Tasman P. Crowe

Tasman P. Crowe
University College Dublin | UCD · School of Biology and Environmental Science

About

120
Publications
51,852
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,973
Citations
Citations since 2016
31 Research Items
2214 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations
June 2001 - present
University College Dublin
September 1998 - June 2001
University of Southampton

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystems are under pressure from multiple human disturbances whose impact may vary depending on environmental context. We experimentally evaluated variation in the separate and combined effects of the loss of a key functional group (canopy algae) and physical disturbance on rocky shore ecosystems at nine locations across Europe. Multivariate comm...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species can alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems and affect the quality of the services they provide. Effects on biodiversity are well documented, but less is known about their impacts on ecosystem functioning and how these change as their populations increase. Invasive oysters, Crassostrea gigas, were added at increasing abun...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has complex structural impacts on coastal ecosystems. Global warming is linked to a widespread decline in body size, whereas increased flood frequency can amplify nutrient enrichment through enhanced run-off. Altered population body-size structure represents a disruption in top-down control, whereas eutrophication embodies a change i...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal environments are among the most productive on the planet, providing a wide range of ecosystem services. Development and exploitation mean that they are faced with stresses from a number of anthropogenic sources. Such stresses are typically studied in isolation, but multiple stressors can combine in unexpected ways to alter the structure of...
Article
Artificial coastal structures associated with coastal defences, energy generation, ports, marinas and other developments, are known to support lower levels of biodiversity than natural coastal environments and tend to be hotspots of invasive non-native species (INNS). In the present study, we attempted to detect INNS through both quantitative (q)PC...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial coastal structures associated with coastal defences, energy generation, ports, marinas and other developments, are known to support lower levels of biodiversity than natural coastal environments and tend to be hotspots of invasive non-native species (INNS). In the present study, we attempted to detect INNS through both quantitative (q)PC...
Article
From microbes to humans, habitat structural complexity plays a direct role in the provision of physical living space, and increased complexity supports higher biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across biomes. Coastal development and the construction of artificial shorelines are altering natural landscapes as humans seek socio-economic benefits...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial structures are widespread features of coastal marine environments. These structures, however, are poor surrogates of natural rocky shores, meaning they generally support depauperate assemblages with reduced population sizes. Little is known about sub-lethal effects of such structures, for example, in terms of demographic properties and r...
Article
Ocean sprawl is a growing threat to marine and coastal ecosystems globally, with wide-ranging consequences for natural habitats and species. Artificial structures built in the marine environment often support less diverse communities than natural rocky marine habitats because of low topographic complexity. Some structures can be eco-engineered to i...
Article
Artificial marine infrastructures now cover large stretches of the available natural shoreline in many parts of the world. This is having a substantial impact on the local marine ecosystems as biodiverse natural hard substrata are being replaced with man-made structures, which have been shown to support lower levels of biodiversity. The ecological...
Article
Abstract Aim: Topographic complexity is widely accepted as a key driver of biodiversity, but at the patch-scale, complexity–biodiversity relationships may vary spatially and temporally according to the environmental stressors complexity mitigates, and the species richness and identity of potential colonists. Using a manipulative experiment, we asse...
Article
Full-text available
Contaminants may affect ecosystem functioning by reducing the fitness of organisms and these impacts may cascade through ecosystems, particularly if the sensitive organisms are also habitat‐forming species. Understanding how sub‐lethal effects of toxicants can affect the quality and functions of biogenic habitats is critical if we are to establish...
Article
The goal of this paper is to propose a screening method for assessing the environmental risk to aquatic systems in harbours worldwide. A semi-quantitative method is based on environmental pressures, environmental conditions and societal response. The method is flexible enough to be applied to 15 harbours globally distributed through a multinational...
Article
Full-text available
Complex regimes of stress arise when multiple stressors combine simultaneously, with varying degrees of temporal separation or variation in their sequential order. A manipulative field experiment was run to test whether doses of two stressors (Copper and Biocide) varied in their effects on marine epifauna and ecosystem functioning depending on thei...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Artificial structures tend to support less diverse assemblages than natural hard substrata, but it is as yet unclear how this effect varies with environmental context. Here macroalgal assemblages were compared between artificial and natural substrata in different environmental contexts within the Irish Sea. We find no differences in macroalgal comm...
Chapter
Full-text available
Interactions in the Marine Benthos - edited by Stephen J. Hawkins August 2019
Article
Full-text available
Maritime economy, ecosystem-based management and climate change adaptation and mitigation raise emerging needs on coastal ocean and biological observations. Integrated ocean observing aims at optimizing sampling strategies and cost-efficiency, sharing data and best practices, and maximizing the value of the observations for multiple purposes. Recen...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat-forming species sustain biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in harsh environments through the amelioration of physical stress. Nonetheless, their role in shaping patterns of species distribution under future climate scenarios is generally overlooked. Focusing on coastal systems, we assess how habitat-forming species can influence the abi...
Book
Full-text available
Europe lacks a multi-purpose integrated biological ocean observing system. The Future Science Brief recommends building an integrated biological ocean observation system, while supporting current capacity. Europe needs a strategic vision to increase the relevant biological ocean observation capacity. We also need to bring together key stakeholders,...
Preprint
A key challenge in predicting the effects of global changes is determining how they may modify the influence of localised stressors, such that steps can be taken to minimise combined effects. Combined effects of global and local stressors can be difficult to predict as they are underpinned by influences on individual species and interactions betwee...
Article
Full-text available
A key challenge in predicting the effects of global changes is determining how they may modify the influence of localised stressors, such that steps can be taken to minimise combined effects. Combined effects of global and local stressors can be difficult to predict as they are underpinned by influences on individual species and interactions betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive ecosystem engineers (IEE) are potentially one of the most influential types of biological invaders. They are expected to have extensive ecological impacts by altering the physical-chemical structure of ecosystems, thereby changing the rules of existence for a broad range of resident biota. To test the generality of this expectation, we use...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to alien invasions. Regular, standardized, targeted monitoring of coastal areas helps to detect the arrival of non-native species early, identify sites most vulnerable to invasion, and assess potential for further spread. This study quantified the spread and changes in distribution of non-native oyster...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between community structure and the functioning of ecosystems is the subject of ongoing debate. Biological or functional trait-based approaches that capture life strategy, morphology and behavioural characteristics have received far less attention than taxonomic diversity in this context, despite their more intuitive link to ecosys...
Article
Parasites are ubiquitous throughout nature and can have dramatic effects on their hosts. Although much is known about the pathology of parasites, the environmental factors influencing the distribution and abundance of parasites are poorly understood. Investigations into these factors could help predict the effect of parasites on the functioning of...
Article
In the frame of the COST ACTION ‘EMBOS’ (Development and implementation of a pan-European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System), coverage of intertidal macroalgae was estimated at a range of marine stations along the European coastline (Subarctic, Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean). Based on these data, we tested whether patterns in macroalgal dive...
Article
Full-text available
Pacific oysters are now one of the most ‘globalised’ marine invertebrates. They dominate bivalve aquaculture production in many regions and wild populations are increasingly becoming established, with potential to displace native species and modify habitats and ecosystems. While some fishing communities may benefit from wild populations, there is n...
Article
Full-text available
Examining how variability in population abundance and distribution is allotted among different spatial scales can inform of processes that are likely to generate that variability. Results of studies dealing with scale issues in marine benthic communities suggest that variability is concentrated at small spatial scales (from tens of centimetres to f...
Article
Coastal ecosystems are highly complex and driven by multiple environmental factors. To date we lack scientific evidence for the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic drivers for the majority of marine habitats in order to adequately assess the role of different stressors across the European seas. Such relationship can be investigated b...
Article
Full-text available
Within the COST action EMBOS (European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System) the degree and variation of the diversity and densities of soft-bottom communities from the lower intertidal or the shallow subtidal was measured at 28 marine sites along the European coastline (Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean) using jointly agreed and harmonized protoco...
Article
Dublin, the capital city of Ireland, was developed by the Vikings in the 9th century. Today, Dublin Port is the busiest port in Ireland, handling 31 million tonnes of cargo a year and over 1.6 million ferry passengers and covering an area of 260 hectares in the centre of Dublin Bay, which encloses an area of about . Close to the port there are wetl...
Article
Full-text available
Grazing mollusks are used as a food resource worldwide, and limpets are harvested commercially for both local consumption and export in several countries. This study describes a field experiment to assess the effects of simulated human exploitation of limpets Patella vulgata on their population ecology in terms of protandry (age-related sex change...
Article
Pollution is a global issue at the frontier between ecology, environmental science, management, engineering and policy. Legislation requires experiments to determine how much contamination an ecosystem can absorb before there are structural or functional changes. Yet, existing methods cannot realistically simulate regimes of chemical disturbance an...
Article
In a recent letter, Thomsen and Wernberg (2015) reanalyzed data compiled for our recent paper (Lyons et al. 2014). In that paper, we examined the effects of macroalgal blooms and macroalgal mats on seven important measures of community structure and ecosystem functioning, and explored several ecological and methodological factors that might explain...
Article
Full-text available
1.Loss of biodiversity and nutrient enrichment are two of the most pervasive drivers of change in ecosystems globally. However, little is known about how these disturbances interact to affect ecosystem functioning.2.We established a field experiment to test for effects of loss of consumer species on algal assemblages (richness and assemblage struct...
Article
Ecosystem functioning underpins the ecosystem services upon which humans rely. Critical functions, such as primary and secondary productivity, are, however, increasingly threatened by a range of anthropogenic stressors. Although the extent of the threat of contamination is large and has been increasing, pollution is one of the least-studied stresso...
Article
Limited knowledge of the mechanisms through which multiple stressors affect communities and ecosystems limits capacity to predict their effects. Less clear is how stressors impact early colonization of newly available habitats due to scarcity of studies. The present study tested whether copper and freshwater input affect colonization of hard substr...
Article
AimBiological invasions are among the main threats to biodiversity. To promote a mechanistic understanding of the ecological impacts of non-native seaweeds, we assessed how effects on resident organisms vary according to their trophic level.LocationGlobal.Methods We performed meta-analytical comparisons of the effects of non-native seaweeds on both...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Ecosystems are affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors from a wide range of sources. This is problematic because multiple stressors can modify each others’ influences in ways that may vary depending on their respective intensities/concentrations. Such effects are poorly understood because they require large comple...
Article
Full-text available
Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have been introduced throughout much of the world, become invasive in many locations and can alter native assemblage structure, biodiversity and the distribution and abundance of other species. It is not known, however, to what extent their effects on biodiversity change as their cover increases, and how these ef...
Article
Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programs. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estu...
Article
Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are causing widespread environmental changes and can threaten biodiversity and ecosystem services. Biotic interactions can play a key role in promoting or inhibiting spread of non-indigenous species. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793) is commonly found on intertidal shores with hard...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions have the potential to cause severe alterations to the biodiversity of natural ecosystems. At the same time, variation in the diversity and composition of native communities may have an important influence on the impact of invasions. Here, effects of the invasive Japanese wireweed, Sargassum muticum, were tested across a range o...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting establishment and spread of invasive species requires extensive co-­‐ ordinated sampling programmes. Identifying the factors promoting or inhibiting local establishment of an invasive species can improve capacity to predict further spread and underpin strategies to limit spread. Here, a structured sampling programme was used to assess t...
Article
The extent of salmon farming’s influence on the environment and the uptake of particulate and dissolved effluents by benthic organisms was assessed using community structure and stable isotope analyses. Sediment cores were collected along two directions: perpendicular to and in the direction of the main residual current, at 0, 25 and 200 m from two...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The SIMBIOSYS Project investigated the impacts that human activity have on biodiversity and ecological functioning, and the associated benefits of biodiversity to human society, that is, ecosystem services. Three expanding sectors of enterprise were addressed in the project: (i) the cultivation of bioenergy crops; (ii) the landscaping of road corri...
Article
Full-text available
Research into the role of biodiversity in the functioning of rocky shore ecosystems has ignored the microscopic component of the biota, in particular the microbial films coating most marine surfaces. Yet in other habitats, biofilms are known to be major contributors to ecosystem functioning. The objective of the present study was thus to understand...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species have been identified as a serious threat to biodiversity, particularly in protected habitats. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, which is invasive in many parts of the world, can form very dense populations affecting the abundance and distribution of native organisms. We experimentally separated the effects of the cover and stat...
Article
Compensatory dynamics, overyielding and statistical averaging are mechanisms promoting the temporal stability of natural communities. Using the model of European intertidal rocky shore assemblages and collating 17 datasets, we investigated how the strength of these stability-enhancing mechanisms varies with latitude and how it can be altered by the...
Article
Full-text available
1. Global declines in biodiversity have stimulated much research into the consequences of species loss for ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Species at higher trophic levels are at greater risk of human-induced extinction yet remarkably little is known about the effects of consumer species loss across multiple trophic levels in na...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding and predicting the consequences of warming for complex ecosystems and indeed individual species remains a majo ecological challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of increased seawater temperatures on the metabolic and consumptio rates of five distinct marine species. The experimental species reflected different trophic positions w...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive ecosystem engineers can physically and chemically alter the receiving environment, thereby affecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, invasive throughout much of the world, can establish dense populations monopolising shorelines and possibly altering ecosystem processes including decomposition...
Data
PCR cycles used to amplify bacterial (16S rRNA) and functional genes for ammonia-oxidisers (amoA), methanogens (mcrA) and methylotrophs (mxaF). All amplifications started with a 2 min denaturing at 95°C and a final extension for 5 min at 72°C. (DOCX)
Data
CO2 (mmol m-2 h-1) and CH4 (µmol m-2 h-1) from procedural controls (volume, live oysters and macrofaunal) and high cover plots of C. gigas. Mean ±S.E., n = 7. (DOC)
Data
Forward and reverse primer pairs used in this study to target bacterial (16S rRNA) and functional genes for ammonia-oxidisers (amoA), methanogens (mcrA) and methylotrophs (mxaF) in the oxic and anoxic sediment. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Human-mediated introduction of nonnative species into coastal areas via aquaculture is one of the main pathways that can lead to biological invasions. To develop strategies to counteract invasions, it is critical to determine whether populations establishing in the wild are self-sustaining or based on repeated introductions. Invasions by the Pacifi...
Article
Marine environments are affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors, but research to date has focussed primarily on the impacts and indicators of individual stressors. Nutrient and organic enrichment can occur separately or in combination with each other, but their combined effects are not fully understood. In a field experiment on a sheltered, sa...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most influential forms of biological invasions is that of invasive ecosystem engineers, species that affect other biota via alterations to the abiotic environment. Such species can have wide-reaching consequences because they alter ecosystems and essentially “change the rules of existence” for a broad suites of resident biota. They thus...
Article
Full-text available
Background Biological invasions are among the most severe threats to marine biodiversity. The impacts of introduced seaweeds on native macroalgal assemblages have been thoroughly reviewed. In contrast, no attempt has been made to synthesize the available information on the effects of exotic seaweeds on other trophic levels. In addition, it has not...
Article
Full-text available
Background Anthropogenic activities are believed to have caused an increase in the magnitude, frequency, and extent of macroalgal blooms in marine and estuarine environments. These blooms may contribute to declines in seagrasses and non-blooming macroalgal beds, increasing hypoxia, and reductions in the diversity of benthic invertebrates. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Compensatory dynamics, overyielding and statistical averaging are mechanisms promoting the temporal stability of natural communities. Using the model of European intertidal rocky shore assemblages and collating 17 datasets, we investigated how the strength of these stability-enhancing mechanisms varies with latitude and how it can be altered by the...
Article
journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third part...