Terry Ball

Terry Ball
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus | BYU · Department of Ancient Scripture

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36
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Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Opal phytoliths (microscopic silica bodies produced in and between the cells of many plants) are a very resilient, often preserved type of plant microfossil. With the exponentially growing number of phytolith studies, standardization of phytolith morphotype names and description is essential. As a first effort in standardization, the I...
Article
Full-text available
Reference collections of phytoliths from plant taxa commonly used by the ancient inhabitants of an archaeological site are critical to researchers conducting analyses on these microbotanical remains. Phytoliths recovered from the site are compared to those in reference collections to make inferences about which taxa were being used, as well as wher...
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric analysis offers an alternative or augmentation to traditional archaeobotanical methods to address differences within and between plant species and their remains, refining and enhancing taxonomic resolution. Morphometrics, the measurement of size and shape, and the multivariate statistical analysis of generated quantitative variables, h...
Article
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Tongeren is the only Roman administrative capital within the borders of present‐day Belgium. It developed in the first century A.D. and became an important civitas. Many excavations in the center of town have uncovered complex stratigraphic sequences, including dark earths, dating to Roman as well as early medieval times. Their interpretation, base...
Article
At Gien (France), indoor floors from early Middle Ages occupation (8th–10th c. AD) are very well preserved, providing a new reference for archaeological investigation in northern France. This site is located on an outcrop, 20 m above the Loire valley, where a 15th c. castle stands now. The medieval occupation combines high-status houses with crafti...
Article
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The present article discusses the integration of urban geoarchaeological and archaeobotanical data of a series of Dark Earth deposits situated in the alluvial valley of the Senne River in Brussels, Belgium. Due to their homogeneous character, their interpretation is a huge challenge for archaeologists. Through a case-by-case approach, a detailed pi...
Article
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The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tuber...
Article
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Morphometric analysis (measurements of size and shape) has become a significant research tool in phytolith studies. The International Phytolith Society (IPS) appointed the International Committee for Phytolith Morphometrics (ICPM) to establish methodological standards for the discipline. This paper presents current recommendations of the ICPM. It d...
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric analysis has proven to be an effective tool for distinguishing among phytolith assemblages produced by closely related plant taxa. Elongate dendritic epidermal phytoliths are produced in the inflorescence bracts of many cereal species. Under light microscopy, these articulated dendritic phytoliths produce wave patterns between the marg...
Article
Multiplicity, when different phytolith morphotypes are produced within a taxon, and redundancy, when the same phytolith morphotypes are produced by different taxa, are persistent challenges in phytolith analysis. This article discusses and demonstrates how micromorphological and phytolith analyses of soil thin sections can be integrated to address...
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Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles o...
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Variation between phytoliths produced in the laminae, inflorescence bracts, and culms of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) were examined. Variation in the type of phytoliths produced and in the morphometries of the various types produced was evaluated. Morphometric data were obtained using computer-assisted image analysis. Types of phytoliths produc...
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research Banana phytoliths are considered a suitable tool in archaeology to track the history of the human populations involved in banana cultivation and dispersal throughout the tropical world. This study is confined to an initial investigation of the species Musa acuminata Colla and of its edible diploid and triploid derivatives. Slight morpholog...
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Full-text available
Solid deposits of amorphous hydrated silica are formed at specific intracellular and extracellular locations in many plant taxa, including all taxa in Triticeae. These deposits of silica are called phytoliths, literally meaning "plant-rocks." Many plants produce phytoliths with morphological characteristics that appear unique to a given taxon, a ph...
Article
Full-text available
Recent reports indicate that phytoliths may provide direct archaeological evidence of banana cultivation. However, archaeologists may, in many places, recover phytoliths generated by banana plants with quite different historical backgrounds. Hence the need for a differentiation among phytoliths produced by specific banana groups. The present paper...
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric analysis, the study of measurements of size and shape, has the potential to be an effective tool for phytolith analysis. This study reports the first attempt to apply the methodology to oats. In particular, this study was designed to determine if morphometric analysis could adequately discriminate between phytoliths produced in the inf...
Article
Full-text available
• Background Phytoliths (microscopic opal silica particles produced in and between the cells of many plants) are a very resilient, often-preserved type of microfossil and today, phytolith analysis is widely used in palaeoenvironmental studies, botany, geology and archaeology. To date there has been little standardization in the way phytoliths are d...
Article
Full-text available
We have identified bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) via influorescence bract phytoliths (plant microfossils) recovered from two 2nd century bc storage jars found in an Egyptian administrative building in northern Israel. This suggests T. aestivum is a likely candidate for “Syrian wheat”, a previously unidentified cultivar mentioned in 3rd century bc...
Article
Image Analysis Of Egyptian Mummy Hair - Volume 8 Issue S02 - T. B. Ball, W. Griggs, M. Kuchar, R. Phillips, W. M. Hess
Chapter
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Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeo-botanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Tri...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeobotanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Trit...
Article
Urediniospores of isolates of two principle groups of races of Puccinia menthae have similar morphological appearance when examined with SEM. Native spearmint rust infects Mentha spicata but not M. × piperita. Peppermint rust infects M. × piperita but not M. spicata. Prism image analysis was used to quantify morphological differences between the tw...
Article
Urediniospores of isolates of two principle groups of races of Puccinia menthae have similar morphological appearance when examined with SEM. Native spearmint rust infects Mentha spicata but not M. X piperita. Peppermint rust infects M. X piperita but not M. spicata. Prism image analysis was used to quantify morphological differences between the tw...
Article
The USDA Desert Experimental Range Station located in southwestern Utah has been conducting an ongoing investigation into the effects of grazing on the ecology of the region, The study reported herein is a preliminary effort to determine if phytolith analysis can be used to gain insight into the ecology of the region prior to the 60 year period ove...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from three species of wheat,Triticum monococcumL.,T. dicocconSchrank., andT. aestivumL., were analysed using computer-assisted image and statistical analyses with the intent to develop taxonomic tools to distinguish among the taxa. A classification key and discriminant functions based on significant d...
Article
Full-text available
Solid deposits of SiO2 (phytoliths) accumulate in many plants in specific intracellular and extracellular locations. Phytoliths have morphological characteristics unique to some taxa and therefore have taxonomic significance. Phytoliths persist and maintain their morphological integrity long after a plant has died, thus becoming a microfossil of th...
Article
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Brigham Young University. Dept. of Botany and Range Science. Includes bibliographical references (Leaves 105-117).

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Projects (3)
Project
I am pleased to announce that submissions are now open for "Frontiers in Phytolith Research", an interdisciplinary collection of papers being published in the Frontiers journals. The Associate Editors for this collection are Terry Ball, Rivka Elbaum, Eric Struyf, Zhaoliang Song and myself. We are hoping to receive submissions from across the complete range of phytolith studies. So all the way from the molecular mechanisms of phytolith formation to their importance in biogeochemical cycles and carbon sequestration. With everything else in between! Full details can be found here: https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/7444/frontiers-in-phytolith-research Having started on phytolith research back in 1980, I just find it amazing how things have progressed. This is our chance to put together a strong collection of papers showcasing the best in phytolith research. If you would like to have an official invitation to submit your work do let me know. Likewise, if you have any questions please do contact me!
Project
Phytoliths are often reported during micromorphological studies of archaeological contexts, but the potential of the phytolith analysis of thin sections is rarely fully explored. Traditionally, phytolith studies of archaeological deposits rely on the study of bulk samples. The sampling and laboratory procedures involved in these studies end in a systematic mixing of phytoliths having not only different botanical origins (phytoliths deriving potentially from different plant organs of different specimens of several plant taxa) but also having different depositional histories. This is not the case for the study of soil thin sections where the distribution patterns of the phytoliths within sediments and soils are preserved. The aim of this project is to evaluate the potential of phytolith studies of soil thin sections. This will also involve a comparison with traditional methods to verify to which extend such studies are complementary". In a first stage, we focus on the study of urban contexts in the Brussels Capital Region.