Teena Willoughby

Teena Willoughby
Brock University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

161
Publications
113,645
Reads
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7,616
Citations
Citations since 2016
56 Research Items
4744 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (161)
Article
The current study assessed whether risk factors associated with vaping were distinct from risk factors associated with other substance use (e.g., alcohol, cannabis) during adolescence. Participants ( N = 848, ages 10–16 years) completed a self-report survey to assess frequency and age of onset of substance use, risk perceptions of use, risk factors...
Article
This study examines patterns between known childhood and adolescence self-injury behavior and longitudinal patterns with negative adjustment.
Article
Although the mean age of onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is during adolescence, we know relatively little about the neurodevelopmental correlates of subsyndromal social anxiety in early adolescence before SAD manifests. Here we examined frontal EEG alpha/delta ratio (a putative proxy of brain maturation) in relation social anxiety symptoms a...
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Full-text available
Research on the link between affinity for solitude (a tendency to enjoy time alone) and psychosocial adjustment among adolescents has been mixed; however, this may depend on whether time spent alone is motivated by positive (self-reflection, creative pursuits) or reactive (negative affect, avoiding social interaction) factors. The current study inv...
Article
Medial frontal theta-band oscillations are a robust marker of action-outcome monitoring. In a large developmental sample (n=432, 9-16 years), we examined whether phase and non-phase locked medial frontal theta power were related to inhibitory control among children and adolescents. Our results showed that the well-established increase in medial fro...
Article
Threat sensitivity is thought to be a precursor for anxiety. Yet it remains unknown whether individuals have consistently high neural activation to different threatening situations. The current study (N = 161, Mage = 11.26, SD = 1.79) used three ERPs from different threat-related events: 1) the P3 to receiving negative feedback; 2) the ERN to makin...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this ERP P3 study was to test a peer observation manipulation (being observed by a peer versus being alone) on neural markers of attention to reward (win-feedback) and punishment (loss-feedback) during the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Participants (126 children, 53 % male, 8–10 years; 196 early adolescents, 50 % male, 11–13 years; and...
Article
Affinity for aloneness (i.e., an enjoyment of solitude) has been associated with negative adjustment, but it may depend on whether solitude is motivated by social anxiety. Thus, the current study investigated differences in affinity for aloneness in late adolescents and emerging adults while controlling for social anxiety. In a sample of late adole...
Article
Adolescence often is thought to be the age period of heightened risk taking (e.g., substance use, reckless driving, sexual risks, delinquency) by both researchers and the general public. In the present article we challenge this assumption by examining the prevalence of a wide variety of real-world risk-taking behaviors across different age groups....
Article
Although children's self-regulation has been widely regarded as a panacea, there may be individual differences in the adaptiveness of self-regulatory processes depending on temperamental factors. We examined whether individual differences in two conceptually distinct types of self-regulation (i.e., emotion self-regulation, nonemotion self-regulatio...
Article
One long-standing theoretical model of shyness proposes that the origins and maintenance of shyness are associated with an approach-avoidance motivational conflict (Asendorpf, 1990), such that shy individuals are motivated to socially engage (high approach motivation) but are too anxious to do so (high avoidance motivation). However, this model has...
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Study Objectives This study investigated the role of pubertal status and hormones in the association between sleep satisfaction and self-reported emotion functioning in 256 children and adolescents aged 8-15. Methods Self-report data was provided on sleep duration, sleep satisfaction, and emotion reactivity and regulation, and a saliva sample was...
Article
The reactivity-regulation model suggests that the origins and maintenance of shyness results from relatively high levels of reactivity in combination with relatively low levels of regulation. Although this model has received some empirical support, there are still issues regarding directionality of the relations among variables and a dearth of stud...
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Endogenous cortical fluctuations captured by electroencephalograms (EEGs) reflect activity in large-scale brain networks that exhibit dynamic patterns over multiple time scales. Developmental changes in the coordination and integration of brain function leads to increased variability and greater complexity in population level neural dynamics. In th...
Article
Sensitivity to threat (ST) is thought to be a precursor to anxiety, a common mental health issue among youth. The BIS scale, a popular measure of ST, includes 2 negatively-phrased fear questions, and 5 positively-phrased worry questions, creating confusion in the factor structure of this scale. We investigated the latent structure of the BIS scale...
Article
Despite the importance of obtaining a university degree, retention rates remain a concern for many universities. This longitudinal study provides a multi-domain examination of first-year student characteristics and behaviors that best predict which students graduate. Graduation status was assessed seven years after students entered university. Part...
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The long-term outcomes for adolescents who struggle in first-year university remain unexplored. This 7-year longitudinal study aimed to identify distinct groups of adolescents based on their characteristics/behaviors in first-year university, and then assess whether these groups differ in psychosocial adjustment trajectories (i.e., mental health, p...
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Objectives Adolescence often is characterized by the onset of social anxiety and risk taking; yet, not all youth are anxious and/or risk takers. There are several factors that may help differentiate youth with anxiety (e.g., threat sensitivity and emotion dysregulation) and youth who take risks (e.g., impulsivity and emotion dysregulation). We cond...
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Full-text available
Research has yet to investigate trajectories of sensitivity to threat across childhood and adolescence. Further, neural associations of these trajectories remain unknown. The current 3-year study used a latent class growth curve analysis to investigate whether there were distinct trajectories of sensitivity to threat among children and adolescents...
Article
Introduction: Lie-telling appears to peak during adolescence; however, previous research has not yet examined lie-telling frequency in adolescents' friendships. Increased lie-telling may be problematic given that honesty is crucial for trust within positive relationships, and more positive relationships lead to more positive well-being. The presen...
Article
Affinity for aloneness among youth often is viewed negatively. However, some youth may enjoy solitude for positive reasons, rather than because of social anxiety. The prevalence and adjustment over time of youth with high affinity for aloneness is unclear. Groups of children (N = 605, Mage = 9.29) and adolescents (N = 596, Mage = 12.20) were identi...
Article
Neurodevelopmental imbalance models suggest that asynchrony in the maturation of interconnections between brain regions contributes to adolescents being more sensitive to emotionally salient events (e.g., negative feedback) than children. There may, however, be important individual differences to consider when investigating sensitivity to negative...
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Lie-telling and secret-keeping are common behaviors during adolescence. Given the importance of honesty for building trust in positive relationships, the present study examined relations between lie-telling, secret-keeping, and relationship quality over time. Additionally, given the protective role of positive relationships in developing depression...
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Previous studies suggest parents lack knowledge regarding child and adolescent lie-telling; however, no study to date has examined children’s and parents’ reports of lying within parent–child dyads. The current study examined parents’ knowledge of and influence on children’s and adolescents’ lie-telling. Parent–child dyads (N= 351) completed self-r...
Article
Among adult and adolescent populations, the personality trait of honesty‐humility (HH) has been linked to aggression. For example, adults low in HH have been found to exhibit higher levels of workplace delinquency and revenge motivation, and adolescent low in HH are more likely to bully others. However, there is a paucity of research examining this...
Article
Adolescence is a sensitive period for taking risks, yet research has not investigated whether adolescents who engage in risk-taking actually perceive themselves to be risk-takers. In the current study, students (Grade: 6-8, N = 437) reported on their frequency of risk-taking and perceptions of themselves as risk-takers, forming four groups of inter...
Article
Introduction: Nonsuicidal self-injury (e.g., self-cutting without lethal intent) is a widely occurring behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Heightened impulsivity during the adolescent and emerging adult years may contribute to an increased risk for nonsuicidal self-injury onset and engagement during these developmental periods; however...
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Developmental theory on nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., self-cutting without lethal intent) underscores that stressful life experiences may lead to heightened risk for NSSI, potentially by undermining individuals’ emotion coping capacities. Given that the transition to university is often accompanied by new stressors for emerging adults, it is...
Article
Research by Twenge, Joiner, Rogers, and Martin has indicated that there may be an association between social-media use and depressive symptoms among adolescents. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of this work, the relationship among these variables over time remains unclear. Thus, in this longitudinal study we examined the associations...
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Objective: Our objective was to examine the co-occurrence of sleep problems and emotion dysregulation and its short- and long-term links to depressive symptoms and alcohol use in a sample of university students. Method: Participants included 1132 first-year university students from Southern Ontario (70.5% women). Time 1 data were collected in Fe...
Article
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., self-cutting without lethal intent) is a widespread mental health concern among emerging adults in university. Although accumulating evidence suggests that NSSI is primarily an emotion coping behaviour, little is known about variability in emotional response to pain among individuals who self-injure. Recent theo...
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Purpose: Findings from cross-sectional research indicate that the relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is mixed. For research that does indicate a significant association, the interpretation of the finding most often is that physical activity leads to better sleep, or less frequently, that better sleep leads to more involvement...
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Sleep problems and emotion dysregulation are associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol use but little research has examined the long-term associations and the direction of effects between these factors. We examined these relationships with 1132 undergraduates (70.5% female) over 5 years. Sleep problems and emotion dysregulation, sleep problem...
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The distinction between shyness and social anxiety remains unclear in the literature. In an attempt to shed further light on this issue, our research evaluated whether shyness and social anxiety were the same construct underlying various measurement scales. Participants (N = 801, Mage = 36.21, range = 18–74, female = 53.10%) responded to 10 questio...
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Researchers recently have suggested that coping flexibility (i.e., an individual’s ability to modify and change coping strategies depending on the context) may be an important way to investigate coping. The availability of numerous coping strategies may be an important precursor to coping flexibility, given that flexibility can only be obtained if...
Data
Exploratory factor analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Autoregressive cross-lagged results for the means-based model. (DOCX)
Data
Autoregressive cross-lagged results for the count-based model. (DOCX)
Article
Playing video games continues to be popular among youth. Although many studies have examined the impact of video games on negative outcomes, such as aggression and addiction, fewer studies have investigated potential positive outcomes. However, recent studies are addressing this imbalance. In this article, we review some of this research, specifica...
Article
Despite increased research on factors that predict engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), one factor that has been neglected is spirituality/religiosity. While some researchers suggest that spiritual/religious beliefs and practice may protect against aversive mental health outcomes, it also is possible that certain aspects of spirituality/re...
Article
Reports an error in "Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups" by Christina A. Brook and Teena Willoughby ( Developmental Psychology , 2016[May], Vol 52[5], 835-845). In the article, Figures 1 and 2 and Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 were inadvertently designated as supplemental material. The figures and ta...
Article
Purpose: Although nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been differentiated from suicidal behavior on the basis of nonlethal intent in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, NSSI often is associated with increased suicidal risk. However, there is a paucity of large-scale longitudinal examinations on the associations among NSSI, su...
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The longitudinal association between competitive video game play and aggression among young adults and adolescents was examined. Young adults (N = 1,132; Mage = 19 years) were surveyed annually over 4 years about their video game play and aggression, and data from a 4-year longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 1,492; Mage = 13 years) was reanalyze...
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The purpose of this study was to summarise recent research activity from 2009 to 2013 of faculty in Canadian developmental psychology programs, as there have been no previous studies on this stream in Canada. Rankings for research productivity (i.e., number of publications) and impact (e.g., citation counts) were evaluated using the Publish or Peri...
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University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings...
Article
Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperativ...
Article
The relative contributions of expertise in search skills and domain knowledge were examined when using the Internet to find information. Four conditions were compared: expert searchers/high domain knowledge; expert searchers/low domain knowledge; novice searchers/high domain knowledge; and novice searchers/low domain knowledge. Search outcomes and...
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Past research has consistently found that evening-types typically report poorer academic adjustment and higher levels of substance use compared to morning-types. An important development within the morningness-eveningness and psychosocial adjustment literature has been the hypothesis that social jetlag (i.e. the asynchrony between an individual's "...
Article
Despite recent findings that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a strong predictor of suicide attempts, little empirical attention has been given to the mechanism through which NSSI increases suicide risk. The present 2-wave longitudinal study represents the first critical test of Joiner’s (2005) hypothesis that NSSI is linked to lower pain sensitiv...
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Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among you...
Article
Although research indicates that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) may be used as a form of emotion regulation, studies have largely relied on the use of retrospective self-report data, which limits inferences about directionality of effects. Recently, researchers have started to employ lab-based experimental (e.g., guided imagery, acute pain) and mom...
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Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; direct self-injury without lethal intent) often is thought to be associated with impulse control problems. Recent research, however, offers conflicting results about whether impulsivity is a risk factor for NSSI engagement. To disentangle findings on the link between impulsivity and NSSI, an extensive review of the li...
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Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral t...
Article
Despite the widespread prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among community-based samples, little is known about which self-injurers disclose their NSSI or the factors that promote disclosure among self-injurers. To address this gap in the literature, we examined whether disclosers could be differentiated from nondisclosers on the basis of...
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Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among...
Article
Despite recent findings that individuals who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), have heightened tolerances for pain relative to noninjurers, little attention has been given to how self-injurers overcome the instinct to avoid the pain involved in NSSI. Understanding the process through which self-injurers are willing to tolerate pain, however...
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Full-text available
Effect sizes in longitudinal studies often are dramatically smaller than effect sizes in cross-sectional studies. Indeed, autoregressive models (which are often used in longitudinal studies but not in cross-sectional studies) control for past levels on the outcome (i.e., stability effects) in order to predict change in levels of the outcome over ti...
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Despite the growing body of research linking sleep problems and social ties, research investigating the direction of effects between these two constructs is lacking. Furthermore, there remains a dearth of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the association between sleep problems and social ties within a longitudinal design. The prese...
Article
Long-term longitudinal studies that examine whether there are distinct trajectories of at-risk depressive symptoms and alcohol use across the high school years (e.g., high co-occurrence) are rare in normative samples of adolescent boys and girls; yet, this assessment is of critical importance for developing effective prevention and intervention str...
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The pervasiveness of media use in our society has raised concerns about its potential impact on important lifestyle behaviours, including sleep. Although a number of studies have modelled poor sleep as a negative outcome of media use, a critical assessment of the literature indicates two important gaps: (i) studies have almost exclusively relied on...
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Full-text available
The majority of research on video games has focused on negative outcomes such as aggression, at the expense of research on positive outcomes. Recently, however, research on the link between video game play and positive outcomes has been increasing. Importantly, a potential positive outcome of sports video game play among adolescents that has been u...
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Full-text available
Objective: Video games increasingly have become multiplayer, and thus online video game players have the unique opportunity to cooperate with players from all over the world, including those who belong to different social groups. Consistent with research showing that intergroup cooperation leads to reductions in intergroup bias, playing a video gam...
Article
In this special issue, Ernst (this issue) outlines the triadic systems model, which focuses on the balanced interaction among three functional neural systems: the prefrontal cortex (regulation/control), striatum (motivation/approach), and amygdala (emotion/avoidance). Asynchrony in maturation timelines, coupled with less mature connectivity across...
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Full-text available
An overwhelming amount of research has indicated that evening-types report more negative psychosocial functioning as well as more negative sleep characteristics (e.g. more sleep problems) relative to morning-types. Researchers also find a strong, consistent link between poor sleep characteristics and negative psychosocial functioning. These studies...
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The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the af...
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Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial fu...
Article
Spirituality/religiosity is hypothesized to promote positive adjustment among adolescents. The goals of this study were to assess the unique and joint associations between two dimensions of spirituality/religiosity-institutional and personal-and a range of domains of psychosocial adjustment (intrapersonal well-being, quality of parent-child relatio...
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Full-text available
The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels o...
Article
Little is known about the development and maintenance of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) over time; however, identifying individuals at risk for NSSI onset or its recurrent engagement is of critical importance for developing effective prevention and intervention strategies. To address this important gap in the literature, we used a person-centered a...
Article
Although activity involvement has been linked to positive youth development, the value that adolescents place on these activities (i.e., how much they enjoy the activities, find them important, and spend time on them) has received less attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between enga...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship betwee...
Article
Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavi...
Data
Standardized means of latent classes on class indicators. Note: Higher scores indicate higher frequency of engagement in NSSI, more recent NSSI, greater pain during NSSI, greater time elapsed between urge to self-injure and act of NSSI, greater number of methods of NSSI, more likely to be alone when engaging in NSSI, more lifetime suicidal ideation...