’augmenter. Ce so...
Article
Background. Given the need to identify reliable non-invasive solutions for core temperature ambulatory monitoring, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of zero-heat-flux (ZHF) temperature sensor on the forehead (TCOzhf) by comparing it with intestinal temperature (TCOpill) in different ambient and physiological conditions. Meth...
Article
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Introduction Locomotive efficiency is cited as an important component to endurance performance; however, inconsistent observations of age-related changes in efficiency question its influence in the performance of masters athletes. Purpose This study examined locomotive efficiency in young and masters triathletes during both a run and cycle test. Me...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age on cycling efficiency and sprint power output in well-trained endurance masters athletes. Methods The investigation was conducted on 60 healthy well-trained triathletes separated into six separate groups (n = 10) depending on age: 20–29 years old; 30–39 years old; 40–49 years old;...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing compression socks (CS) on performance indicators and physiological responses during prolonged trail running. Eleven trained runners completed a 15.6 km trail run at a competition intensity whilst wearing or not wearing CS. Counter movement jump, maximal voluntary contrac...
Article
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Background: Compression garments are increasingly popular in long-distance running events where they are used to limit cumulative fatigue and symptoms associated with mild exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, the effective benefits remain unclear. Objective: This study examined the effect of wearing compression stockings (CS) on EIMD...
Article
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We investigated the changes in step temporal parameters and spring-mass behaviour during the running phase of a major international triathlon competition. 73 elite triathletes were followed during the 2011 World Championships Grand Final. The running speed, ground contact and flight times were assessed over a 30 m flat section at the beginning of t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands of Supercross BMX in elite athletes. Firstly athletes underwent an incremental cycling test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and power at ventilatory thresholds. In a second phase, athletes performed alone a simulated competition, consisting of 6 cycling races separated b...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to compare the maximal isometric torque and cardio-respiratory parameters in well-trained young and master triathletes prior to and following an Olympic distance triathlon. One day before and 24 h following the event, participants performed three maximum voluntary isometric knee extensions and flexions and an increm...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between athlete's pacing strategies and running performance during an international triathlon competition. Running split times for each of the 107 finishers of the 2009 European Triathlon Championships (42 females and 65 males) were determined with the use of a digital synchronized video...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of swimming with a wetsuit on energy expenditure during subsequent cycling. Nine well-trained triathletes underwent three submaximal trials. The first trial (SC) consisted of a 750-m swim realised at a competition pace, followed by a 10-min cycling exercise at a power output corresponding to the...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to investigate the variability of the energy cost of running (Cr) during a simulated duathlon performed in outdoor conditions by elite duathletes. This duathlon consisted of 5 km of running, 30 km of cycling, and 5 km of running. The main result was the lack of significant difference in Cr between the two running bo...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was two-fold: i) to analyse age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for Olympic and Ironman triathlons, and ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between the Olympic and Ironman triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top 10 males between 20...
Article
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This study describes the decline in performance with age during Olympic triathlon Age Groups World Championships among the different locomotion modes. Mean performance of top 10 performers were analyzed for each group of age using the exponential model proposed by Baker, Tang, and Turner (20031. Baker , A. B. , Tang , Y. Q. , & Turner , M. J. (...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to determine the best pacing strategy to adopt during the initial phase of a short distance triathlon run for highly trained triathletes. Ten highly trained male triathletes completed an incremental running test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, a 10-km control run at free pace and three individual time-trial tria...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the power output (PO) during the cycle phase of the Beijing World Cup test event of the Olympic triathlon in China 2008. Ten elite triathletes (5 females, 5 males) performed two laboratory tests: an incremental cycling test during which PO, HR at ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2), and maximal aerobic power (...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and the repeatability of a new running computer system (RS800sd, Polar, Kempele, Finland) which included the measurement of running speed (RS) and stride rate (SR). Eight well-trained triathletes participated in this study. First, they completed an incremental continuous maximum test on a tread...
Article
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The aim of this study was to compare the pacing strategies adopted by women and men during a World Cup ITU triathlon. Twelve elite triathletes (6 females, 6 males) competed in a World Cup Olympic distance competition where speed and heart rate (HR) were measured in the three events. The power output (PO) was recorded in cycling to determine the tim...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether or not variable power cycling produced greater neuromuscular fatigue of knee extensor muscles than constant power cycling at the same mean power output. Eight male triathletes (age: 33+/-5 years, mass: 74+/-4 kg, VO2max: 62+/-5 mL kg(-1) min(-1), maximal aerobic power: 392+/-17 W) performed two 30 min...
Article
Full-text available
AimPerformances in Olympic triathlon Age Groups World Championships were analysed to evaluate the decline in maximal performance with increasing age in male and female triathletes.Method Mean performance of top ten performers were analysed for each group of age during the last Age Groups World Championships events using the exponential model propos...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic responses to variable versus constant-intensity (CI) during 20-km cycling on subsequent 5-km running performance. Ten triathletes, not only completed one incremental cycling test to determine maximal oxygen uptake and maximal aerobic power (MAP), but also three various cycle-run (C-R) combinati...
Article
Full-text available
To determine whether the integrated electromyographic signal of two lower limb muscles indicates preferred cadence during a two hour cycling task. Eight male triathletes performed right isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extension and plantar flexion before (P1) and after (P2) a two hour laboratory cycle at 65% of maximal aerobic po...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drafting, i.e., swimming directly behind a competitor, on biomechanical adaptation during subsequent cycling. Eight well-trained male triathletes underwent three submaximal sessions in a counterbalanced order. These sessions comprised a 10-min ride on a bicycle ergometer at 75% of maximal aero...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 1,500-m swim on energy expenditure during a subsequent cycle task. Eight well-trained male triathletes (age 26.0 +/- 5.0 yrs; height 179.6 +/- 4.5 cm; mass 71.3 +/- 5.8 kg; VO(2)max 71.9 +/- 7.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) underwent two testing sessions in counterbalanced order. The sessions consis...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effects of fluid ingestion on neuromuscular function during prolonged cycling exercise. Eight well trained subjects exercised for 180 minutes in a moderate environment at a workload requiring approximately 60% maximal oxygen uptake. Two conditions, fluid (F) and no fluid (NF) ingestion, were investigated. During maximal voluntary...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to investigate the variability of the energy cost of running (Cr) during a simulated duathlon performed in outdoor conditions by elite duathletes. This duathlon consisted of 5 km of running, 30 km of cycling, and 5 km of running. The main result was the lack of significant difference in Cr between the two running bo...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of drafting (i.e., swimming directly behind a competitor) while swimming with a wet suit on physiological parameters and cadence during subsequent cycling. Eight well-trained male triathletes underwent two submaximal sessions conducted in a counterbalanced order. One of these sessions (SAC...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the variability of the energy cost of running (Cr) during a simulated duathlon performed in outdoor conditions by elite duathletes. This duathlon consisted of 5 km of running, 30 km of cycling, and 5 km of running. The main result was the lack of significant difference in Cr between the two running bo...
Article
Purpose. – Investigate the influence of previous swimming on energy expenditure during the subsequent cycling exercise of a triathlon.Methods. – Ten well trained triathletes underwent 3 swim-to-cycle transitions and 1 isolated cycling trial (C trial). The cycling exercises consisted in 15 min on a bicycle ergometer at a power output corresponding t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of swimming with a wetsuit on energy expenditure during subsequent cycling. Nine well-trained triathletes underwent three submaximal trials. The first trial (SC) consisted of a 750-m swim realised at a competition pace, followed by a 10-min cycling exercise at a power output corresponding to the...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of swimming with a wetsuit on energy expenditure during subsequent cycling. Nine well-trained triathletes underwent three submaximal trials. The first trial (SC) consisted of a 750-m swim realised at a competition pace,followed by a 10-min cycling exercise at a power output corresponding to the v...
Article
Full-text available
After the swim to cycle transition of a triathlon, perceived exertion (RPE) during cycling was higher than during a single cycling bout for 8 well-trained triathletes, but swimming in a drafting position led to lower RPE responses and energy cost of cycling than swimming alone.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effect of three cycling cadences on a subsequent 3000 m track running performance in well trained triathletes. Nine triathletes completed a maximal cycling test, three cycle-run succession sessions (20 minutes of cycling + a 3000 m run) in random order, and one isolated run (3000 m). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To investigate the effect of three cycling cadences on a subsequent 3000 m track running performance in well trained triathletes. Methods: Nine triathletes completed a maximal cycling test, three cycle-run succession sessions (20 minutes of cycling + a 3000 m run) in random order, and one isolated run (3000 m). During the cycling bout o...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze habitual physical activity (HPA) of boys and girls from primary school to high school. One hundred eighty-two schoolchildren and teenagers (6-20 yr) were studied at primary school (PS, N= 64), junior high school (JHS, N= 67), and senior high school (SHS, N= 51). HR was continuously monitored during the whole...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different cycling cadences on metabolic and kinematic parameters during subsequent running. Eight triathletes performed two incremental tests (running and cycling) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT) values, a cycling test to assess the energeticall...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to analyze the effect of the menstrual cycle phase on maximal anaerobic performance during short-term anaerobic tests. Seven eumenorrheic women (NOC) and 10 women using monophasic oral contraceptives (OC) performed three anaerobic tests (force-velocity, multi-jump, and squatting jump tests) during menstruation (M: between da...
Article
Full-text available
Diurnal variations in ventilatory and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal treadmill exercise were analysed in 11 eumenorrhoeic women and in 10 women using monophasic oral contraceptives. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise at three intensities averaging 7, 8, and 9 km · h−1, each for 4 min at 0800, 1300 and 1700 hours, assigned r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many exercising women are prescribed oral contraceptive pills for contraception, cycle regulation, control of perimenstrual symptoms, and skeletal protection in case of amenorrhoea. Most studies to date have dealt with the long-term effect of , oral contraceptive use on endocrine, metabolic and respiratory functions, and on cardiovascular dynamics...
Article
Full-text available
Heart rate (HR) was monitored in 66 French pubertal boys (B, n = 28) and girls (G, n = 38) aged 11-16 years to evaluate habitual physical activity (HPA) over a 1-week period in the winter. The HR and the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) were taken to be indexes of the metabolic activity for the whole day and for the different parts of the da...
Article
Full-text available
Time of day variations in maximal anaerobic leg exercise were studied in 23 men mean age 23 (SD 3) years. All the subjects performed two anaerobic tests (force-velocity and multi-jump tests) and those familiar with sprinting ran an additional 50-m dash (n = 16). The maximal anaerobic powers for cycling and jumping (Pcycling and Pjump) and maximal a...
Article
Full-text available
Relationships between percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (%VO2max) and percentage of maximal heart rate reserve (%f(cr)) were compared during steady states of exercise (S), transitory states of exercise (T) and a 5-min recovery period (R). Male adults [mean age 27 (SD 10) years] were studied exercising on a treadmill (TR, n = 26), cycle ergom...
Article
Full-text available
La validité de la prédiction de la consommation d'oxygène (V̇O2) à partir de la fréquence cardiaque (FC) est analysée dans les situations suivantes : états stables (s) et transitoires (t) d'exercice et récupération (réc). L'intérêt d'une relation commune à tous sujets (Rcom) est étudié sur une population hétérogène ( 11–47 ans, n = 20). Les modes d...
Article
Full-text available
Habitual physical activity (HPA) was studied in 30 boys and 34 girls aged 6-11 years. All the children performed a shuttle run test (SRT) to assess maximal heart frequency (fcmaxSRT) and to evaluate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2maxSRT). Heart rate (fc) was measured continuously from Monday to Sunday, using a heart rate counter. The time spent at fc gr...

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