Tarmo Koppel

Tarmo Koppel
University of South Carolina | USC · AI Institute

BSc, MA, MSc, PhD
Artificial Intelligence

About

60
Publications
21,198
Reads
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632
Citations
Introduction
My scientific work has been interdisciplinary covering areas of: information technologies, risk management, business administration, human factors, health and safety and material science .
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
Tallinn University of Technology
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2008 - present
Institute of Environmental Health and Safety
Position
  • Project Manager

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
A previously healthy worker developed symptoms assigned to electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) after moving to an office with exposure to high levels of anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMFs). These symptoms consisted of e.g. headache, arthralgia, tinnitus, dizziness, memory loss, fatique, insomnia, transitory cardiovascular abnormalities,...
Article
Purpose The deployment of new 5G NR technology has significantly raised public concerns in possible negative effects on human health by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). The current review is aimed to clarify the differences between possible health effects caused by the various generations of telecommunication technology, especially d...
Article
In urban environment there is a constant increase of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. With the placement of mobile phone base station antennas radiofrequency hotspots emerge. This study investigates an area at Skeppsbron street in Stockholm, Sweden with an aggregation of base station antennas...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to seri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study exposed subjects (N=40) to 50 Hz sinusoidal electric field at 1500-2000 V m-1. The exposure was focused at the feet, where subjects placed their feet on isolated power wire array, covered with another layer of electrically isolating sheet. The test was done under blind test conditions, consisting of five stages, including control and exp...
Article
Full-text available
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) categorized in 2011 radiofrequency (RF) as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B. During use of the handheld wireless phone, especially the smartphone, the thyroid gland is a target organ. During the 21st century, the incidence of thyroid cancer is increas...
Article
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Earlier animal studies have provided evidence that non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may be caused by exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This was recently confirmed by the U.S. National Toxicology (NTP) study that showed an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in female mice exposed to the GSM modulated or the CDMA modulated cell phone RF rad...
Article
Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain and head tumours during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 we assessed life-time occu...
Article
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The current European Union biodiversity strategy is failing to reach its targets aimed at halting biodiversity loss by 2020, and eyes are already set at the post-2020 strategy. The European Commission is encouraging the active role of citizens in achieving policy objectives in the coming years. In this paper, we explore ways citizens discuss their...
Chapter
In the present study occupational health and safety system and basis of the E-Health were analysed. The E-Occupational health and safety means transforming E-Health basic principles into E-Occupational health and safety context. The E-Occupational health and safety system differentiates from E-Health system as the stakeholders are different, includ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the synthesis methods and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding mechanisms and performance of porous materials. Electronic devices need shielding from external EMI to properly function. Also, sources of EM waves such as communication systems and medical imaging equipment need to be isolated to protect humans from expos...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30-300 GHz has, since 2011, been classified as a 'possible' human carcinogen by Group 2B, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO. This was based on a number of human epidemiology studies on increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Based on further human epidemiology s...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz to 300 GHz was evaluated in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO to be a 'possible human carcinogen' Group 2B. The conclusion was based on human epidemiological studies on an increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. In previous measurement studies, we...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz to 300 GHz was evaluated in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO to be a 'possible human carcinogen' Group 2B. The conclusion was based on human epidemiological studies on an increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. In previous measurement studies, we...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the radiofrequency (RF) radiation at central parts in Stockholm, Sweden in March and April 2017. The same measurement round tour was used each time. We used EME Spy 200 for the measurements as in our previous studies in Stockholm. The results were based on 11,482 entries, corresponding to more than 12 h measurements. The total mean leve...
Article
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Understanding surface resistivity as a component of the electroclimate would help better to build healthy and productive human environments. This study tests and demonstrates surface resistivity measurement method for characterizing this electric property of Earth’s surface across different locations and soil types. Altogether 27 different types of...
Article
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In this study electrostatic fields are investigated in the Geghard monastery, Armenia. The observations are made also regarding the surface moisture and natural water passages. Spot measurements were made inside and outside of the monastery compound. Electrostatic field was found to vary across the monastery area ranging from-3 to 40 V/inch. Negati...
Conference Paper
This study investigated the effectiveness of iron sheets in shielding static magnetic fields from MRI units. The neighbouring rooms of two 3T MRI units were measured, located in different healthcare facilities, one fully shielded and the other only partially shielded (only the ceiling was shielded) from static magnetic fields. In order to achieve a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 we assessed lifetime occup...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Wireless access to the Internet is now commonly used in schools. Many schools give each student their own laptop and utilize the laptops and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) connection for educational purposes. Most children also bring their own mobile phones to school. Since children are obliged by law to attend school, a safe environment is...
Article
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Snow should be accounted in electromagnetic fields' risk assessment, especially in Nordic countries where in winter months snow precipitation and coverage may significantly affect the propagation of microwaves. The risk assessment should be always carried out under worst case scenario conditions, including the reflective properties of the surfaces...
Article
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Excess water content within the building material could greatly alter the interaction of the microwave with the material. In this study aerated concrete (AEROC) block walls (60x60cm) were investigated for their microwave (2.4 GHz) properties under wetting conditions. The spray wetting of the wall was conducted to simulate the environmental processe...
Patent
Full-text available
A composite shielding material in the form of syntactic foam where the spherical or sphericallike articles are encompassed by an organic or inorganic matrix material, and coated with a layer of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene flakes. Such articles may be alternatively or additionally be covered with nanosized metal parti...
Article
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This study investigates the microwave electromagnetic shielding properties of secondary use and composite materials used as ingredients in shielding materials. Materials investigated include: waste tire crumb rubber (CR), metallurgical slag (MS) and commercial lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA). These materials were tested in a powder form...
Article
Full-text available
Having an adequate shielding from radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may serve many causes: to protect sensitive electronic equipment from outside interference; to protect the environment from the high radiation generating equipment; to protect humans from excess radiation etc. Strong RF EMFs may be encountered in public domain but e...
Article
– European companies are expected to check their compliance with a new legislation about occupational exposure to the electromagnetic fields . Corresponding EU directive was issued in 2013 and was to be implemented into the national legislation of member states by 2016. The current study was launched with the aim to determine the readiness of the c...
Article
Background: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO. Methods: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used f...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EM...
Conference Paper
Power line communication (PLC) connects energy producers with energy consumers. In the European Union stricter guidelines are under development to limit disturbances in the 2–150 kHz frequency range, because devices utilising PLC do not work. This study measured voltage transients in 22 locations and identified sources for noise. Home environments...
Article
Full-text available
The Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden was investigated for public radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure. The exposimeter EME Spy 200 was used to collect the RF exposure data across the railway station. The exposimeter covers 20 different radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5,850 MHz. In total 1,669 data points were recorded. The median value...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). I...
Article
Full-text available
In the present work the methods for producing flat and three-dimensional shielding screens from the perforated steel tape are proposed. The possible application variants of mentioned screens are offered and analyzed. Main attention is given for producing one-layer and multi-layer screens with cellular structure due to its relatively low weight a...
Article
This study utilized a setup of radiofrequency generating and metering instruments to measure the reflective and pass-through properties of the innovative material of paramagnetic metal coated ceramic hollow spheres (MCS). The dimensions of the spherical articles reside around 50–250 μm, the thickness of metal (Cu) coating is 0.5–1.3 μm. The radiofr...
Article
The objectives of performed research were the following: 1) check out the possibility of effective formation of the tubular and planar structures from the perforated steel tapes, which were obtained as a waste during stamping of fine-sized details, by cutting and bending; 2) testing of achieved tubular and annular structures for fixing up of the el...
Article
The aim of this research was to investigate the electromagnetic fields in the modern office environment. Both low frequency and the high frequency electromagnetic fields were studied. The sources of elevated electromagnetic fields and the conditions under which they occur were identified. Measurements were performed by following a 14-point human bo...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weak static magnetic fields on human heart rate variability (HRV). So far, literature has mainly focused on the health effects induced by strong static magnetic fields. HRV is a temporal fluctuation of heart rate, which the literature has shown to be an adequate indicator for assessing the stat...
Article
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The relevance of this study is determined by the rapid development in the portable computer and wireless data transmission technologies. Modern working and living environments have become abundant in radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. This article investigates the effectiveness of intervention measures to reduce laptop computer user’s exposure...
Article
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This study investigates the most commonly used radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields’ (EMFs) mitigation materials and methods. The materials investigated in this study included: a graphite based paint; a wire netting; a foil paper; a metalized fabric; a transparent conductive film and some other experimental solutions. The study undertook two...
Conference Paper
This study investigated six periods of highly abnormal Earth’s magnetic field fluctuations that occurred during the period of seven months. The aim of the study was to identify which of the adverse health effect symptoms occur most often and what percentage of the respondents are affected by them. A total of 2037 responses were collected. Data anal...
Article
Full-text available
The current study is devoted to the manufacturing of cellular structures from perforated steel tapes, which are obtained as a waste during stamping of fine-sized details. Obtained cellular structures can be used for electromagnetic shielding solutions. The relevance of the current study can be characterized as in modern working and living environme...
Article
The relevance of this article can be described by the rapid development in computer technology which has resulted in widespread use of laptop computers. Consequently the population is now more exposed to the electromagnetic fields, emanating from such devices. The aim of this article is to test various intervention measures which would help to redu...
Conference Paper
The relevance of the study is prescribed by the rapid development in mobile computer and wireless data transmission technologies. The levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields that the population is exposed to have increased likewise. This article investigates the levels of exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile net...
Conference Paper
European companies are expected to check their compliance with a new legislation about occupational exposure to the electromagnetic fields. Corresponding EU directive was issued in 2013 and is to be implemented into the national legislation of member states by 2016. This paper introduces a questionnaire with the aim to determine the readiness of co...
Article
Full-text available
The relevance of this article can be described by two developments intrinsic to the digital age: the wide-spread use of the mobile devices with wireless connectivity and the exponential increase of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in past years. The aim of this article is to determine the field strengths of popular mobile devices and to analys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study introduces a new dynamic lighting system exceptional from the typical indoor lighting solutions. The main highlights of the tested system are the variable colour temperature and the vertical lighting. Typical modern office lighting is a gas tube fluorescent lighting with a fixed colour temperature. The authors used previously developed d...
Article
This paper tackles the development of the new European Union’s occupational electromagnetic fields (EMF) directive. The directive was called for to answer the European workers’ need for protection from emerging health risks, such as electromagnetic fields. The aim of the study was to determine the readiness of the stakeholders to adopt this new occ...
Conference Paper
The study investigates the link between the lighting conditions in the office work environment and the health symptoms associated with poor illumination. Along with the recent studies, the important role of lighting and its effect on humans is becoming clearer. The relevance of the natural daylight is expressed by the dynamic nature of the colour t...
Article
Technological progress and widespread use of electronics has rapidly increased levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in workplaces during the last decade. Today’s workers are exposed to levels of EMFs unprecedented in the history. This has caused concern amongst the general public. Although the EMF levels of such modern devices fall within curren...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many schools and educational institutions are using wireless Wi-Fi and Tablet technologies in their education. Recently WHO IARC classified radiofrequency (RF) radiation ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’. Currently guidance levels for electromagnetic fields (including RF) are based on thermal effects while effects have been reported on non-thermal...
Conference Paper
This study presents the measurement results of intermediate frequency (IF) noise in mains electrical system at workplaces. Measurements were taken both directly connected to the mains power network and from inside the facilities by measuring electromagnetic fields. The results show great differences from one place to another, indicating large usage...
Article
In this article the author analyzes quality parameters of the ergonomic lighting systems and forms a model for of an ideal indoor lighting. Based on the literature review and author’s measurements of the natural daylight, the model’s principal features are 1) dynamic spectrum and 2) dynamic color temperature. The model prescribes these parameters t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare vibration and noise characteristics caused by different types of lawn maintenance machines in association with the risk factors to workers' health. In the present study, the method connecting vibration hazard, health damages and risk levels is presented. Three types of agriculture machines were investigated: all...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Primary objectives of the EEMFF-Action are: 1. Development of common safety management for EMF exposure 2. Coordination of assessment methods of EMF exposure situations 3. Development of knowledge to safeguard individuals at particular risk 4. Set-up of a trans-European EMF health effects database 5. Input to stakeholders to inform EU policy makers (WG 5)
Project
Building materials radiowave and microwave characterization: determining reflection, transmission and absorbtion properties.