T.C. Nicholas Graham

T.C. Nicholas Graham
Queen's University | QueensU · School of Computing

Dr.-Ing.

About

147
Publications
47,213
Reads
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2,168
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
July 1997 - present
Queen's University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (147)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Shared control is an emerging interaction paradigm in which a human and an AI partner collaboratively control a system. Shared control unifies human and artificial intelligence, making the human’s interactions with computers more accessible, safe, precise, effective, creative, and playful. This form of interaction has independently emerged in conte...
Article
Full-text available
Digital games are designed to be controlled using hardware devices such as gamepads, keyboards, and cameras. Some device inputs may be inaccessible to players with motor impairments, rendering them unable to play. Games and devices can be adapted to enable play, but for some players these adaptations may not go far enough. Games may require inputs...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Evaluate the feasibility of implementing cycling-based exergames for children with cerebral palsy (CP) following lower extremity orthopedic surgery and explore its impact on pain and well-being. Methods: Ten children with CP were recruited; the first five received physiotherapy (comparison) and next five received fifteen exergame session...
Article
Full-text available
The Collaborative Learning of Usability Experiences (CLUE) training program1 is an NSERC CREATE grant that trains Canada's leaders in HCI. We aim to improve our trainees' capabilities across the disciplinary boundaries (Information Technology, Psychology, Computer Science, and Design), through collaborative professional skills development, experien...
Chapter
Digital games struggle to blend compelling narrative with interactivity. For example, computer role-playing games (CRPGs) allow players the freedom to explore an open world, yet limit their interaction with the world’s inhabitants to selecting from pre-determined dialogue choices. In this paper, we explore how players behave when truly free-form di...
Chapter
Asymmetric games rely on players taking on different gameplay roles, often with associated different views of the game world and different input modalities. This asymmetry can lead to difficulties in establishing common referents as players collaborate. To explore communication and group awareness in asymmetric games, we present a novel asymmetric...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of artificial intelligence for the creation of game agents is fundamental to digital game development, enabling the design of new styles of games offering novel play experiences. Machine learning has long been used in the creation of digital games, most often for the purpose of creating game agent controllers that are trained off-line and d...
Conference Paper
The general trend in exercise interventions, including those based on exergames, is to see high initial enthusiasm but significantly declining adherence. Social play is considered a core tenet of the design of exercise interventions help foster motivation to play. To determine whether social play aids in adherence to exergames, we analyzed data fro...
Article
Full-text available
The use of exergames may be one viable way to increase child physical activity, but investigation of its effects on motivation over time, and prediction of adherence has seen little research attention. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two cycling exergame interventions (single‐player, multi‐player) among children aged 9‐12 yea...
Article
Background Exergames have the potential to significantly increase physical activity in children. Studies to date have shown mixed results and often rely on self-reported data. Multi-player gaming may augment participation. Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine children’s adherence behaviors in multi-player online exergames compared to a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To test if the gross motor function measure (GMFM) could be used to improve game balancing allowing youth with cerebral palsy (CP) with different physical abilities to play a cycling-based exercise videogame together. Our secondary objective determined if exergaming with the GMFM Ability-Based algorithm was enjoyable. Materials and met...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Player balancing helps people with different levels of physical ability and experience play together by providing customized assistance. Player balancing is particularly important in exergames, where differences in physical ability can have a large impact on game outcomes, and in making games accessible to people with motor disabilities. To date, t...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To test how three custom-built balancing algorithms minimize differences in game success, time above 40% heart rate reserve (HRR), and enjoyment between youth with cerebral palsy (CP) who have different gross motor function capabilities. Youth at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II (unassisted walking) and level...
Article
Players of exergames sometimes over-exert, risking adverse health effects. These players must be told to slow down, but doing so may distract them from gameplay and diminish their desire to keep exercising. In this paper we apply the concept of nudges to keeping players from going too quickly, and describe the effective use of nudges through a set...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the challenges of converting the classic Pac-Man arcade game into a virtual reality game. Arcaid provides players with the tools to maintain sufficient situation awareness in an environment where, unlike the classic game, they do not have full view of the game state. We also illustrate methods that can be used to reduce a playe...
Conference Paper
Participation rates in repetitive-motion exercise programs, such as programs for muscle-strengthening and physical rehabilitation, are low. Exergames show promise in encouraging people to exercise, but it is challenging to build compelling games around repetitive exercises. Games involve players making meaningful choices, but repetitive-motion work...
Conference Paper
Exergames are a fun and engaging way to participate in physical activity. Exergame users consistently require new content to maintain interest in the activity. One way to provide users with high quality content with minimal development work is to convert existing off-the-shelf digital games into exergames by using the game's "modding" interface. To...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose: Exergames may be one way to increase physical activity in children because it is often reported as a fun activity. Unfortunately, most research shows that initial participation rates decline across time. One way to maintain participation may be through multi-player gaming, which can add greater social motivation and human competition compa...
Conference Paper
Traditional virtual reality games foster immersion by giving the player a first-person perspective of a three-dimensional world. Alaska Steve: Bite Frost Back takes a different approach by using the Oculus Rift's orientation tracking as a core game mechanic for 2D platforming. The use of virtual reality allows the player to maintain context while n...
Conference Paper
This paper describes Corgi Defence, a puzzle-game in a three-dimensional virtual reality environment. We discuss Corgi Defence's design which gives players a set of intuitive interaction techniques and preserves their comfort in an unfamiliar virtual reality space. The resulting experience is enjoyable despite limitations of the hardware in recogni...
Conference Paper
Participation rates in muscle-strengthening programs are low. Exergames show promise in encouraging people to exercise, but it is difficult to build compelling games around resistance training. Games involve players making meaningful choices, but workout programs are rigidly structured, making it difficult to find opportunities for such choices. As...
Conference Paper
Exergames have proven to be a fun way of engaging in physical activity, but analyses of the energy expenditure required to play exergames indicate that most exergame play is not sufficiently vigorous to replace traditional physical activity. In this paper, we argue that it is important to design for exertion in exergames. To illustrate this idea, w...
Conference Paper
In exergames, players sometimes over-exert themselves, risking adverse health effects. Informing such players to slow down is necessary, but might distract from gameplay and damage the drive to continue exercising. We used the concept of nudges to create a set of design principles that can be incorporated into a game, to influence player behaviour...
Conference Paper
Terrain visibility analysis is a challenging task that is currently supported by complex digital tools with cumbersome interfaces. In this paper, we present TerraGuide, a novel multi-surface environment for exploratory terrain analysis. TerraGuide provides three tightly coupled displays including a real-time viewshed, a 3D panoramic view, and a hel...
Article
Full-text available
Co-located environments have long been considered ideal for many types of group work, such as planning, decision-making, and design, since they provide a rich communication environment (e.g. delay-free voice communication, face-to-face interaction, eye gaze, and non-verbal communication), as well as promote awareness and coordination through the us...
Conference Paper
Digital tabletops have become a natural medium for collaborative planning activities involving maps. Such activities are typically mixed-focus, where users switch between high-level and detailed views of the map and between individual and collaborative work. A wide range of view-sharing techniques such as lenses, zooming and radar views provide bot...
Conference Paper
Youth with cerebral palsy (CP) can experience social isolation, in part due to mobility limitations associated with CP. We show that networked video games can provide a venue for social interaction from the home. We address the question of how to design networked games that enhance social play among people with motor disabilities. We present Liberi...
Article
Most design advice for the development of successful gamification systems has focused on how best to engage the end user while imbuing the system with playfulness. This paper argues that it is also critical for designers to focus on the broad context of the system's deployment, including the identification of stakeholder requirements, requirements...
Article
Full-text available
Networking is a key component of digital games, with many featuring multiplayer modes and online components. The time required to transmit data over a network can lead to usability problems such as inconsistency between players' views of a virtual world, and race conditions when resolving players' actions. Implementing a good consistency maintenanc...
Conference Paper
In this paper we describe the challenges of creating a game that can be played by large groups on a single display. Our solutions include the use of smart phones as game controllers using the standard IRC protocol, voting-based turn interaction, and automatically cus-tomized avatars allowing hundreds of players to appear on the display simultaneous...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the effects of an internet-platform exergame cycling programme on cardiovascular fitness of youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: In this pilot prospective case series, eight youth with bilateral spastic CP, Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level III, completed a six-week exergame programme. Outcomes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Network lag is a fact of life for networked games. Lag can cause game states to diverge at different nodes in the network, making it difficult to maintain the illusion of a single shared space. Traditional lag compensation techniques help reduce inconsistency in networked games; however, these techniques do not address what to do when states actual...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital tabletops provide an opportunity for automating complex tasks in collaborative domains involving planning and decision-making, such as strategic simulation in command and control. However, when automation leads to modification of the system's state, users may fail to understand how or why the state has changed, resulting in lower situation...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the design of OrMiS, a tabletop application supporting simulation-based training. OrMiS is notable as one of the few practical tabletop applications supporting collaborative analysis, planning and interaction around digital maps. OrMiS was designed using an iterative process involving field observation and testing with domain ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For expert interfaces, it is not obvious whether providing multiple modes of interaction, each tuned to different sub-tasks, leads to a better user experience than providing a more limited set. In this paper, we investigate this question in the context of air traffic control. We present and analyze an augmented flight strip board offering several f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) want to play fast-paced action-oriented videogames similar to those played by their peers without motor disabilities. This is particularly true of exergames, whose physically-active gameplay matches the fast pace of action games. But disabilities resulting from CP can make it difficult to play action games. Guideli...
Conference Paper
Players of digital games are limited by the constraints of the game's implementation. Players cannot fly a kite, plant a tree or make friends with a dragon if these activities were not coded within the game. Game orchestration relaxes these restrictions by allowing players to create game narratives and settings as the game is being played. This ena...
Conference Paper
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) want to play fastpaced action-oriented videogames similar to those played by their friends. This is particularly true of exergames, whose physically-active gameplay matches the fast pace of action games. But disabilities resulting from CP can make it difficult to play action games. Guidelines for developing games f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with cerebral palsy CPoften have limited opportunities to engage in physical exercise and to interact with other children. We report on the design of a multiplayer exercise video game and a novel cycling-based exergaming station that allow children with CP to perform vigorous exercise while playing with other children. The game and the sta...
Article
Full-text available
Lag compensation algorithms used in networked games require programmers to manage the complexities of dealing with both time and shared state. This can make implementing lag compensation techniques challenging. The difficulties in expressing these algorithms limit experimentation with different algorithms and inhibit programmers from exploring the...
Article
Full-text available
During a collaboration session in synchronous groupware participants can often get disconnected, which causes various user level problems, such as interpretation difficulties, confusion and misunderstanding To date, no toolkit exists for providing programming support for developers to solve user level disconnection problems. In this paper, we prese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Disconnection and reconnection are common problems for users of synchronous groupware, but these problems are not easy for developers to handle because of the wide range of scenarios and timeframes that must be considered. We have developed a new toolkit called DiscoTech that helps programmers deal with disconnection. The toolkit is based on five d...
Conference Paper
The Engineering Community faces a number of serious challenges around its role in the larger CHI community and its contribution to SIGCHI-sponsored conferences. This SIG is its forum to report progress on key issues for 2012, identify objectives for 2013, and develop plans to address them.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on the design of a novel station supporting the play of exercise video games (exergames) by children with cerebral palsy (CP). The station combines a physical platform allowing children with CP to provide pedaling input into a game, a standard Xbox 360 controller, and algorithms for interpreting the cycling input to improve smoothness and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We define game orchestration as the activity of creating experiences for game players at run-time. This paper presents a design space for game orchestration techniques, and describes two novel game orchestration systems.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital tabletops present the opportunity to combine the social advantages of traditional tabletop games with the automation and streamlined gameplay of video games. However, it is unclear whether the addition of automation enhances or detracts from the game experience. A study was performed where groups played three versions of the cooperative boa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In location-based games, players act as their own avatar within in the physical world. Such games are increasing in popularity due to the wide adoption of smartphones that contain the location sensors necessary for their play. When played on a small, hand-held display, location-based games have two problems: users may be distracted, possibly leadin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consistency maintenance techniques used in networked multiplayer games require a tradeoff between the degree of consistency and the responsiveness to player commands. The choice of which technique is most appropriate depends upon the specific game situation. However, all techniques share the need to deal with time as well as with game state data. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present scenarchitectures, a means of raising the level of design of advanced interactive systems. Scenarchitectures combine elements of scenarios and system architectures, and can be used during the user interface design process as an adjunct to other design tools such as textual scenarios and story boards. Meanwhile, scenarchite...
Book
Advances in interactivity, computing power, mobile devices, large displays and ubiquitous computing offer an ever-increasing potential for empowering users. This can happen within their working environment, in their leisure time or even when extending their social skills. While such empowerment could be seen as a way of connecting people in their w...
Book
Advances in interactivity, computing power, mobile devices, large displays and ubiquitous computing offer an ever-increasing potential for empowering users. This can happen within their working environment, in their leisure time or even when extending their social skills. While such empowerment could be seen as a way of connecting people in their w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Exergames combine entertainment and exercise in an effort to encourage people to be more physically active. Although exergames require active input, interactions are less physical than those experienced in real-world exercise. Interactions can feel artificial, limiting the captivating experience exergames aim to provide. To address this problem, ha...
Article
Full-text available
Game sketching is used to identify enjoyable designs for digital games without the expense of fully implementing them. We present Raptor, a novel tool for sketching games. Raptor shows how table-top interaction can effectively support the ideation phase of game design by enabling collaboration in the design and testing process. Raptor heavily relie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Development of Augmented Reality (AR) applications can be time consuming due to the effort required in accessing sensors for location and orientation tracking data. In this pa- per, we introduce the TREC framework, designed to handle sensor input and make AR development easier. It does this in three ways. First, TREC generates a high-level abstract...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The presence of network latency leads to usability problems in distributed groupware applications. Example problems include difficulty synchronizing tightly-coupled collaboration, jarring changes in the user interface following the repair of conflicting operations, and confusion when participants discuss state that appears differently to each of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Standard web browsers are becoming a common platform for delivering groupware applications, but until recently, the only way to support real-time collaboration was with browser plug-ins. New networking approaches have recently been introduced - based on re-purposed techniques for delivering web pages (Comet), or integration of real-time communicati...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, ICEC 2011, held in Vancouver, Canada, in October 2011, under the auspices of IFIP. The 20 revised long papers, 18 short papers and 24 poster papers and demos presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 94 initial submissions. The...
Article
Full-text available
In this position paper, I introduce five grand challenges in the development of networked digital games. While this list is not intended to be exhaustive, I argue that these challenges are significant in that they are holding back the development of the next generation of innovative games.
Chapter
Full-text available
Augmented reality systems often involve collaboration among groups of people. While there are numerous toolkits that aid the development of such augmented reality groupware systems (e.g., ARToolkit and Groupkit), there remains an enormous gap between the specification of an AR groupware application and its implementation. In this chapter, we presen...
Article
Full-text available
Active games are video games that involve physical activity. Interaction in active games is captured via a variety of input devices such as accelerometers, cameras, pressure sensors and exercise equipment. It is difficult for programmers to deal with this profusion of devices, leading most active games to be tied to a particular hardware platform....