Tapio Luttinen

Tapio Luttinen
Aalto University · Department of Built Environment

Dr., professor

About

42
Publications
19,653
Reads
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582
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - December 2015
Aalto University
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Two-lane highways constitute a significant component of the highway system and serve an essential function for the movement of people and goods. The Highway Capacity Manual is primarily used for operational analysis on two lane highways in the U.S. and Canada. As part of a project sponsored by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program for i...
Article
This article evaluates the potential of dimming road lighting in order to save energy and lower costs while avoiding any adverse effects on the visibility of drivers. An experimental study under varying road surface conditions was conducted to examine the combined effect of car headlights and different road lighting intensities on the visibility le...
Article
Full-text available
Two- lane highways constitute a large proportion of the highway system in the United States, particularly in rural areas. Performance evaluation on those highways is the basis for planning, upgrade, and improvement programs. Such evaluations are conducted using performance measures that should ideally be correlated to performance determinants on th...
Article
Full-text available
Liikennetekniikan eettisten kysymysten tarkastelu on kansainvälisessä tutkimuksessa nouseva ala. Liikennepolitiikan taustalla olevien arvojen monitulkintaisuuden ja eettisten teorioiden perusteiden tuntemus auttaa syvemmin ymmärtämään ja analysoimaan liikennepolitiikan ongelmia ja niihin liittyvää mielipiteiden kirjoa. Parhaimmillaan tuloksena voi...
Article
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), a country in transition, is currently implementing motorway pricing schemes due to the financial constraints. Considering the importance of user perspectives for a successful implementation of a road pricing scheme, and a lack of research in the South East Europe (SEE), drivers in BiH were surveyed. Total sample includ...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in longitudinal control in driving has been discussed in both traffic psychology and transportation engineering. Traffic psychologists have concerned themselves with “driving style”, a habitual form of behavior marked by it’s stability, and its basis in psychological traits. Those working in traffic microsimulation have searched for quant...
Data
Jerk vs. time headway—Accelerating and decelerating case. These figures represent the linear fit for the accelerating and decelerating cases for the subject averages of jerk and time headway. The lines are Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) fits along with their confidence intervals at CL 95%. (PDF)
Data
Participants’ background information. Table describing the relevant background information collected on the 15 participants. Driving experiences are self-reported estimates, with 8 discretized categories for lifetime experience (from “Less than 1000 km” to “Over 1 000 000 km”) and 9 categories for the last 12 months (from “None” to “Over 50 000 km”...
Data
Mean jerk and mean time headway with gender. Scatter plot showing mean time headway on the x-axis and mean jerk on the y-axis. Male participants in orange, females in green. (PDF)
Data
Figs A-L. Per-transition average acceleration figures. For completeness, we provide figures for all the per-transition average accelerations. (PDF)
Data
Tables A-C. PCA details. Details of the Principal Component Analysis for variables containing subject averages (N = 15)—mean acceleration, mean jerk and mean time headway. They include eigenvalues, eigenvectors and the loadings for each component. (PDF)
Data
First two PCA components with gender. Scatter plot showing the first two PCA components, with gender of the participants differentiated by colour. Should the two groups form distinct clusters, one would be able to see them here. No such pattern arises with this amount of participants. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
PurposeRoad lighting illuminates road surface and surrounding areas of objects on a road, while car headlights illuminate vertical objects on a road. The goal of the study was to investigate the interaction between road lighting and car headlights at target detection distance. Method Target detection distances under different road lighting intensit...
Article
Full-text available
We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling...
Article
The bicycle is an important part of the urban transportation system in China. Traditional research on bicycle levels of service concentrated on the cyclists’ perspective and neglected bicyclists’ particularity and diversity. The objectives of this research were to propose bicycle level-of-service (BLOS) models from the users’ perspective and to dev...
Conference Paper
We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behaviour model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where att...
Conference Paper
Word counts: 4609 (text) + 1×250 (table) + 5×250 (figure) = 6109 word equivalents TRB 2016 Annual Meeting Paper revised from original submittal. ABSTRACT 1 2 Two-lane highways constitute a significant component of the highway system and serve an 3 essential function for the movement of people and goods. The Highway Capacity Manual is 4 primarily us...
Preprint
Full-text available
We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where atte...
Research
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possible need to further enhancements of the directional procedure as well as the methodology as a whole. Two specific issues are discussed: 1. Is the current directional procedure (as amended) appropriate, or should it be modified? 2. Is there a need for a larger revision of the two-lane methodology in...
Article
Full-text available
Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, na...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While walking on the streets, pedestrians can aware attractions like shopping windows. Some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step, this study investigates collective effects of the switching behavior for an attraction by means of numerical simulations. Such switching behavior leads s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The emerging LED technology enables intelligent street lighting that is based on sensing individual vehicles and dimming street lights accordingly. The potential energy savings are considerable, exceeding 50% on roads with low traffic. A possible reason why such applications are not yet emerging are financial uncertainties about the size of the sav...
Article
Full-text available
In order to investigate collective effects of interactions between pedestrians and attractions, this study extends the social force model. Such interactions lead pedestrians to form stable clusters around attractions, or even to rush into attractions if the interaction becomes stronger. It is also found that for high pedestrian density and intermed...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a concept of enhancing a microscopic traffic simulator, Hutsim, towards a more detailed driver behavior. The model presented here is expected to give more detailed information on drivers’ behavior and safety issues. Basic structure of the model and measurements needed for calibration are presented. The focus of the model present...
Article
Real-time traffic information applications (RTIA) collect real-time traffic data from a wide variety of detectors. The problem with these applications is that they are complex and hard to maintain because of the large number of distributed detectors involved. However, it is well recognized that traffic simulation systems have the ability to improve...
Article
Real-time traffic information applications (RTIA) collect real-time traffic data from a wide variety of detectors. The problem with these applications is that they are complex and hard to maintain because of the large number of distributed detectors involved. However, it is well recognized that traffic simulation systems have the ability to improve...
Book
Full-text available
Lecture notes in Finnish for Traffic Flow Characteristics.
Article
Potential capacity at an unsignalized intersection can be described as a conditional expectation from which the capacity equations for the most common headway distributions are easily obtained and each term in the equation finds an interpretation. The movement capacity of Rank 3 streams is adjusted for both Rank 2 queues and the modified headway di...
Article
The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2000 provides methods to estimate performance measures and the level of service for different types of traffic facilities. Because neither the input data nor the model parameters are totally accurate, there is an element of uncertainty in the results. An analytical method was used to estimate the uncertainty in the...
Article
The 2000 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) uses percent time-spent-following (PTSF) as the primary level-of-service (LOS) measure for two-lane highways. On Class I highways, average travel speed is used as an auxiliary measure. The new HCM provides methods for both two-way and directional estimation of PTSF, although the methods are not totally compati...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of the research was to develop a capacity and level-of-service analysis method for Finnish two-lane highways. The methodology of the new U.S. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000) was used as a framework for the analysis. The HCM method was, however, adjusted for Finnish conditions. Following the HCM2000 the percent time spent following (P...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic flow data have been collected from 20 automatic traffic recorders on Finnish two- lane highways. Observations were aggregated in 15-minute time intervals plus an optional one-minute extension period using a doubly synchronous counting process. Refined passenger car flow rates were calculated using headways of passenger cars not in a platoon...
Article
Full-text available
Cowan's M3 distribution has been used in several studies on unsignalized intersections, especially roundabouts. It allows separate analysis of follower and nonfollower headways, and it is simple enough for models of considerable complexity. Although M3 gives a simplistic model for short headways, it has many desirable properties as a headway distri...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on two issues in online microscopic traffic simulators: elimination of accumulated errors and calibration of the simulation parameters. The tested sink&source method reaches these objectives by implementing check points in the model that eliminate and regenerate vehicle objects based on real-time field measurements. At the same t...
Article
Full-text available
The properties of vehicle time headways are fundamental in many traffic engineering applications, such as capacity and level of service studies on highways, unsignalized intersections, and roundabouts. The operation of modern vehicle-actuated traffic signals is based on the measurement of time headways in the arriving traffic flow. In addition, the...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Archived project
Archived project
The objective of this research was to (1) develop performance measures for operational and capacity analyses of two-lane highways and develop models to produce these performance measures in a HCM context, and (2) develop or modify a simulation-based analysis method for two-lane highways and offer guidance for when to apply a simulation versus HCM methods. The resulting methods should lead towards a two-lane highway facilities procedure suitable for incorporation into future editions of the HCM.
Archived project
Funded by the Academy of Finland, the project MULSIMCO produced new knowledge of driver behavior in car-following. Researchers of Transportation Engineering in Aalto University and the University of Helsinki Traffic Research Unit studied car following behavior in a 3D VR driving simulator and field experiments. The results showed that the desired time gap of and individual driver strongly correlated with accelerative behavior so that drivers keeping shorter time gaps accelerated and braked more forcefully. The time gap and accelerations can be described as driving intensity, which is a characteristic of the individual's driving style. The time gap is also tightly connected with observation behavior: drivers who keep a longer "safety margin" glance at the leading vehicle less often. These dependencies were modelled with a computational model that uses machine learning methods to describe a driver's cognition. Some microsimulation results were obtained (but not yet published), development of the nanosimulation model for modelling multi-agent traffic scenarios is ongoing. In addition to empirical findings, the project supported a substantial amount of infrastructure development in numerous Open Source Code projects(see https://github.com/jampekka?tab=repositories). These include: - TRUsas integrated signal acquisition system for laboratory and field measurements of multidimensional physiological data - webtrajsim 3D VR driving simulator environment used in the experiments - NSLR segmentation algorithm used of eye movement event detection - SCvideonaxu video-annotation tool The computational driver model developed in this project forms the basis of a new project (consortium UPP-PERFORMANCE, between UH and National Defense University Finland). There it will be extended and applied to modelling Situation Awareness in complex dynamic control tasks. The project supported researcher mobility between Aalto University and Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, and between the University of Helsinki and the University of Leeds and Université de Nantes.