Theodore Hanein

Theodore Hanein
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Department of Materials Science and Engineering

PhD, MSc, BSc, BSc
UKRI Future Leaders Fellow - Green, Circular, and Smart Cement Manufacture

About

54
Publications
25,700
Reads
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458
Citations
Introduction
I am a chemist/chemical process engineer who applies a wide range of experimental and computational techniques to solve engineering problems.
Additional affiliations
May 2016 - present
The University of Sheffield
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2012 - March 2016
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Researcher
October 2012 - May 2016
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
October 2012 - May 2016
University of Aberdeen
Field of study
  • Cement Technology
September 2011 - December 2012
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Refinery Design and Operation (Advance Process Design)
September 2005 - July 2011
University of Balamand
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
A method to synthesize high-purity ternesite is presented and the importance of reaction volume is highlighted; a brief description of the product morphology is also presented. Thermodynamic data for ternesite are derived and the limits of ternesite stability are then explored. An upper temperature stability limit of ≈1290°C at 1 atm is determined;...
Article
Novel cement formulations based on calcium sulfoaluminate clinkers have significantly lower carbon dioxide emissions during production when compared against conventional Portland cement; however, there are no systematic studies of the environmental impact associated in producing these formulations. Previous studies are limited to qualitative eviden...
Article
Full-text available
The proportions of cement clinker phases produced by the pyro-processing of a raw-material mix are often predicted through the Bogue equations, established in the 1930s; however, the Bogue approach is limited in its applicability. This presents a challenge as the cement industry is seeking innovative and more environmentally friendly cement clinker...
Article
Full-text available
The calcination of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a major contributor to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that are changing our climate. Moreover, the calcination process requires high temperatures (~900°C). A novel low-temperature process for the decarbonisation of CaCO3 is tested whereby the CO2 is directly sequestered/mineralised in sodium carbonate...
Article
Full-text available
The use of calcined clays as supplementary cementitious materials provides the opportunity to significantly reduce the cement industry’s carbon burden; however, use at a global scale requires a deep understanding of the extraction and processing of the clays to be used, which will uncover routes to optimise their reactivity. This will enable increa...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal treatment of limestone (mainly CaCO3) to produce lime (CaO) is a major contributor to CO2 emissions and the literature on decarbonising the lime industry is scarce. Subsequent hydration of lime would lead to the synthesis of slaked/hydrated lime Ca(OH)2; the production of a tonne of Ca(OH)2 emits ∼1.2 tonnes of CO2 arising mainly from t...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical precipitation is one of the most widely known methods for treatment of industrial wastewaters with high sulphate content, where sulphate can be precipitated as practically insoluble ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O). This treatment method is also widely recognised for solidifying hazardous components and toxic elements e.g. arsenic in...
Article
Full-text available
Decarbonizing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a crucial step for a wide range of major industrial processes and materials, including Portland cement (PC) production. Apart from the carbon footprint linked to fuel combustion, the process CO2 embodied within CaCO3 represents the main concern for the sustainability of production. Our recent works demonst...
Article
Full-text available
The bulk of the cement industry's environmental burden is from the calcareous source. Calcium is mostly available naturally as limestone (CaCO3), where almost half of the mass is eventually released as CO2 during clinker manufacture. Iron (Fe) is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust surpassed only by oxygen, silicon, and aluminium; t...
Article
Full-text available
The decarbonisation of CaCO3 is essential for the production of lime (Ca(OH)2 and CaO), which is a commodity required in several large industries and the main precursor for cement production. CaCO3 is usually decarbonised at high temperatures, generating gaseous CO2 which will require post-process capture to minimise its release into the environmen...
Article
The use of clays as resource of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) for a new generation of low-carbon cements and concretes is currently the subject of intense research efforts. To this purpose, a large number of clay resources have been explored, characterized and evaluated. This paper introduces the basic knowledge and concepts on clay o...
Article
To respond to the rapid introduction and development of calcined clays as supplementary cementitious material (SCM), the toolbox of characterization methods for cementitious materials requires extension to raw clay characterization. Borrowing concepts and methods developed in the field of clay mineralogy, this paper outlines the merits and limits o...
Conference Paper
Large quantities of concrete wastes are generated worldwide, and majority of them are currently land-filled. Nuclear industry is no exception - for instance in the UK, the decommissioning of Magnox reac-tors on 11 sites have already produced more than 1.3 million tonnes of concrete wastes. Storage of these wastes is challenging, not only because so...
Preprint
The CO 2 released upon calcination of limestone (process CO 2 and combustion CO 2 ) accounts for the largest portion of the emissions from the cement manufacturing industry. Our previous works highlighted the possibility for a no-combustion decarbonisation of CaCO 3 through reaction with NaOH solutions to produce Ca(OH) 2 at ambient conditions, whi...
Article
Full-text available
The acceleration impacts of calcium sulfoaluminate belite ferrite (CSABF)—a cement produced from industrial side streams—on the hydration and strength development of Portland cement (PC) paste cured at −5 °C with and without pre-curing at room temperature were investigated. The impacts of eco-friendly CSABF cement content and pre-curing on the sett...
Article
Full-text available
The production of ferrite-rich calcium sulfoaluminate belite (CSABF) cement clinker, also containing MgO, from ladle slag, Fe-slag, and phosphogypsum was translated from a lab-scale to a pilot demonstration in a 7-metre kiln at 1260C. An account of the pilot trials/manufacturing is presented, and the process was robust. Laboratory tests prior to sc...
Chapter
Cementation of radioactive waste arising from nuclear facility operation and decommissioning is a common approach for its encapsulation, solidification, and disposal. Cementation offers significant advantages over other waste conditioning routes, such as thermal conversion of the waste to form ceramics or glasses including simplicity, relatively hi...
Article
Full-text available
Alite–ye’elimite–ferrite (AYF) cement is a more sustainable alternative to Portland cement (PC) that may offer improved mechanical, rheological, and chemical performance. Using traditional raw materials and conventional clinker processing conditions, alite (C3S) and ye’elimite (C4A3$), the major phases in PC and calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements...
Article
The cement industry is carbon-intensive, and the valorisation of industrial side-streams/residuals for use as alternative raw materials can enable the cement industry to reduce its carbon footprint as well as promote resource efficiency. Apart from key clinker ingredients such as CaO, Al2O3, and SiO2, industrial residues can also contain MgO, CaCl2...
Conference Paper
Practical routes to immediately valorize the millions of tons of demolition waste/rubble in Syria are established in the title study. Construction and demolition waste are used as a replacement for virgin aggregate in concrete. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete with 0%, 50%, and 100% replacement were investigated. Tests conducted include: d...
Article
The valorisation of cement kiln bypass dust (CBPD) is explored for sustainable production of cementitious clinker phases. CBPD can replace the calcareous component in cement manufacture and allow for a reduction in CO2 emissions as the calcium component in CBPD is mostly decarbonised. CBPD was heated with/out the addition of alumina or silica at te...
Conference Paper
The cement industry is partially responsible for the rise of atmospheric CO2 levels and associated global warming. The emissions coming from the calcination of limestone represent the main portion of CO2 from the manufacturing process of Portland Cement (PC). Calcium sulfoaluminate (C$A) and alinite cements have lower CO2 emissions than PC as the f...
Article
Full-text available
It is not straightforward to experimentally measure the standard molar entropy of cement hydrates or clinker minerals. This is further compounded by the controversies surrounding the entropy values reported in established thermodynamic datasets for cements. The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability of standard entropies compiled in tho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alkali-activated calcined clay is a type of Alkali-activated materials which are generally activated with caustic chemicals such as NaOH, KOH, or alkali-silicate solutions. These chemicals are expensive and chemically aggressive; but, moderately alkaline Ca(OH)2/Na2CO3 solutions may offer an alternative to overcome the cost and aggressive nature of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alinite cement was firstly patented in the USSR in 1970s and their performance is comparable to that of Portland cement. Interest in alinite cement for general use has since waned due to the inclusion of chloride which is known to exacerbate corrosion in reinforced concrete; however, alinite cement may have roles as application-specific cements. Al...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Practical application of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cements is hindered due to their relatively slow setting time and low early strength development. Our previous study showed that the formation of the M-S-H binders can be accelerated by the addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). To further understand the effect of carbonate additives on...
Poster
Full-text available
Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement is an alternative to Portland cement (PC) that can have a lower carbon footprint. M-S-H cements can also have specialist applications such as the stabilization of heavy metals. The development of M-S-H gel is relatively slow, but our recent work has allowed for its accelerated development through the additi...
Article
Full-text available
Blast furnace slag from the steel industry is commercially utilized as a cement replacement material without major processing requirements; however, there are many unutilized steel production slags which differ considerably from the blast furnace slag in chemical and physical properties. In this study, calcium sulfoaluminate belite (CSAB) cement cl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The varied properties of different cements enable the cement industry to shift towards the manufacture of application-specific cements rather than a general-purpose binder. M-S-H cements could offer a good alternative for specialist application, and could potentially have a lower carbon footprint as they require much lower temperatures for their pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Processing of contaminated water in Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant results in various aqueous secondary wastes. A significant strontium (90 Sr) contamination represents one of the key challenges for their management, and we have been developing a new cementing matrix based on calcium aluminate phosphate (CAP) system with reduced water content for su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Calcium sulfoaluminate belite (CSAB) cement clinkers were produced using two industrial by-products: ladle slag and phosphogypsum. The phase composition of the produced clinkers was identified using quantitative XRD analyses, and the chemical composition of the clinker phases produced from phosphogypsum was established using FESEM-EDS. We demonstra...
Article
Full-text available
Calcium sulfoaluminate (C$A) cement is a binder of increasing interest to the cement industry and is undergoing rapid development. Current formulations do not contain alite; however, alite calcium sulfoaluminate (a-C$A) cements can combine the favourable characteristics of Portland cement (PC) with those of C$A cement while also having a lower carb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cement is the most manufactured product on earth. Unfortunately, the manufacture of cement is accompanied by the emission of carbon dioxide gas. Among all manufacturing industry sectors in the UK, the cement industry is the largest CO 2 emitter and these emissions are damaging our planet. The sustainable development of cement will allow future gene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Producing compounds related to cement in a molten salt flux system offers a reduction in CO2 emissions from the cement industry by allowing target compounds to be produced at lower temperatures than those in their respective conventional manufacturing processes. A thermodynamic study presented here provides the theoretical minimum formation tempera...
Article
Full-text available
Calcium sulfoaluminate clinkers containing ye’elimite (Ca4Al6O12(SO4)) and ternesite (Ca5(SiO4)2SO4) are being widely investigated as components of calcium sulfoaluminate cement clinkers. These may become low energy replacements for Portland cement. Conditional thermodynamic data for ye’elimite and ternesite (enthalpy of formation) have been determ...
Article
Pilot scale trials were successfully performed on the production of novel calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement clinker in a direct natural gas heated rotary kiln at the IBU-tec facility in Germany. A raw meal throughput of ∼25 kg/h was fed to the rotary kiln heated by co-combustion of natural gas and elemental sulfur, with the latter serving as both...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper follows on from previously published work where elemental sulfur was used as both a fuel and a source of clinker SO3 to produce calcium sulfoaluminate clinkers. In this work, the process is optimised to produce clinker containing minimal amounts of intrinsic anhydrite and gehlenite. Two pilot kiln trials, designed via thermodynamic model...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The thermal energy required for cement manufacture is primarily utilised within the rotary kiln where clinkerization occurs. To optimise this key stage in cement production, accurate kiln process models are required. In this work, a simple yet powerful one-dimensional kiln model is presented. The thermal aspects of the presented kiln model have pre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The reduction of process temperature is of interest for cement production as it would reduce not only the energy required but also the corresponding CO2 emissions. Our thermodynamic assessment indicates that cement phases can be produced, in theory, at much lower temperatures, suggesting that the current energy intensive high temperature process is...
Article
Full-text available
A new method for producing calcium sulfoaluminate (CS-A) clinkers is described. Sulfur is introduced from the gas phase as sulfur dioxide and oxygen and reacts with solids during clinkerisation. In this paper, the laboratory experiments are described and thermodynamic calculations are presented. The sulfur-containing phases ye'elimite and ternesite...
Article
Full-text available
Rotary kilns are used extensively in the cement industry to convert raw meal into cement clinker. In order to optimise the operation of cement kilns, computationally efficient thermal models are required. In this work, the development of a one-dimensional thermal model for kilns is explored. To simplify the model, the kiln is assumed to be well mix...
Article
The compatibility of phases within the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–SO3–Fe2O3 system is revisited. The influence of the SO2 partial pressure on the formation of phases and the stability of phase assemblages is addressed by means of new experimental methods (performed under controlled atmospheres) and thermodynamic calculations. Existing data from the literature...
Article
Full-text available
The compatibility of phases within the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-SO3-Fe2O3 system is revisited. The influence of the SO2 partial pressure on the formation of phases and the stability of phase assemblages is addressed by means of new experimental methods (performed under controlled atmospheres) and thermodynamic calculations. Existing data from the literature...
Thesis
Full-text available
The development of novel clinker production processes is typically a slow and incremental process. This work demonstrates that the pace of change can be greatly accelerated using computational tools. The single-stage production of C$A and C$A-Ternesite cements via a novel elemental-sulfur combustion process is examined here. This work collects a th...
Article
Full-text available
A pilot-scale trial was undertaken in a 74 m kiln to demonstrate the production of belite calcium sulfoaluminate cement clinker using sulfur as a raw feed. The sulfur was introduced in its elemental form as fuel to the burner, thus partially offsetting fuel costs while providing sulfur trioxide which is incorporated in the clinker. The study demons...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The useful properties of cement arise from the assemblage of solid phases present within the cement clinker. The phase proportions produced from a given feedstock are often predicted using well-established stoichiometric relations, such as the Bogue equations. These approaches are based on a single estimation of the stable phases produced under sta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New thermodynamic data for ye’elimite is derived from published vapour pressure measurements and presented in a standard polynomial form for compatibility with existing thermodynamic databases and software. The derived formulas are then used to calculate the stability of ye’elimite under conventional cement kiln operating conditions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A 1D heat transfer model is described which accurately predicts gas, solid, wall, and outer-shell temperatures simultaneously along the length of a rotary kiln. The novelty of the model presented is its use of a full mass and energy balance for all the species of gas and solid in the kiln, taking into account their temperature-dependent thermodynam...
Article
Full-text available
Cobalt supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 (0.75, 1.5 and 3 wt% Co) were used as catalysts for the oxidation of carbon black. Catalysts were characterized by N2 sorption, XRD, TEM and TPR. The catalytic activity in CB oxidation was measured. It has been shown that only small cobalt domains (less than 5 nm) are present on all samples. A homogeneou...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
I want to make both parts of a polyaspartic coating/polish from readily available (industry or lab) chemicals. Recipes or compositions with quantities (or ranges) will be very useful. We do not want to purchase from market as we would like to know exactly what the composition is and alter compositions if necessary.
Question
The sample is 5mm thick, very slightly concave, and has 2 distinct layers (by eye). One darker layer (2mm) which is assumed to have been in contact with water, and another lighter layer (3mm) that is assumed to have been in contact with the steel pipe? See attached photo

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
FeRICH will develop and validate data-for-manufacturing of ferrite rich Portland cement. From reactions at high temperature in kilns to reaction with water at ambient temperatures, we will establish the best cement making conditions and materials compositions to achieve maximum process, energy and resource efficiency in kilns and cement performance upon reaction with water. For the first time, we will also examine the electromagnetic properties of ferrites related to cement, laying down the foundation for building intelligent systems in the future infrastructure.
Project
Establish the underpinning scientific and technical knowledge to enable the UK cement industry and UK producers of alumina-containing waste to create new supply chains for the manufacture of high-performance, low-carbon, Calcium Sulfoaluminate based cements. This project will also develop a user-friendly pyro-processing simulator that will allow for rapid raw material mix and process design, optimisation, and troubleshooting.
Archived project
Reduce the sugar content in soft drinks.