Tanya Golubchik

Tanya Golubchik
Sydney Institute for Infectious Diseases · School of Medical Sciences

PhD

About

134
Publications
16,007
Reads
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6,397
Citations
Introduction
My interests are in the use of genomics technologies to explore the diversity and evolution of microbial pathogens.
Additional affiliations
February 2013 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Computational biologist
Description
  • Using whole-genome sequencing data to explore bacterial evolution, transmission, and clinical phenotype, and bringing WGS methods into microbiology practice.
June 2007 - January 2013
University of Oxford
Position
  • Postdoctoral scientist
January 2007 - June 2007
The University of Sydney
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. Here we evaluated host demographic and viral factors associated with RSV disease severity in 325 RSV-infected infants under 1 year of age from 3 European countries during 2017-2020. Younger infants had a higher clinical severity...
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Whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has occurred at an unprecedented scale, and can be exploited for characterising outbreak risks at the fine-scale needed to inform control strategies. One setting at continued risk of COVID-19 outbreaks are higher education institutions, associated with student movements at the start of term, close living condit...
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Background: Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, evolutionary pressure has driven large increases in the transmissibility of the virus. However, with increasing levels of immunity through vaccination and natural infection the evolutionary pressure will switch towards immune escape. Genomic surveillance in regions of high immunity is crucial in detec...
Article
Background: South Africa has the largest number of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the world, with HIV prevalence and transmission patterns varying greatly between provinces. Transmission between regions is still poorly understood, but phylodynamics of HIV-1 evolution can reveal how many infections are attributable to contacts outside a given co...
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Given high SARS-CoV-2 incidence, coupled with slow and inequitable vaccine roll-out in many settings, there is a need for evidence to underpin optimum vaccine deployment, aiming to maximise global population immunity. We evaluate whether a single vaccination in individuals who have already been infected with SARS-CoV-2 generates similar initial and...
Preprint
Estimating the time since HIV infection (TSI) at population level is essential for tracking changes in the global HIV epidemic. Most methods for determining duration of infection classify samples into recent and non-recent and are unable to give more granular TSI estimates. These binary classifications have a limited recency time window of several...
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Antibody responses are an important part of immunity after Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. However, antibody trajectories and the associated duration of protection after a second vaccine dose remain unclear. In this study, we investigated anti-spike IgG antibody responses and correlates of protection after second doses of ChAdOx1 o...
Article
Tools to detect SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and track the ongoing evolution of the virus are necessary to support public health efforts and the design and evaluation of novel COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been adopted as the gold standard method for discriminating SARS-CoV-2 lineages, alternati...
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Set-point viral load (SPVL), a common measure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virulence, is partially determined by viral genotype. Epidemiological evidence suggests that this viral property has been under stabilising selection, with a typical optimum for the virus between 104 and 105 copies of viral RNA per ml. Here we aimed to detect tran...
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Background: Mathematical models predict that community-wide access to HIV testing-and-treatment can rapidly and substantially reduce new HIV infections. Yet several large universal test-and-treat HIV prevention trials in high-prevalence epidemics demonstrated variable reduction in population-level incidence. Methods: To elucidate patterns of HIV sp...
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Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from international travel is a priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of travellers being required to quarantine for 14-days on return to England in Summer 2020. We identified 4,207 travel-related SARS-CoV-2 cases and their contacts, and identified 827 associated SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Overall, quarantine was as...
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Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from international travel is a priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of travellers being required to quarantine for 14-days on return to England in Summer 2020. We identified 4,207 travel-related SARS-CoV-2 cases and their contacts, and identified 827 associated SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Overall, quarantine was as...
Article
We discovered a highly virulent variant of subtype-B HIV-1 in the Netherlands. One hundred nine individuals with this variant had a 0.54 to 0.74 log10 increase (i.e., a ~3.5-fold to 5.5-fold increase) in viral load compared with, and exhibited CD4 cell decline twice as fast as, 6604 individuals with other subtype-B strains. Without treatment, advan...
Preprint
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The Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey is a large household-based surveillance study based in the United Kingdom. Here, we report on the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 determined by analysing sequenced samples collected up until 13th November 2021. We observed four distinct sweeps or partial-sweeps, by...
Preprint
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Introduction: Tools to detect SARS-Coronavirus-2 variants of concern and track the ongoing evolution of the virus are necessary to support ongoing public health efforts and the design and evaluation of novel COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been adopted as the gold standard method for discriminating...
Article
p class="MsoNormal">SARS-CoV-2 infections were rising during early summer 2021 in many countries associated with the Delta variant. We assessed RT-PCR swab-positivity in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study in England. We observed sustained exponential growth with average doubling time (June July 2021) of 25 days dri...
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Understanding the trajectory, duration, and determinants of antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection can inform subsequent protection and risk of reinfection, however large-scale representative studies are limited. Here we estimated antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population using representative data from 7,256 Unit...
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BACKGROUND In the last decade, universally available antiretroviral therapy has led to reduced HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Sources of remaining transmission need to be characterised to design effective prevention strategies. METHODS We used phylogenetics to understand the population characteristics of people who are sources of infection. H...
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Several COVID-19 vaccines have shown good efficacy in clinical trials, but there remains uncertainty about the efficacy of vaccines against different variants. Here, we investigate the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) against symptomatic COVID-19 in a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a Phase 3 randomised trial in Brazil (trial registration ISR...
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We report that in a cohort of 45,965 adults, who were receiving either the ChAdOx1 or the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in those who had no prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, seroconversion rates and quantitative antibody levels after a single dose were lower in older individuals, especially in those aged >60 years. Two vaccine doses achieved high re...
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Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children globally, but little is known about within-host RSV diversity. Here, we characterised within-host RSV populations using deep-sequencing data from 319 nasopharyngeal swabs collected during 2017–2020. RSV-B had lower consensus diversity tha...
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Background Emerging evidence shows the substantial real-world impact of authorised vaccines against COVID-19 and provides insight into the potential role of vaccines in curbing the pandemic. However, there remains uncertainty about the efficacy of vaccines against different variants of the virus. Here we assessed efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD122...
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Background: HIV-1 genetic diversity increases during infection and can help infer the time elapsed since infection. However the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the inference remains unknown. Methods: Participants with estimated duration of HIV-1 infection based on repeated testing were sourced from cohorts in Botswana (n=1944). Full-...
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Background: Convalescent plasma containing neutralising antibody to SARS-CoV-2 is under investigation for COVID-19 treatment. We report diverse virological characteristics of UK intensive care patients enrolled in the Immunoglobulin Domain of the REMAP-CAP randomised controlled trial that potentially influence treatment outcomes. Methods: SARS-C...
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Treatment of severe COVID-19 is currently limited by clinical heterogeneity and incomplete understanding of potentially druggable immune mediators of disease. To advance this, we present a comprehensive multi-omic blood atlas in patients with varying COVID-19 severity and compare with influenza, sepsis and healthy volunteers. We identify immune sig...
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Background The SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 was first identified in December, 2020, in England. We aimed to investigate whether increases in the proportion of infections with this variant are associated with differences in symptoms or disease course, reinfection rates, or transmissibility. Methods We did an ecological study to examine the associatio...
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Extensive global sampling and sequencing of the pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 have enabled researchers to monitor its spread, and to identify concerning new variants. Two important determinants of variant spread are how frequently they arise within individuals, and how likely they are to be transmitted. To characterize within-host diversity and transmi...
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Background. Treatment of COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma containing neutralising antibody to SARS-CoV-2 is under investigation as a means of reducing viral loads, ameliorating disease outcomes, and reducing mortality. However, its efficacy might be reduced in those infected with the emerging B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. Here, we report th...
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Background A new variant of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7, emerged as the dominant cause of COVID-19 disease in the UK from November, 2020. We report a post-hoc analysis of the efficacy of the adenoviral vector vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), against this variant. Methods Volunteers (aged ≥18 years) who were enrolled in phase 2/3 vaccine efficacy studie...
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A new variant of SARS-CoV-2 has emerged which is increasing in frequency, primarily in the South East of England (lineage B.1.1.7 ( 1 ) ; VUI-202012/01). One potential hypothesis is that infection with the new variant results in higher viral loads, which in turn may make the virus more transmissible. We found higher (sequence derived) viral loads i...
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Global dispersal and increasing frequency of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variant D614G are suggestive of a selective advantage but may also be due to a random founder effect. We investigate the hypothesis for positive selection of spike D614G in the United Kingdom using more than 25,000 whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Despite the availability o...
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Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a high-throughput research assay for HIV drug resistance testing based on whole genome next-generation sequencing (NGS) that also quantifies HIV viral load. Methods: Plasma samples (n = 145) were obtained from HIV-positive MSM (HPTN 078). Samples were analysed using clinical assays (the ViroSeq HIV-1 Ge...
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Targeted metagenomics using strand-specific libraries with target enrichment is a sensitive, generalized approach to pathogen sequencing and transcriptome profiling. Using this method, we recovered 13 (76%) complete human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genomes from 17 clinical respiratory samples, reconstructed the phylogeny of the infecting vir...
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Viral genetic sequencing can be used to monitor the spread of HIV drug resistance, identify appropriate antiretroviral regimes, and characterize transmission dynamics. Despite decreasing costs, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is still prohibitively costly for routine use in generalised HIV epidemics in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we pr...
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is common in sepsis patients but the extent and nature of this remains unresolved. We sought to determine the incidence and correlates of EBV-positivity in a large sepsis cohort. We also hypothesised that EBV reactivation would be increased in patients in whom relative immunosuppression was the major feature of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extensive global sampling and whole genome sequencing of the pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 have enabled researchers to characterise its spread, and to identify mutations that may increase transmission or enable the virus to escape therapies or vaccines. Two important components of viral spread are how frequently variants arise within individuals, and h...
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Full-text available
Across sub-Saharan Africa, key populations with elevated HIV-1 incidence and/or prevalence have been identified, but their contribution to disease spread remains unclear. We performed viral deep-sequence phylogenetic analyses to quantify transmission dynamics between the general population (GP), fisherfolk communities (FF), and women at high risk o...
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Objectives: HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy by WHO, though efficacy and resistance data for non-B subtypes are limited. Two recent trials have identified the integrase L74I mutation to be associated with integrase inhibitor treatment failure in HIV-1 non-B subtypes. We sought to define the prevalence of integrase r...
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The routine identification of pathogens during infection remains challenging because it relies on multiple modalities such as culture and nucleic acid amplification and tests that tend to be specific for very few of an enormous number of possible infectious agents. Metagenomics promises single-test identification, but shotgun sequencing remains unw...
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Advancing interventions to tackle the huge global burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection depends on improved insights into virus epidemiology, transmission, within-host diversity, drug resistance and pathogenesis, all of which can be advanced through the large-scale generation of full-length virus genome data. Here we describe advances to a pr...
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Members of the genus Staphylococcus have been isolated from humans, animals, and the environment. Accurate identification with whole-genome sequencing requires access to data derived from type strains. We provide sequence data for type strains of 64 taxa in the genus that at the time of this writing have standing in the nomenclature.
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To prevent new infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa, UNAIDS recommends targeting interventions to populations that are at high risk of acquiring and passing on the virus. Yet it is often unclear who and where these ‘source’ populations are. Here we demonstrate how viral deep-sequencing can be used to rec...
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Objectives: There is increasing interest in the use of metagenomic (next generation sequencing, NGS) approaches for diagnosis of infection. We undertook a pilot study to screen samples submitted to a diagnostic microbiology laboratory in a UK teaching hospital using Illumina HiSeq. In the short-term, this small dataset provides insights into the v...
Preprint
Full-text available
Advancing interventions to tackle the huge global burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection depends on improved insights into virus epidemiology, transmission, within-host diversity, drug resistance and pathogenesis, all of which can be facilitated by the large-scale generation of full-length virus genome data. Here we describe advances to a prot...
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Full-text available
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends drug-susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex for all patients with tuberculosis to guide treatment decisions and improve outcomes. Whether DNA sequencing can be used to accurately predict profiles of susceptibility to first-line antituberculosis drugs has not been clear. METHO...
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High-throughput viral genetic sequencing is needed to monitor the spread of drug resistance, direct optimal antiretroviral regimes, and to identify transmission dynamics in generalised HIV epidemics. Public health efforts to sequence HIV genomes at scale face three major technical challenges: (i) minimising assay cost and protocol complexity, (ii)...
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Background : In principle, whole genome sequencing (WGS) can predict phenotypic resistance directly from genotype, replacing laboratory-based tests. However, the contribution of different bioinformatics methods to genotype-phenotype discrepancies has not been systematically explored to date. Methods : We compared three WGS-based bioinformatics meth...
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Studying the evolution of viruses and their molecular epidemiology relies on accurate viral sequence data, so that small differences between similar viruses can be meaningfully interpreted. Despite its higher throughput and more detailed minority variant data, next-generation sequencing has yet to be widely adopted for HIV. The difficulty of accura...
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Background Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous organism that can cause a variety of clinical syndromes ranging from short-lived rash and fever through to life-threatening encephalitis. Objectives We set out to generate observational data regarding the epidemiology of HHV-6 infection in clinical samples from a UK teaching hospital and to c...
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Bacteria responsible for the greatest global mortality colonize the human microbiota far more frequently than they cause severe infections. Whether mutation and selection among commensal bacteria are associated with infection is unknown. We investigated de novo mutation in 1163 Staphylococcus aureus genomes from 105 infected patients with nose colo...
Data
List of all variants found within patients with S. aureus infections, location on shared reference (MRSA252), or position and reference genome name and accession number if variant could not be localized on MRSA252. Each variant is described by the alleles found, its location in gene, the predicted effect on gene product and the location of the vari...
Data
List of all variants found within long term asymptomatic carriers, location on shared reference (MRSA252), or position and reference genome name and accession number if variant was not localized on MRSA252. Each variant is described by the alleles found, its location in gene and the predicted effect on gene product.
Data
Neutrality indices show signals of adaptation among the genes, gene ontologies and expression pathways most significantly enriched for protein-altering B-class variants. Neutrality indices (NIs, 41,42) were calculated as the odds ratio of the number of protein-altering to synonymous variants among B-class versus C/D-class variants. These tests are...
Data
For all ontologies showing enrichment in within-patient BD-class variants, we identified the genes with variants contributing to the signal. We counted the number of protein-altering variants in these genes within patients, and compared to the number in long-term asymptomatic carriers. p-Values calculated using Fisher’s exact test. *Variant totals...
Data
List of all cultures included in the site, the site of infection (and any known source if bloodstream), number of isolates sequenced from each site, ST or CC by in silico MLST, number of variants found at each site and the mean pair-wise difference comparing isolates.
Article
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A central feature of pathogen genomics is that different infectious particles (virions, bacterial cells, etc.) within an infected individual may be genetically distinct, with patterns of relatedness amongst infectious particles being the result of both within-host evolution and transmission from one host to the next. Here we present a new software...
Preprint
Full-text available
A central feature of pathogen genomics is that different infectious particles (virions, bacterial cells, etc.) within an infected individual may be genetically distinct, with patterns of relatedness amongst infectious particles being the result of both within-host evolution and transmission from one host to the next. Here we present a new software...