Tarmo Ketola

Tarmo Ketola
University of Jyväskylä | JYU ·  Department of Biological and Environmental Science

PhD

About

91
Publications
13,181
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,098
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2003 - present
University of Jyväskylä
Position
  • Senior Researcher (PI)

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
The ability to predict the consequences of fluctuating environments on species distribution and extinction often relies on determining the tolerances of species or genotypes in different constant environments (i.e. determining tolerance curves). However, very little is known about the suitability of measurements made in constant environments to pre...
Article
Fluctuating environments are expected to select for individuals that have highest geometric fitness over the experienced environments. This leads to the prediction that genetically determined environmental robustness in fitness, and average fitness across environments should be positively genetically correlated to fitness in fluctuating environment...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental fluctuations can select for generalism, which is also hypothesized to increase organisms' ability to invade novel environments. Here, we show that across a range of temperatures, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens that evolved in fluctuating temperature (daily variation between 24°C and 38°C, mean 31°C) outperforms t...
Article
In energetic terms, fitness may be seen to be dependent on successful allocation of energy between life-history traits. In addition, fitness will be constrained by the energy allocation ability, which has also been defined as condition. We suggest here that the allocation ability, estimated as the difference between total energy budget and maintena...
Article
Full-text available
The persistence of intrapopulation phenotypic variation typically requires some form of balancing selection since drift and directional selection eventually erode genetic variation. Heterozygote advantage remains a classic explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in the face of selection. However, examples of heterozygote advantage, oth...
Article
Viruses are key actors of ecosystems and have major impacts on global biogeochemical cycles. Prophages deserve particular attention as they are ubiquitous in bacterial genomes and can enter a lytic cycle when triggered by environmental conditions. We explored how temperature affects the interactions between prophages and other biological levels by...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic variation is suggested to facilitate the persistence of environmentally growing pathogens under environmental change. Here we hypothesized that the intensive farming environment induces higher phenotypic variation in microbial pathogens than natural environment, because of high stochasticity for growth and stronger survival selection com...
Article
Full-text available
Tässä mietinnössä Luontopaneeli keskittyy Suomen pinta-alaltaan suurimman ja siten lajien kannalta merkityksellisimmän elinympäristön eli boreaalisten metsien suojelun kohdentamiseen. EU:n BD-strategiassa mainitut käsitteet vanha metsä ja luonnontilainen metsä eivät ole yksiselitteisiä, ja niiden määritelmiin voidaan perustellusti esittää erilaisia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The burden of many infectious diseases varies seasonally and a better understanding of the drivers of infectious disease seasonality would help to improve public health interventions. For directly transmitted highly-immunizing childhood infections, the leading hypothesis is that seasonality is strongly driven by social gatherings imposed...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetic modifications can contribute to adaptation, but the relative contributions of genetic and epigenetic variation are unknown. Previous studies on the role of epigenetic changes in adaptation in eukaryotes have nearly exclusively focused on cytosine methylation (m5C), while prokaryotes exhibit a richer system of methyltransferases targettin...
Article
Full-text available
Suomen alkuperäisestä 10,4 miljoonan hehtaarin suoalasta yli puolet on ojitettu metsä- ja maatalouden sekä turvetuotannon tarpeisiin. Etelä-Suomessa ojitus on ollut voimakkainta: keskimäärin noin 75 prosenttia ja monin paikoin vielä suurempi osa soista on ojitettu. Suot ovat Euroopan luontotyypeistä kaikkein uhanalaisin luontotyyppiryhmä ja Suomell...
Article
Full-text available
As climate change accelerates and habitats free from anthropogenic impacts diminish, populations are forced to migrate or to adapt quickly. Evolutionary rescue (ER) is a phenomenon, in which a population is able to avoid extinction through adaptation. ER is considered to be more likely at slower rates of environmental change. However, the effects o...
Article
Social life is often considered to cost in terms of increased parasite or pathogen risk. However, evidence for this in the wild remains equivocal, possibly because populations and social groups are often structured, which affects the local transmission and extinction of diseases. We test how the structuring of towns into villages and households inf...
Article
Full-text available
Sanna Marinin hallitus on sitoutunut luonnon monimuotoisuuden tilan parantamiseen ja luontokadon pysäyttämiseen. Lupaus on äärimmäisen tärkeä. Luonnon ekosysteemien heikennys uhkaa elintärkeiden eko-systeemipalveluiden tuotantoa sekä ihmisten terveyttä, hyvinvointia ja turvallisuutta. Maailman talousfoorumi on nostanut luontokadon viiden vakavimman...
Article
Full-text available
Suomi on toistaiseksi selvinnyt koronaviruksen (COVID-19) aiheuttamasta kriisistä taloudellisesti verrokkimaita paremmin, mutta työllisyystilanne on silti heikentynyt ympäri maata ja talouden ennustetaan supistuvan noin 4,7 prosenttia vuonna 20201. Negatiivisten talousvaikutusten minimoimiseksi hallitus on suuntaamassa EU:n elpymisvälineestä varoja...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few decades, extensively drug resistant (XDR) resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a notable burden to healthcare all over the world. Especially carbapenemase-producing strains are problematic due to their capability to withstand even last resort antibiotics. Some sequence types (STs) of K. pneumoniae are significantly more prev...
Article
Full-text available
Grassland biodiversity, including traditional rural biotopes maintained by traditional agricultural practices, has become threatened worldwide. Road verges have been suggested to be complementary or compensatory habitats for species inhabiting grasslands. Species co-occurrence patterns linked with species traits can be used to separate between the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phenotypic variation allows adaptation of opportunistic pathogens to variable conditions in the outside-host environment with strong effects on their epidemiology and pathogenicity in hosts. Here we found that the isolates of an opportunistic fish pathogen >| |< from fish farming environment had higher phenotypic variation between two morphotypes i...
Article
Full-text available
Earth's temperature is increasing due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions; and organisms need either to adapt to higher temperatures, migrate into colder areas, or face extinction. Temperature affects nearly all aspects of an organism's physiology via its influence on metabolic rate and protein structure, therefore genetic adaptation to increased temper...
Article
Full-text available
The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, a model microbial eukaryote, has a life cycle with many features that make it suitable for studying experimental evolution. However, it has lacked a general tool for estimating relative fitness of different strains in competition experiments. To remedy this need, we constructed N. crassa strains that contai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Earth's temperature is increasing due to anthropogenic CO 2 emissions; and organisms need either to adapt to higher temperatures, migrate into colder areas, or face extinction. Temperature affects nearly all aspects of organism's physiology via its influence on metabolic rate and protein structure. Compared to other abiotic stresses, genetic adapta...
Article
Full-text available
Background It has been suggested that climate change will lead to increased environmental fluctuations, which will undoubtedly have evolutionary consequences for all biota. For instance, fluctuations can directly increase the risk of invasions of alien species into new areas, as these species have repeatedly been proposed to benefit from disturbanc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environmental changes can cause strong cascading effects in species communities due to altered biological interactions between species (Zarnetske et al., 2012). Highly specialized interactions arising from the co-evolution of hosts and parasites, such as bacteria and phages, and short generation times of these species could rapidly lead to consider...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epigenetic modifications have been found to be involved in evolution, but the relative contributions of genetic and epigenetic variation in adaptation are unknown. Furthermore, previous studies on the role of epigenetic changes in adaptation have nearly exclusively focused on cytosine methylation in eukaryotes. We collected phenotypic, genetic, and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa , a model microbial eukaryote, has a life cycle with many features that make it suitable for studying experimental evolution. However, it has lacked a general tool for estimating relative fitness of different strains in competition experiments. To remedy this need, we constructed N. crassa strains that conta...
Article
Variations in stress resistance and adaptive plastic responses during ontogeny have rarely been addressed, despite the possibility that differences between life stages can affect species' range margins and thermal tolerance. Here, we assessed the thermal sensitivity and hardening capacity of Drosophila melanogaster across developmental stages from...
Article
Full-text available
Environments are changing rapidly, and to cope with these changes, organisms have to adapt. Adaptation can take many shapes and occur at different speeds, depending on the type of response, the trait, the population, and the environmental conditions. The biodiversity crisis that we are currently facing illustrates that numerous species and populati...
Article
The evolution of cooperation and social behaviour is often studied in isolation from the ecology of organisms. Yet, the selective environment under which individuals evolve is much more complex in nature, consisting of ecological and abiotic interactions in addition to social ones. Here, we measured the life-history costs of cooperative chemical de...
Article
Full-text available
Reaction norms or tolerance curves have often been used to predict how organisms deal with fluctuating environments. A potential drawback is that reaction norms measured in different constant environments may not capture all aspects of organismal responses to fluctuating environments. We examined growth of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reaction norms or tolerance curves have often been used to predict how organisms deal with fluctuating environments. A potential drawback is that reaction norms measured in different constant environments may not capture all aspects of organismal responses to fluctuating environments. We examined growth of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa i...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting the effects of global increase in temperatures on disease virulence is challenging, especially for environmental opportunistic bacteria, because pathogen fitness may be differentially affected by temperature within and outside host environment. So far, there is very little empirical evidence on the connections between optimal temperature...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid environmental fluctuations are ubiquitous in the wild, yet majority of experimental studies mostly consider effects of slow fluctuations on organism. To test the evolutionary consequences of fast fluctuations, we conducted nine independent experimental evolution experiments with bacteria. Experimental conditions were same for all species, and...
Article
Full-text available
Most experimental studies on adaptation to stressful environments are performed under conditions that are rather constant and rarely ecologically relevant. Fluctuations in natural environmental conditions are ubiquitous and include for example variation in intensity and duration of temperature, droughts, parasite loads, and availability of nutrient...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although increase in temperatures may boost the number of pathogens, a complex process involving the interaction of a susceptible host, a virulent strain, and environmental factors would influence disease virulence in unpredictable ways. Here we explored if the virulence of an environmentally growing opportunistic fish pathogen, Flavobacterium colu...
Preprint
Full-text available
It has been suggested that climate change will lead to increased environmental fluctuations, which will undoubtedly have evolutionary consequences for all biota. For instance, fluctuations can directly increase the risk of invasions of alien species into new areas, as these species have repeatedly been proposed to benefit from disturbances. At the...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on species' responses to climate change have focused largely on the direct effect of abiotic factors and in particular temperature, neglecting the effects of biotic interactions in determining the outcome of climate change projections. Many microbes rely on strong interference competition; hence the fitness of many pathogenic bacteria could...
Article
Full-text available
Background Invasions pose a large threat to native species, but the question of why some species are more invasive, and some communities more prone to invasions than others, is far from solved. Using 10 different three-species bacterial communities, we tested experimentally if the phylogenetic relationships between an invader and a resident communi...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes under different environmental or developmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity is a ubiquitous feature of living organisms, and is typically based on variable patterns of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which gene expression is influenced and regulated...
Article
Theoretical models of environmentally transmitted diseases often assume that transmission is a constant process, which scales linearly with pathogen dose. Here we question the applicability of such an assumption and propose a sigmoidal form for the pathogens infectivity response. In our formulation, this response arises under two assumptions: 1) mu...
Article
Full-text available
Very few studies have experimentally assessed the evolutionary effects of species interactions within the same trophic level. Here we show that when Serratia marcescens evolve in multispecies communities, their growth rate exceeds the growth rate of the bacteria that evolved alone, whereas the biomass yield gets lower. In addition to the community...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes under different environmental or developmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity is an ubiquitous feature of living organisms, and is typically based on variable patterns of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which gene expression is influenced and regulated...
Article
Full-text available
Although increased disease severity driven by intensive farming practices is problematic in food production, the role of evolutionary change in disease is not well understood in these environments. Experiments on parasite evolution are traditionally conducted using laboratory models, often unrelated to economically important systems. We compared ho...
Article
Full-text available
Interaction between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is expected to affect energetic phenotypes of traits linked to mitochondrial physiology, further influencing the fitness. A rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), has a population structure completely or partially introgressed with mitochondria from its relative, the red vole (M. r utilus). F...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally transmitted, opportunistic bacterial pathogens have a life cycle that alternates between hosts and environmental reservoirs. Resources are often scarce and fluctuating in the outside host environment, whereas overcoming the host immune system could allow pathogens to establish a new, resource abundant and stable niche within the hos...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution of species across the Earth shows strong latitudinal and altitudinal gradients with the number of species decreasing with declining temperatures. While these patterns have been recognized for well over a century, the mechanisms generating and maintaining them have remained elusive. Here, we propose a mechanistic explanation for tempera...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare is a serious problem in aquaculture, annually causing large economic losses around the world. Despite considerable research, the molecular epidemiology of F. columnare remains poorly understood. Methods: We investigated the population structure and spatiotemporal changes in the ge...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogens evolve in a close antagonistic relationship with their hosts. The conventional theory proposes that evolution of virulence is highly dependent on the efficiency of direct host-to-host transmission. Many opportunistic pathogens, however, are not strictly dependent on the hosts due to their ability to reproduce in the free-living environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Stocking with eggs has been widely used as a management measure to support degraded salmonid stocks. In Finland, Atlantic salmon and both sea migrating and lake-migrating brown trout are stocked as eggs, alevins, fry, parr, and smolt, whereas trout are also stocked as mature fish. The aim of this stocking is to improve catches and to support collap...
Article
Full-text available
The coincidental virulence evolution hypothesis suggests that outside-host selection, such as predation, parasitism and resource competition can indirectly affect the virulence of environmentally-growing bacterial pathogens. While there are some examples of coincidental environmental selection for virulence, it is also possible that the resource ac...