Theo de Waal

Theo de Waal
University College Dublin | UCD · School of Veterinary Medicine

BVSc, PhD, DipDatMet, HDip TUL, DipEVPC

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144
Publications
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Publications

Publications (144)
Article
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To date, there are no recent studies identifying the prevalence of parasites of human and veterinary importance in dogs and cats in Ireland. The interaction between pets and wildlife species in the environment is an important source of parasite exposure to canids and felines, and one likely to be heightened in the stray animal population. This stud...
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Resistance to benzimidazoles (BZs) in trichostrongyloid nematodes is a worldwide problem for livestock production, particularly regarding small ruminants. Sensitive and reliable methods are required to assess anthelmintic resistance status. Currently available methods for BZ resistance detection can be divided into three main groups, in vivo (e.g....
Article
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The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon-neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large-scale treatme...
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FOCUSING on the recent cases of canine babesiosis in Essex, your Comment ‘Ticking the wrong boxes’ ( VR , March 26, 2016, vol 178, p 302) reviews long-standing concerns about the potential introduction and establishment of exotic tickborne diseases in the UK, concluding with the need for diligent surveillance and education. Babesia canis infections...
Article
Angiostrongylosis is potentially fatal parasitic nematode infection affecting dogs which can be difficult to diagnose. In recent years several microscopical, serological and molecular detection methods have been developed, however there are few studies that have compared the relative performance of these methods. Screening necropsy material from an...
Article
Ivermectin resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta were isolated from two Irish sheep farms. Parasite naïve lambs were artificially challenged with the isolates in order to test their sensitivity to benzimidazole (BZ), levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) by means of a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Both isolates were found to be resistant t...
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The reported incidence of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum , that infects dogs and other canids, is increasing worldwide outside recognized endemic foci. This apparent expansion of the parasite's range is causing concern to veterinary clinicians as the disease caused in dogs can be life threatening and its treatment is not straig...
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Calf output is a key element in determining the profitability of a suckler beef enterprise. Infectious agents such as Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) virus, colostrum management and parasitic challenge can all affect calf output. Prior to the national BVD eradication programme, there was little published information on either the prevalence or effect...
Article
A group of potential emerging contaminants in two Irish drinking water supplies were investigated. The aim was to investigate the presence of emerging contaminants which are not currently routinely monitored or regulated as part of the European Communities Drinking Water Regulations SI 278 of 2007 but are known or anticipated to occur in drinking w...
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A major constraint for the effective control and management of helminth parasites is the lack of rapid, high-throughput, routine diagnostic tests to assess the health status of individual animals and herds and to identify the parasite species responsible for these helminthoses. The capability of a multiplex platform for the simultaneous detection o...
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With concerns over the development of anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematode populations, we must re-examine our approach to nematode control in cattle. Targeted selective treatments (TST), whereby individual animals are treated instead of entire groups, are being investigated as an alternative. The study objective was to determine if anthelmin...
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A harmonized sampling approach in combination with spatial modelling is required to update current knowledge of fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe. Within the scope of the EU project GLOWORM, samples from 3,359 randomly selected farms in 849 municipalities in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and Sweden were collected and their infection status...
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Fasciolosis is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can cause marked economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Ireland using an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) samples collected during the autumn o...
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Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in Septe...
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Haemonchus contortus is a species of gastrointestinal strongyles of primary concern for sheep. This highly pathogenic, blood-feeding helminth negatively influences animal health, welfare and productivity. In order to elucidate the current scenario in terms of prevalence and intensity of H. contortus infection in sheep farms across Europe, a standar...
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Fasciola hepatica infection challenges health, welfare and productivity of small ruminants throughout the world. The distribution of F. hepatica in sheep in Europe is usually scattered and studies are generally concerned with a single area making it difficult to compare results from different environments, climates and management regimes. In order...
Article
Fasciola hepatica and Calicophoron daubneyi, liver and rumen flukes respectively, infect ruminants throughout Europe. There is considerable interest in the development of vaccines and in testing new potential anthelmintic agents against these species. One potential target of new control measures is the parasite egg, as interference at this stage of...
Article
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples fro...
Article
Este documento es una Editorial. This Special Issue of “Vectors and Vector-Borne Infections” includes primarily the papers presented at the Joint EVPC – ISEP Meeting held in April 2013 in Munich/Germany and some papers presented at the 2011, 2012 and 2014 EVPC – Annual Meetings held in Zagreb/Croatia, Leon/Spain and Dublin/Ireland, respectively.
Article
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland w...
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Accurate identification of sheep nematodes is a critical point in epidemiological studies and monitoring of drug resistance in flocks. However, due to a close morphological similarity between the eggs and larval stages of many of these nematodes, such identification is not a trivial task. There are a number of studies showing that molecular targets...
Article
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can result in marked economic losses on Irish dairy farms. This study investigated the exposure to F. hepatica in 237 dairy cow herds, using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) samples collected in the autumn of 2012. A to...
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Background In 2013 a Technology Adoption Program for sheep farmers was established to encourage the implementation of best management practices on sheep farms in Ireland. There were 4,500 participants in this programme in 2013. As part of this programme, farmers had the option to carry out a drench test to establish the efficacy of their anthelmint...
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Beef and milk production systems in Ireland are largely dependent on a grass-based diet with cattle spending long periods of the year at pasture (Drennan and McGee 2009). As a result, cattle are frequently exposed to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) challenge. Within grass-based production systems, anthelmintics are essential to optimising performan...
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Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes) represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and ge...
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The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasite...
Data
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In order to define whether the variable antigenic type RoTat 1.2 is restricted to Trypansoma evansi and could be used as antigen in serological tests to differentiate T. evansi from Trypansoma equiperdum, the appearance of RoTat 1.2-specific antibodies in rabbits, experimentally infected with T. evansi and T. equiperdum, respectively, was analyzed....
Data
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In order to define whether the variable antigenic type RoTat 1.2 is restricted to Trypansoma evansi and could be used as antigen in serological tests to differentiate T. evansi from Trypansoma equiperdum, the appearance of RoTat 1.2-specific antibodies in rabbits, experimentally infected with T. evansi and T. equiperdum, respectively, was analyzed....
Article
A study was conducted in three abattoirs, two in the United Kingdom and one in Ireland in the autumn of 2010 in order to determine the numbers of F hepatica in condemned bovine livers, and to classify the parasite stages present based on their length. The grazing and anthelmintic treatment history of the cattle sampled was unknown. In total, 126 co...
Article
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Anthelmintic resistance has been reported in most sheep producing countries. Prior to the mid 1990s, reports of anthelmintic resistance in Ireland were sparse and focused on benzimidazole, one of the three classes of anthelmintic available during this period. This evidence for efficacy issues on Irish farms combined with awareness that anthelmintic...
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SUMMARY Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vis...
Article
Toxoplasma gondii is among the most studied parasites worldwide but there is not much information about it published in Ireland. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens and the molecular detection of T. gondii DNA in muscle tissue. Serum samples were collected from these speci...
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Microscopy still remains the gold standard procedure for the diagnosis of many protozoan infections in animals, but the specific identification requires skilled and experienced personnel. Immunoassays, detecting antibodies or specific protozoan antigens, have been developed but often lack sensitivity and specificity due to close relationship betwee...
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ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a widely recognised problem in sheep production, particularly for lambs. While anthelmintics have a pivotal role in controlling the effects of parasites, there is a paucity of data on how farmers use anthelmintics. A representative sample of Irish lowland farmers were surveyed regarding their parasite contro...
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The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage o...
Article
Within Europe, Ireland has one of the highest reported infection rates with the diarrhoeal protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium. In this study 249 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates collected from Irish patients between 2000 and 2009 were subtyped by sequence analysis of the GP60 locus. A subsample of 127 isolates was also typed at the MS1 and ML1 loci....
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ABSTRACT: Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia...
Article
To investigate the effects of hydrated lime on the survival of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the percentage viability of oocysts was assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. In the absence of lime and with lime at a concentration of 1 per cent, there was a gradual decline in oocyst viability during the 10-day trial. Although the addition of 5 o...
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Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed t...
Article
With worldwide development of anthelmintic resistance, alternative approaches to the chemotherapeutic dominant approach for the control of parasitic nematodes in sheep are urgently required. As natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous fungi offer the exciting possibility of an alternative to the dominant anthelmintic approach for parasite contro...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four different anthelmintics against F. hepatica in a naturally infected hill sheep flock in the west of Ireland. In a randomised trial, 138 ewes were divided into four groups. On day 0 each group was dosed with one of four anthelmintics: triclabendazole, closantel, oxyclozanide or nitroxynil. F...
Article
Worldwide molluscs of the genera Lymnaea, Pseudosuccinea, Galba and Stagnicola act as intermediate hosts of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Galba truncatula is the only recorded intermediate host of F. hepatica within Ireland and is the principle intermediate host within Europe. To investigate the transmission of liver fluke on the Teaga...
Article
Full-text available
Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed t...
Article
The nematophagous fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans is a potential biocontrol agent against nematode parasites of ruminants. Improved methods for the rapid and accurate detection of D. flagrans would aid the evaluation of this fungus as a biocontrol agent and its suitability for environmental release. To date, detection and identification of D. flagran...
Article
Natural Cryptosporidium infections in pigs are widespread but generally apathogenic. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. in piggeries in Ireland, where the drinking water supply is particularly vulnerable to contamination with zoonotic species. Overall, infections were detected in 39 out of 342 ani...
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Cryptosporidiosis, a protozoal disease which causes significant morbidity in humans, is one of the chief causes of diarrhoea in neonatal ruminants. although the parasite poses a significant threat to public health and animal health in Ireland, its epidemiology on the island is only poorly understood. Environmental studies have shown the waterborne...
Article
Full-text available
Cryptosporidiosis, a protozoal disease which causes significant morbidity in humans, is one of the chief causes of diarrhoea in neonatal ruminants. Although the parasite poses a significant threat to public health and animal health in Ireland, its epidemiology on the island is only poorly understood. Environmental studies have shown the waterborne...
Article
Bovine babesiosis is an important tick-borne disease caused by Babesia bovis, B. bigemina and B. divergens. The first steps taken in the development of an effective vaccination strategy against bovine babesiosis followed the observations that animals, recovered from natural infection with Babesia were strongly protected against subsequent challenge...