Terence M Keane

Terence M Keane
VA National Center for PTSD & Boston University

Ph.D.

About

372
Publications
237,447
Reads
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35,071
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 1989 - present
National Center for PTSD
Position
  • Director: Behavioral Science Division
August 1978 - January 1985
University of Mississippi Medical Center
Position
  • Associate Professor & Chief of Psychology (VA)
Education
August 1973 - December 1978
Binghamton University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
September 1969 - May 1973
University of Rochester
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (372)
Article
Elevations in psychiatric disorders and suicides among American military constitute a pressing public-health concern. In today’s military in America, there are intensive efforts to screen, assess, and intervene to improve mental health and maintain an optimal military workforce. Yet, during the extended deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq, increase...
Article
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) featured extensive changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. PTSD was moved out of the anxiety disorders into a new class of “trauma- and stressor-related disorders,” and the definition of what constitu...
Article
Full-text available
The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) reformulated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based partially on research showing there were 4 main factors that underlie the symptoms of the disorder. The primary aim of this study was to examine the temporal stability of the DSM-5 factors as measured by the P...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Administrative planning and policy decisions frequently rely on diagnostic data extracted from large electronic databases. However, the accuracy of this diagnostic information is uncertain. The present study examined the degree to which various diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is a prevalent problem among veterans deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychiatric conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are potentially important risk factors for suicide in this population, but the literature is limited by a dearth of research on female veterans and imprecise assessmen...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Posttraumatic headache is the most disabling complication of mild traumatic brain injury. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are often comorbid with posttraumatic headache, and there are no established treatments for this comorbidity. Objective: To compare cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) for headache and PTSD with tr...
Article
Researchers studying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often use diagnostic codes within electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify individuals with the disorder. This study evaluated the performance of algorithms for defining PTSD based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code use within EMR data. We used data from a registry o...
Article
Prior research suggests that anhedonia symptoms related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; i.e., diminished interest, detachment from others, and difficulty experiencing positive emotions) are consistently associated with a higher degree of impairment in psychosocial functioning beyond that associated with other PTSD symptoms. Unfortunately, m...
Article
The theoretical framework of behavioral economics, a metatheory that integrates operant learning and economic theory, has only recently been applied to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A behavioral economic theory of PTSD reflects an expansion of prior behavioral conceptualization of PTSD, which described PTSD in terms of respondent and operan...
Article
Background Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma-exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a 5-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change network....
Article
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with physical inactivity and cigarette smoking. However, little is known about the degree to which comorbid psychiatric conditions affect the odds of physical inactivity and smoking among individuals with PTSD. Objective: To examine associations between PTSD, comorbid psychiatric con...
Article
Objective: Rates of hazardous alcohol consumption and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high among returning combat veterans and may adversely affect satisfaction with life (SWL). Improving life satisfaction represents a potential secondary outcome of web-based interventions for alcohol use and PTSD. Understanding the relations...
Article
Objective: Tinnitus and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are among the top service-connected disabilities within the Veterans Health Administration. Extant research shows that there is considerable overlap between tinnitus-related distress and PTSD, including sleep difficulty, irritability, hyperarousal, and concentration problems. However, no...
Article
Study objectives: Characterize associations between sleep impairments and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, including anger, in service members seeking treatment for PTSD. Methods: Ninety-three US Army personnel recruited into a PTSD treatment study completed the baseline assessment. State of the science sleep measurements included...
Article
Full-text available
Irritability, angry outbursts, and aggression are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although aggression can be a problem among many individuals with PTSD, research suggests that the relationship between PTSD and aggression might be particularly relevant among military/veteran populations as compared to civilians. T...
Article
Prior research indicates that veterans are interested in including family members in healthcare and that family-inclusive mental health treatment can improve treatment outcomes. Consequently, the Veterans Health Administration’s (VHA) directive require providers to offer family-inclusive mental health services to veterans. However, the extent to wh...
Article
This study tested the efficacy of repeated intravenous ketamine doses to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans and service members with PTSD (n = 158) who failed previous antidepressant treatment were randomized to 8 infusions administered twice weekly of intravenous placebo (n = 54), low dose (0.2 mg/kg; n = 53) or stan...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased health care costs; however, most studies exploring this association use PTSD diagnostic data in administrative records, which can contain inaccurate diagnostic information and be confounded by the quantity of service use. We used a diagnostic interview to determine PTSD diagnostic st...
Preprint
Background: Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a five-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change netw...
Article
Bckground Theories of suicide suggest that suicidal ideation (SI) results in part from difficulty imagining the future, which itself relies on the ability to remember the past. The present study examines multiple components of episodic future thinking and memory including event richness, which is commonly measured within the cognitive literature bu...
Article
We calculated the reliable change index (RCI) and clinically significant change (CSC) values for two widely used measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and examined how symptom changes at these thresholds related to improvements in psychosoc...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has demonstrated efficacy for improving PTSD and comorbid symptoms and relationship adjustment. To enhance treatment efficiency and scalability, we developed a 2-day, abbreviated, intensive, multicouple group version of CBCT for PTSD (AIM-CBCT for PTSD). Prior wor...
Article
Objective: To characterize the relationship between head trauma types (blast injury, blunt injury, combined blast+blunt injury) with subsequent headache presentations and functioning. Background: Posttraumatic headaches (PTHs), the most common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI), are painful and disabling. More than 400,000 veterans report...
Article
The STRONG STAR Consortium (South Texas Research Organizational Network Guiding Studies on Trauma and Resilience) and the Consortium to Alleviate PTSD are interdisciplinary and multi-institutional research consortia focused on the detection, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid con...
Article
Objective: Sexual minority female (SMF) veterans experience unique stressors apart from their service in the military. In this study, we compared SMF and heterosexual female (HF) veterans' rates of deployment-related stressors (i.e., military sexual assault, combat exposure, and harassment), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressi...
Chapter
The current global crisis in mental health has seen psychiatry assume an increasingly integral role in healthcare. This comprehensive and accessible textbook provides an evidence-based foundation in psychiatry for medical students and serves as an excellent refresher for all mental health professionals. Written by medical school faculty and experts...
Article
Full-text available
Background Worldwide, nearly 800,000 individuals die by suicide each year; however, longitudinal prediction of suicide attempts remains a major challenge within the field of psychiatry. The objective of the present research was to develop and evaluate an evidence-based suicide attempt risk checklist [i.e., the Durham Risk Score (DRS)] to aid clinic...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is the most common illicit substance use disorder in the United States and is especially prevalent among returning veterans. The long-term mental health correlates of CUD remain unknown, which is significant given recent shifts toward legalization and medicinal use of cannabis nationally. Method: Using a gende...
Article
Background Suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) are major health concerns among military veterans yet little is known about the temporal relations among these outcomes. This study examined the temporal relations between suicidal and nonsuicidal SITBs among higher-risk veterans. Specifically, we identified when SITB...
Article
The Depressive Symptom Index-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) is a four-item self-report measure of suicidal ideation severity widely used across research and clinical contexts. However, the psychometric properties of the English-language version of the DSI-SS have not been extensively examined within a psychiatric sample, and important properties of...
Article
Prior research suggests that a significant number of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) do not have this diagnosis recognized in the electronic health record (EHR). Unfortunately, such diagnostic errors can lead to improper allocation of already scarce health care services and resources. In this study, we examined concordance betwee...
Article
This study examined whether romantic relationship functioning was associated with mental health treatment utilization in male and female veterans. Veterans (N = 760) enrolled in a longitudinal registry completed self-report measures and a diagnostic interview for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mental health treatment utilization data procure...
Article
The present study compared the utility of categorical (i.e., diagnostic status) and dimensional (i.e., symptom severity) approaches to measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in predicting future suicide attempts among participants in a nationwide, longitudinal study of U.S. military veterans who were deployed in support of operations in Ira...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: This study tested the efficacy of repeated intravenous ketamine doses to reduce antidepressant-resistant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Veterans and service members with PTSD (n=158) who failed previous antidepressant treatment were randomized to 8 infusions administered twice weekly of intravenous placebo (n...
Article
The prevalence of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) remains exceptionally high among returning veterans, with numerous studies linking PTSD, but not specific PTSD symptoms, to future SUD risk. Further explication of PTSD symptom effects on future SUD risk will likely promote intervention development...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CBCT for PTSD) is associated with improvements in patients' PTSD symptoms, partners' psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. However, little is known about whether CBCT for PTSD is associated with changes in other relationship domains that have theoretical and c...
Chapter
Full-text available
Extensive research has been conducted since 11 September 2001 to develop and evaluate evidence-based treatments for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty United States military personnel treated in the combat theater and in garrison. This chapter reviews the results of 20 PTSD clinical trials funded by the United States...
Article
Objectives Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use share both directional (“self-medication”) and mutually-reinforcing associations over time. Research on gender differences regarding the co-occurrence of PTSD and substance use over time remains limited and largely focused on alcohol use; less is known regarding the co-occurrence of...
Article
Objective Proportionally more women use online alcohol interventions but also report less robust treatment outcomes compared to men. Less is known about outcome disparities among veteran women, who are a growing demographic nationally. The current study examined gender differences among returning veteran men and women who used VetChange, a web-base...
Article
Full-text available
Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is a common debilitating condition arising from head injury and is highly prevalent among military service members and veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Diagnosis and treatment for PTH is still evolving, and surprisingly little is known about the putative mechanisms that drive these headaches. This manuscript...
Article
Individuals admitted to inpatient psychiatry for suicide-related concerns are at increased risk of suicide post-discharge, necessitating an understanding of factors, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), that are associated with suicide-related hospitalizations. In this study, we examined if individuals admitted for suicide-related concerns...
Article
Objective: Firefighters are an important sample of convenience to study traumatic exposure and symptom development. This study assessed trauma exposure inside and outside of fire service, diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated disorders using clinical interviews and self-report measures, then tested the hypothesis that trauma...
Article
Background: Evidence-based web and mobile interventions are available for a range of mental health concerns. Little is known about how self-administered web interventions are used outside of controlled research trials, and there is a critical need to empirically examine real-world public implementation of such programs. To this end, the aim of the...
Article
Many individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from insomnia and nightmares, which may be symptoms of PTSD or constitute partially independent comorbid disorders. Sleep disturbances are resistant to current treatments for PTSD, and those suffering from PTSD, insomnia, and nightmares have worse PTSD treatment outcomes. In add...
Article
Firefighters (FFs) protect the public despite significant risks to their health and well‐being stemming from frequent trauma exposure and other occupational stressors. A minority of FFs develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or related mental health problems, whereas most remain remarkably resilient despite enormous stress. This points toward...
Article
Following trauma exposure, two frequently co‐occurring forms of psychopathology include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Although these diagnoses have been identified as distinct constructs, the proper classification of these disorders remains a challenge due to overlapping symptoms. Instead, systematically...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are known to smoke cigarettes at elevated levels in comparison to both veterans without PTSD and civilians. This study aims to elucidate how cigarette smoking and PTSD symptoms interact over time. Materials and Methods: This study examined the directionality and strength of the relati...
Article
Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report more aggression than civilians with PTSD. Because emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and impulsive aggression in veterans, we developed an intervention to increase emotion regulation skills. This pilot study tested the feasibility and acceptabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Posttraumatic headache is difficult to define and there is debate about the specificity of the 7-day headache onset criterion in the current definition. There is limited evidence available to guide decision making about this criterion. Method A nested cohort study of 193 treatment-seeking veterans who met criteria for persistent headach...
Article
Full-text available
Structured diagnostic interviews involve significant respondent burden and clinician administration time. This study examined whether we can maintain diagnostic accuracy using fewer posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment questions. Our study included 1,265 U.S. veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts who were assessed for PTSD using...
Article
Full-text available
Background Access to healthcare delivery programs and systems is a primary correlate to the overall health and well-being of Veterans and the general population. Participation in clinical research is a gateway to novel therapies that are intended to address current global health issues. Meeting or exceeding recruitment goals in clinical research is...
Article
Full-text available
Although Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are vulnerable to opioid misuse, there is limited research evaluating the psychosocial and medical sequalae experienced by Veterans with comorbid PTSD and opioid use disorder (OUD). Using data from a nationwide, longitudinal registry of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (O...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of hazardous drinking is elevated among returning veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan wars, particularly among returning veterans and those with co-occurring PTSD symptoms. Understanding the reasons for drinking as well as motivations for change can tremendously improve intervention efforts. Unfortunately, little is currently known rega...
Article
Although numerous longitudinal studies have examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom course, the long-term course of the disorder remains poorly understood. This study sought to understand and predict long-term PTSD symptom course among a nationwide sample of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom veterans enrol...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system, including cortisol, allopregnanolone, and pregnanolone. Preliminary evidence from animal models suggests that baseline levels of these biomarkers may predict response to PTSD treatment. We report the change in biomarkers over the course of PTSD treat...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The emotion of anger and behavioral acts of aggression can lead to severe negative consequences, including family violence, legal charges, and death. Anger can be a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in service members. Service members report difficulties managing their anger and trouble with the subsequent r...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with higher levels of alcohol use among returning veterans. Persistent PTSD symptoms can predict alcohol use over the span of hours, days, weeks, and months; however, knowledge of the strength of these associations beyond 1 year remains limited. In this study, we examined the 6-year course of co-oc...
Article
Objective Returning veterans report high rates of hazardous drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and evidence low rates of formal treatment engagement. Web-based interventions may help address unmet treatment need, yet little is known regarding factors associated with outcomes or adherence to these interventions over time. In this study,...
Article
Background: Limited research suggests that female firefighters report problem drinking at higher rates than the general population. Aims: To identify longitudinal drinking patterns in female firefighters, make comparisons to male firefighters and examine problem drinking in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Metho...
Article
Few studies have investigated the range and severity of insomnia-related sleep complaints among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the temporal association between insomnia and PTSD severity has yet to be examined. To examine these associations, a large, gender-balanced cohort of veterans (N = 1,649) of the Iraq and Afghanistan...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012) is efficacious in improving PTSD symptoms and relationship adjustment among couples with PTSD. However, there is a need for more efficient delivery formats to maximize engagement and retention and to achieve faster outcomes in multiple do...
Article
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced numerous revisions to the fourth edition's (DSM-IV) criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posing a challenge to clinicians and researchers who wish to assess PTSD symptoms continuously over time. The aim of this study was to develop a cros...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although several short-forms of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) exist, all were developed using heuristic methods. This report presents the results of analyses designed to create an optimal short-form PCL for DSM-5 (PCL-5) using both machine learning and conventional scale development methods. Methods: The sh...
Article
Objectives: Military sexual trauma (MST) is a pervasive problem among veterans, and is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes. It is, therefore, imperative to identify individuals who have experienced MST so that they can be offered appropriate treatment. To determine how to best identify MST survivors, the current study examined how diffe...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder with limited medication treatment options. Recent reports have described the dearth of research on new drug development as a crisis in the pharmacotherapy of PTSD. There are only two PTSD medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and both are serotonergic antidepre...
Article
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite decades of clinical and theoretical accounts that suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are efforts to escape painful emotions, little prior research has examined decision making involved in escaping aversive states. We compared the performance of 85 suicidal participants to 44 nonsuicid...