Tanya Wyatt

Tanya Wyatt
Northumbria University · Department of Social Sciences

PhD

About

115
Publications
35,727
Reads
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1,217
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - present
Northumbria University
Position
  • Professor
Education
September 2005 - August 2008
University of Kent
Field of study
  • Criminology

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Full-text available
Green Criminology in Asia: A Platform for Dialogue Across Disciplines and Languages Many different languages and disciplines are involved in Asian research on environmental conflicts. Linguistic diversity combined with the varied economic, legal, political and social contexts of the Asian continent gives birth to myriad debates about environmental...
Article
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This article explores the nexus of stigmatisation and environmental activism in the Campaign to Protect Pont Valley against open-cast mining in the northeast of England. Drawing on Imogen Tyler’s work, our analysis examines stigma power as embedded in wider efforts to police and repress environmental dissent and defend core neoliberal values. Exami...
Article
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Wildlife trade—both legal and illegal—is an activity that is currently the focus of global attention. Concerns over the loss of biodiversity, partly stemming from overexploitation, and the corona virus pandemic, likely originating from wildlife trade, are urgent matters. These concerns though centre on people. Only sometimes does the discussion foc...
Chapter
The Fight Against Wildlife Trafficking—The illegal wildlife trade is nestled between law enforcement, conservation/environmental protection, and the economy. This unique position means that there are multiple, often times competing, stakeholders determining the ways in which wildlife trafficking can be combated. This chapter presents the agendas th...
Chapter
The concluding chapter summarises the complicated nature of wildlife trafficking; from its pervasiveness to its hidden nature; from the supply side to the demand side; from the construction of victimhood to the construction of offending; from the conflicting perspectives of those fighting against it to the transnational collaborations. The book end...
Chapter
This chapter delves into the contentious area of harm and victims within the illegal wildlife trade. The often times conflicting perspectives from which harm can be constructed will first be looked at. This includes how definitions of who can be harmed and what harm is change depending upon if an anthropocentric, biocentric, or ecocentric approach...
Chapter
Significance—The illegal wildlife trade presents a number of threats to a number of different aspects of societies and communities around the world. These aspects are environmental, economic, human well-being, and national security. Environmentally, wildlife trafficking threatens biodiversity through the extinction of the species that are trafficke...
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Contemporary Patterns—Wildlife trafficking is not isolated to the remote regions of the planet or specific to the areas with high biodiversity or a high number of endemic species. It is a ubiquitous activity that either through supply, transfer, or demand affects most nations of the globe. This chapter provides updated patterns of smuggling as well...
Chapter
Construction of Blame and Offending—Similar to defining and determining who is a victim within the complicated chain of wildlife trafficking, unpicking who is the offender can also be challenging. This chapter introduces the idea that there is also a hierarchy of offending. In terms of the offender, there are those that might be considered ‘blamele...
Article
The trafficking of non-human animals is having a profound effect on biodiversity and conservation efforts. This is also the case in Brazil where it is estimated that millions of wild animals are sold each year, particularly for the pet market. The increasing use of social media and private messaging services (i.e., Facebook and WhatsApp) facilitate...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive, global exploration of the scale, scope, threats, and drivers of wildlife trafficking from a criminological perspective. Building on the first edition, it takes into account the significant changes in the international context surrounding these issues since 2013. It provides new examples, updated statistics, and d...
Chapter
The Earth is facing several environmental crises. Human-caused climate change is already resulting in extreme weather, wildfires and ice melting at alarming rates among other concerns. The planet is also facing the sixth mass extinction with the loss of species estimated to be 100 to 1000 times higher than at other points in history (Wilson, 2016)....
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Whilst drug trafficking has been a concern for several decades, wildlife trafficking has only fairly recently garnered international attention. Often media coverage of wildlife trafficking links it to the illegal trade of drugs. This article analyses wildlife and drug trafficking connections of various kinds. The purpose is to reveal the overlaps a...
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Organised crime groups’ involvement in illicit markets is a common focus of law enforcement and governments. Drug, weapon, human and wildlife trafficking (and others) are all illegal activities with link to organised crime. This paper explores the overlooked illicit market of puppies. We detail the state of knowledge about the organisation of the U...
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Wildlife faces a number of threats due to human activity, including overexploitation from excessive and/or illegal trade. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is the main international legal instrument to address such overexploitation. However, not all species threatened by excessive trade are...
Article
Full-text available
As the global biodiversity crisis continues, it is important to examine the legislative protection that is in place for species around the world. Such legislation not only includes environmental or wildlife law, but also trade law, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which gets transp...
Chapter
Transnational Collaborations—Looking at each of the stakeholders in turn, leads into a discussion in this chapter of the transnational collaborations to curb wildlife trafficking. The first approach explored is the species collaborations that focus on protection of one or a group of species. Then, regional collaborations are equally detailed such a...
Article
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This exploratory study develops a "southern green cultural criminology" approach to the prevention of environmental harms and crimes. The main aim is to understand differing cultural representations of nature, including wildlife, present within four Colombian Indigenous communities to evaluate whether they encourage environmentally friendly human i...
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Unsustainable and illegal wildlife trade are contributing to the unprecedented levels of biodiversity loss and possible extinction of one million species. Law enforcement and the criminal justice system have a role to play in helping to regulate and monitor such trade. The main international instrument to regulate wildlife trade is the Convention o...
Article
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Confict between police, private security and political protesters is a topic that has been researched widely in criminology and other disciplines (e.g., Choudry 2019; Gilmore et al. 2019; Goyes and South 2017; Jackson et al. 2018; Rigakos 2002; South 1988; Weiss 1978). Adopting a green criminological lens, this article seeks to contribute to this r...
Chapter
This first substantive chapter begins to unpick the core theoretical and conceptual framework, which the book is based upon. It focuses on power and its relationships to crime, offending, criminalisation, crime control and the regulation and responses to crime, harm and offending. The chapter serves as a full explanation of what power is—the abilit...
Chapter
This chapter commences with a historical and political economy contextualisation of colonisation as a backdrop to the case study that forms the basis of the remainder of the chapter. The case study of the Black Lives Matter movement focuses on African Americans and how they are, and have been, routinely and systematically policed in racist ways. Th...
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This chapter focuses on religion at both individual and total institution levels. Power is foregrounded in the shape of the historically oppressive nature of religion and religious institutions. There are numerous ways in which the abuse of power has come to light in Christian and other faiths and cultures. Power struggles around religious identiti...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on militias and insurgents as powerful actors that are responsible for significant victimisation in unstable parts of the world. The types of crimes they commit are detailed as well as who has been victimised. We explore the political ideology that underpins their motivations and what distinguishes insurgents from terrorists. W...
Chapter
Whereas individuals who work for corporations commit crimes, as explored in Chap. 4 of Part I, in relation to occupational crimes by the elites, entire corporations can operate outside of the law. This chapter unpicks the neoliberal and business ethos that is argued to underpin the criminogenic nature of corporations. We explore financial crimes, o...
Chapter
The final chapter contains a summary of the key power dynamics that underpin the 14 original case studies. We provide some observations about invisibility, politics and power and the methodology of the case study. We make connections with our ‘invisibility’ thesis as well as our newer conceptualisations surrounding spatial typologies of victimisati...
Chapter
This introductory chapter provides the rationale for, and ambitions of, the text. It sets out the core theoretical and conceptual frameworks that underpin and inform our examination of the crimes of the powerful and the victimisation suffered. Drawing on Pearce’s (1976) Crimes of the Powerful, the chapter considers why power is important. We introd...
Chapter
The enabling potential of power is further explored in this second substantive chapter. Here we outline the significance and importance of the ways in which some individuals and groups are enabled, whilst others are less able, to avoid detection, prosecution, punishment and accountability. This chapter explores how it is this happens. In 1999, Jupp...
Book
This book makes a concerted effort to expose crimes committed by those wielding unfettered personal power, and crimes by corporations, business and states, crimes against human and non-human species and the environment. Wyatt and Davies explore an increasingly complex interplay of issues which surely should be at the heart of any criminology progra...
Book
This handbook explores the concept of 'harm' in criminological scholarship and lays the foundation for a future zemiological agenda. 'Social harm' as a theoretical construct has become established as an alternative, broader lens through which to understand the causation and alleviation of widespread harm in society, thus moving beyond criminology a...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, the poaching of wildlife was portrayed as a small-scale local activity in which only small numbers of wildlife would be smuggled illegally by collectors or opportunists. Nowadays, this image has changed: criminal networks are believed to be highly involved in wildlife trafficking, which has become a significant area of illicit activit...
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This chapter foregrounds gender-related dynamics of power as connected to crime and victimisation. The contextual framing for the chapter focuses on gender, power and domestic abuse emphasising how gender is part of the complex of social structural power. Case studies then follow. One of the case study examples focuses on domestic abuse using the S...
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In this chapter, we detail the reasons why it appears that people of lower socio-economic status are more likely to commit crimes. These reasons include the focus of crime studies and statistics on the lower socio-economic classes, the presumed links between crime and poverty, and the fact that who is defining crime are people of high social status...
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Whereas many criminal groups have been obscured from the criminological gaze, other criminal groups have received a fair amount of criminological attention. This chapter begins with a theoretical and conceptual exploration about the nature and extent of organised crime. We analyse historical and contemporary definitions of organised crime and organ...
Chapter
The state, with its many facets, is responsible for a range of crimes and victimisations. First, we discuss what a state is and the crimes they commit. Drawing on Green and Ward’s (2004) types of state crimes—negligence (the lack of preparedness and response to natural disasters and public health threats, like the ongoing coronavirus pandemic), pol...
Article
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Approaching behaviour that produces environmental harm through the medium of criminal sanctions (largely involving monetary penalties) has been criticised consistently as failing to prevent environmental crimes and harms, and failing to concurrently reduce environmental re-offending. Furthermore, important state-corporate political and economic rel...
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Following Mill’s (1859) definition, the ‘harm principle’ came to dominate legal debates about crime and the appropriate response of the justice system, effectively replacing official talk of morality in modern secular societies. However, the harm principle has collapsed without an accepted definition of harm or a method to adjudicate between compet...
Chapter
This chapter further explores the theme of wildlife as human property and exploitable natural resource with an examination of the sale and exploitation of wildlife for food. Wildlife as food is a complicated issue as not only does it include luxury ‘exotic’ foods like caviar, whale, and bear paws, but also includes common species such as deer, rabb...
Chapter
Are there only crimes against humanity (Derrida, 2002)? Certainly not. And Wildlife Criminology aims to expose the range of crimes against non-humans that are overlooked, ignored, and hidden and argues for an expansion of the criminological gaze to include harms against wildlife. This chapter examines the future of wildlife criminology in relation...
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This chapter examines the notion that human violence has its origins in the violence evident in our evolutionary history. The prevailing wisdom is that wildlife are themselves violent and when humans act violently they are behaving like ‘animals’. The exploration covers examples of violence by wildlife, including murder by chimpanzees, and rape by...
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This chapter examines issues around animal rights and wildlife rights exploring the notion of wildlife as belonging to ‘no-one’ or as belonging to ‘everyone’ in a manner that arguably should create a form of rights. Animal rights debates often centre around the need to provide rights for recognized sentient species (chimpanzees, dolphins, apes) and...
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This chapter explores the killing of wildlife in the name of sport via an examination of shooting, fisheries, game, and poaching. The chapter examines the extent to which legal activities such as shooting and fishing are endemic with illegal activities including: permit breaches; excessive catch; subverting of ‘fair chase’ rules, and corruption wit...
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This chapter defines wildlife criminology as a criminology concerned not only with wildlife trafficking, but considers criminological perspectives on animals and wildlife within a broader context. The introduction provides a definition of wildlife as constituting animals living primarily outside human control or influence; thus distinguished from c...
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This chapter examines the notion of wildlife as property or ‘things’ and critically analyses the extent to which anthropocentric notions of wildlife as a resource for human exploitation determines harm caused to non-human animals. This chapter examines how anthropocentric notions of morality and human-centred values underpin the exploitation of non...
Book
The harm and crime committed by humans does not only affect humans. Victimisation is not isolated to people, but instead encompasses the planet and other beings. Yet apart from fairly recent green criminological scholarship employing an expanded criminological gaze beyond the human, the discipline of criminology has largely confined itself to human...
Chapter
This chapter explores the links between non-human animal abuse and interpersonal violence with a specific focus on the extent to which harm caused to wildlife may be an indicator of violent tendencies and a predictor of future violence. Experts estimate that from 48 percent to 71 percent of battered women have pets who also have been abused or kill...
Book
Full-text available
Wildlife Criminology explores crimes against, and involving, wildlife and the resultant social harms. The book extends beyond basic conceptions of animal-related crime, such as illicit trade, to provide for a deeper exploration of wildlife criminology, using a novel approach that combines philosophical, legal and criminological perspectives. Wild...
Article
Full-text available
Illegal wildlife trade or wildlife trafficking is a global threat to all kinds of species, not just charismatic megafauna or wildlife in Africa and Asia. This paper presents the findings of an investigation of the illegal trade in native and non-native wildlife and wildlife products between the European Union and Mexico. Using literature analysis,...
Article
Full-text available
Transnational environmental crime has become the largest financial driver of social conflict, with severe implications for peace and security. Sustainable-development frameworks need to overtly recognize and mitigate the risks posed by transnational environmental crime to environmental security.
Article
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Recently, much attention has been given to the presence and increase of transnational crime, particularly focusing on online illicit markets. A seldom-explored aspect of transnational online illicit markets is the rural to urban flow of the illicit goods. This paper details research on the UK puppy trade, documenting the movement of puppies reared...
Article
Full-text available
The reshaping of the planet by people is having significant consequences for the environment and for human communities. Even though the degradation is visible and pervasive, much of the harm inflicted by humans remains outside the realm of and is not addressed by our criminal justice systems. Such harms tend not to be criminalized and while they ma...
Article
Wildlife trafficking is a global threat to numerous species of both animals and plants, not only to charismatic fauna or in Africa and Asia. Furthermore, consumption of wildlife, unsustainably and/or illegally, is not rare, but can be an everyday occurrence. This paper presents the findings of an investigation of the legal and illegal trades in nat...
Chapter
The first chapter sets the scene as to how this collection of essays was brought about. It also provides background information about the state of knowledge of the environment in general and green crime in particular in Mexico. The 14 authors featured in this volume participated in an intensive short-course on green criminology, and this introducto...
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As wildlife trafficking or the illegal wildlife trade has taken a more prominent place on the global agenda, discussions are taking place as to how wildlife trafficking happens. An increased understanding has revealed that corruption is a key facilitator of this profitable and pervasive global black market, but limited research has explored exactly...
Book
This collection is the first exploration into green crime in Mexico, offering a unique critique of the environmental problems facing Mexico today. Written by a diverse range of Mexican academics and practitioners from different career stages and various different disciplines, this edited volume exposes the corruption, power, and disregard for the e...
Article
Full-text available
Since its inception, green criminology has highlighted, examined and analysed environmental degradation and destruction. The ‘theft of nature’ is both an example and a driver of illegal and ‘lawful but awful’ acts and omissions that degrade the environment. Even though this theft is widespread and sometimes well known, it persists because powerful...
Chapter
Although corruption and organized crime affect most domains of societies where they are present, they are difficult to analyze since involved parties are keen to hide these practices. Both are illicit activities that function in the background of many formal processes. This chapter explores the impact of corruption and organized crime on conservati...
Chapter
This chapter explores the abuse inflicted upon wildlife smuggled to fill the demand for the illegal wildlife trade (IWT), and the abuse that is inherent in the legal wildlife trade. It begins with an overview of the extent of both trades, focusing on the key regions of the world where these occur. The next section identifies the routine abuse, suff...
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The overriding aim of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that can be used to systematically examine the victimisation from environmental or green crime. By analysing the conceptual and pragmatic compatibilities between two distinctive academic fields of green criminology and human security (HS) and by discussing the impacts of timber t...
Chapter
Criminology has awoken to the plight of the environment with the growing field of green criminology. This is evident with the increase in scholarship dedicated to uncovering the green crimes and harms that injure people, other species and the planet. The crimes against the environment are varied and extensive. White (2008) proposed that these can b...
Article
The British Deer Society places the number of poached deer in the UK as high as 50,000 each year whereas only 335 incidents were reported to the police in 2009. This article explores deer as invisible victims of green crime and the motivations behind this poaching, drawing on the typologies of wildlife crime offenders developed by Nurse in 2013. In...
Book
This volume examines crimes that violate environmental regulations, as part of an emerging area of criminology known as green criminology. The contributions to this book examine criminal justice concerns related to regulating and enforcing environmental laws, as well as the consequences for families and communities impacted by hazardous waste and p...
Chapter
In the twenty-first century, environmental harm is an ever-present reality of our globalised world. Over the last 20 years, criminologists have made great strides in their understanding of how different institutions in society, and criminal justice systems in particular, respond (or fail to respond) to the harm imposed on ecosystems and their human...
Book
In the 21st century, environmental harm is an ever-present reality of our globalised world. Over the last 20 years, criminologists, working alongside a range of other disciplines from the social and physical sciences, have made great strides in their understanding of how different institutions in society, and criminal justice systems in particular-...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wildlife trafficking is a growing global concern. It takes place in all regions of the world with those nations with high biodiversity being the source and the consumers of the wildlife as well as transit areas and hubs for smuggled wildlife. It is a significant contributor to biodiversity loss and species extinction. Many if not most developing na...
Chapter
We are often told by politicians and the media that we live in an increasingly dangerous world, with many threats facing us. There is also an assumption that we face a far greater number of risks/threats than we have ever faced in the past (Beck 1999; Furedi 2002) in part due to our increased inter connectedness (Aas 2013). Whether that is true is...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Since the trafficking of wildlife is now recognized as a highly profitable illicit market, it is important to investigate what activities are funded through the sales of these wildlife and wildlife products. One particular concern is that wildlife trafficking profits fund terrorist activities. This case study explores this possibility by assessing...
Article
Full-text available
In 1998 the journal Theoretical Criminology published an innovative special issue on green criminology, which was compiled by two of the editors of the present collection. The focus of that special issue was a plea for the theoretical development of green criminological approaches to our relationships with ‘nature’, including how we adversely affec...
Article
Full-text available
Until recently, the field of criminology has largely ignored the suffering and abuse of non-human animals in the variety of forms in which it occurs. In order to address one aspect of this suffering, this article explores the non-human animal abuse inherent in the trade of wildlife. To demonstrate both the individual harm to non-human animals and t...
Article
Full-text available
Transnational environmental crime is a global problem encompassing not only criminal violations of the law, but harms against the environment and the people reliant upon it as a natural resource. Grounded in the green criminological theory of eco-global criminology, this paper explores the transnational environmental crime of the illegal timber tra...
Article
Full-text available
The UK has had factory farming of pigs and other animals for many years. Recently though, there has been movement to increase the scale on which this occurs. The change would see several thousand pigs on one farm turn into tens of thousands of pigs. Whilst, bioethicists and other animal rights advocates have addressed non-human animal welfare in ag...
Chapter
In 1999, Jupp et al. mapped the contours of what they termed invisible crime and victimisation and considered the commonalities associated with this range of acts, events and experiences. They suggested that there are seven interacting and overlapping features that help make harms or crimes more or less invisible. These features are no knowledge, n...
Chapter
In writing this book our ambitions have been threefold. First, to examine contemporary criminological research and scholarship in an area that we have been broadly interested in for some 20 years — what we have elsewhere termed invisible crime (Davies et al. 1999). In putting together this volume, we are in no way suggesting that its contents shoul...
Chapter
Social and economic harm caused by corporations has been a topic of concern for decades. This is currently the case with multiple highly publicised instances of corporate practices contributing to the global economic crisis, such as the Libor scandal in the United Kingdom. Many harmful actions undertaken by corporations receive even less attention...
Article
Full-text available
National security is a continuing topic of concern and part of that is the growing understanding of the connection to global crime. Often though only traditional national security issues, which are conceptualized around state sovereignty and military capability are addressed, and when exploring the criminal nexus only traditional or mainstream crim...
Article
Full-text available
Illegal wildlife trade is a pervasive and destructive crime that is contributing to biodiversity loss and species extinction around the globe. This is particularly true in Vietnam where, it is proposed, the convergence of four factors creates the conditions for the illegal wildlife trade to flourish. The human-centered approach to Vietnam’s diverse...
Chapter
This Chapter delves into the contentious area of harm and victims within the illegal wildlife trade. The often times conflicting perspectives from which harm can be constructed will be looked at first. Depending upon whether an anthropocentric, biocentric or ecocentric approach is taken when assessing the presence of harm, the definition of who can...
Chapter
Wildlife trafficking is not isolated to the remote regions of the planet or specific to the areas with high biodiversity or a high number of endemic species. It is a ubiquitous activity that either through supply, transfer or demand affects most nations of the globe. This chapter will map these patterns of smuggling as well as give estimates as to...
Chapter
In common with defining and determining who is a victim within the complicated chain of wildlife trafficking, unpicking who is the offender and therefore who is held responsible can also be challenging. This chapter introduces the idea that there is also a hierarchy of offending. In terms of the offender, there are those who might be consider ‘blam...
Chapter
The concluding chapter summarises the complicated nature of wildlife trafficking; from its pervasiveness, to its hidden nature; from the supply side, to the demand side; from the construction of victimhood, to the construction of offending; from the conflicting perspectives of those fighting against it, to the transnational collaborations. The book...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This project is an exploratory study of the cultural representations of nature and wildlife within two Colombian indigenous communities: the Barí and the Nasa. The project is based on the ‘green cultural criminology’ framework (Brisman and South, 2014) that emphasises the power of cultural representations of nature in shaping protective and destructive human behaviours toward nature.
Project
CRIMEANTHROP will explore the regulation, rationale behind and enforcement of wildlife conservation, the normative and socio-legal messages of this enforcement, and their implications for wildlife conservation and individual animal welfare. This will be explored from interdisciplinary grounded theoretical and methodological angles, stemming from and further contribute towards, developing an innovative and emergent strand of international criminology; green criminology. These approaches will jointly enable us to present a comprehensive analysis of contemporary wildlife management, human-animal relations and animal rights. To this end, policies and regulations of CITES and the Bern Convention and their impact concerning wildlife trade and human management of endangered predator species will be examined in four countries with different, local, and socio-legal conditions: Norway, as primary site of investigation, with UK, Germany, and Spain as supporting case studies. Qualitative methodologies; interviews with politicians and bureaucrats, law enforcement agencies and NGOs (e.g. WWF, IFAW) will be employed in each case country. CITES and the Bern Convention, national preparatory works, legislation and case law will be subject to discourse analysis. We will empirically and theoretically explore the implementation of CITES and the Bern Convention in the four locations, building on and expanding green criminology scholarship through interdisciplinary approaches from law, political science, criminology, and philosophy. If the implications of CRIMEANTROP's hypotheses prove true; that the messages conveyed by the conventions are ambiguous; failing to educate about and protect endangered species; and that individual and species protection is insufficiently integrated into member states' conservation approaches resulting in continued exploitation and abuse, then endangered wildlife and species survival are further threatened; the anthropogenic species extinction strengthened
Project
To collect online sales data and conduct focus groups to unpack consumer behaviour related to buying puppies.