Tanja Pipan

Tanja Pipan
Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts | ZRC SAZU · Karst Research Institute

PhD

About

147
Publications
39,223
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1,984
Citations
Citations since 2016
75 Research Items
1221 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
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For most plants and animals the broad outlines of global species richness are well known, and often in some detail [...]
Article
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Subterranean ecosystems are among the most widespread environments on Earth, yet we still have poor knowledge of their biodiversity. To raise awareness of subterranean ecosystems, the essential services they provide, and their unique conservation challenges, 2021 and 2022 were designated International Years of Caves and Karst. As these ecosystems h...
Article
Brazil’s caves, home to diverse species and minerals, were stripped of protections by a recent presidential decree.
Article
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Riding a wave of interest in biodiversity patterns in surface-dwelling communities, in 2000, Culver and Sket [1] published a paper listing 20 caves and karst wells with 20 or more known species. [...]
Article
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Relative humidity (RH) was measured at hourly intervals for approximately one year in two caves at seven stations near Playa del Carmen in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Sistema Muévelo Rico is a 1.1 km long cave with 12 entrances and almost no dark zone. Río Secreto (Tuch) is a large river cave with more than 40 km of passages, and an extensive dark zone....
Article
Full-text available
The 15th UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (COP15) will be held in Kunming, China in October 2021. Historically, CBDs and other multilateral treaties have either alluded to or entirely overlooked the subterranean biome. A multilateral effort to robustly examine, monitor, and incorporate the subterranean biome into future conservation targ...
Article
Full-text available
The 15th UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (COP15) will be held in Kunming, China in October 2021. Historically, CBDs and other multilateral treaties have either alluded to or entirely overlooked the subterranean biome. A multilateral effort to robustly examine, monitor, and incorporate the subterranean biome into future conservation targ...
Article
Full-text available
The karstic cave Križna jama in the South Western part of Slovenia is one of the largest, well known and most beautiful Slovene water caves. The cave consists of more than 8 km of corridors with impressive halls, colossal dripstone formations, a subterranean river and numerous lakes. Considering the subterranean fauna, Križna jama has been identifi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Relative humidity (RH) was measured at hourly intervals for approximately one year in two caves at seven stations near Playa del Carmen in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Sistema Muévelo Rico is a 1.1 km long cave with 12 entrances and almost no dark zone. Río Secreto (Tuch) is a large river cave with more than 40 km of passages, and an extensive dark zone....
Chapter
a. Aim—We describe the hydrological functioning and physical structure of epikarst, as well as the organisms that inhabit it. b. Main concepts covered—Epikarst is a nearly ubiquitous highly fractured zone at the top of karst that retains water from soil infiltration. Inhabited by both aquatic and terrestrial species, the aquatic copepod fauna is of...
Article
Full-text available
Hourly temperature was measured for approximately one year at 17 stations in three caves in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Thirteen of these stations were in the extensive twilight zones of all three caves. All seventeen stations showed seasonality in temperature with a 3°C drop during the Nortes season. Two of the caves, Muévelo Sabrosito and Muévelo Rico,...
Article
Five decades ago, a landmark paper in Science titled The Cave Environment heralded caves as ideal natural experimental laboratories in which to develop and address general questions in geology, ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Although the 'caves as laboratory' paradigm has since been advocated by subterranean biologists, there are...
Article
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Caves are the best studied aquatic subterranean habitat, but there is a wide variety of these habitats, ranging in depth below the surface and size of the spaces (pore or habitat size). Both factors are important in setting limits to species composition and richness. In addition to caves, among the most important shallow aquatic subterranean habita...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hourly temperature was measured for approximately one year at 17 stations in three caves in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Thirteen of these stations were in the extensive twilight zones of all three caves. All seventeen stations showed seasonality in temperature with a 3 °C drop during the Nortes season. Two of the caves, Muévelo Sabrosito and Muévelo Rico...
Article
Full-text available
The general hypothesis that the overall presence or absence of one or more species in an extreme habitat is determined by physico-chemical factors was investigated using epikarst copepod communities as a model system, an example of an extreme environment with specialized, often rare species. The relationship between the presence or absence of epika...
Article
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Worldwide, caves and groundwater habitats harbor thousands of species modified and limited to subterranean habitats in karst. Data are concentrated in Europe and USA, where a number of detailed analyses have been performed. Much less is known with respect to global patterns due to a lack of data. This special issue will focus on and discuss the glo...
Chapter
Karst aquifers are hydraulic structures where dissolution conduits dictate complex spatial and temporal flow patterns. These aquifers are vertically divided into phreatic, epiphreatic and vadose zones. While the phreatic zone is permanently saturated, providing the major contribution to base flow, most of the flood event water is transferred throug...
Chapter
In karst areas, underground water mainly flows through conduits and fissures due to the solubility of carbonate rocks (Palmer in Cave geology. Cave Books, Dayton, Ohio, p. 454, 2007).
Chapter
For understanding geological structure of karst areas (Palmer in Cave geology, Cave Books, Dayton, Ohio, p 454, 2007) it is inevitably to have detailed geological maps.
Chapter
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In this chapter, we review the status of the hypothesis that the dichotomy between shallow and deep subterranean habitats is a fundamental one, updating the original book-length presentation of this hypothesis (Culver and Pipan 2014), and consider the status of dim light habitats, such as leaf litter and partially de-roofed caves (Mejía-Ortíz et al...
Chapter
Around 13% of the Earth’s surface is covered by carbonate rocks, on which a specific karst landscape with extensive underground water system develops.
Chapter
About 44% of Slovenia’s surface consists of carbonate rocks. Karst geomorphology and over 13,000 known caves represent a significant proportion of its landscape. Various sediments present on the karst surface in the form of clastic or precipitated deposits can cover or fill smaller or extended areas and they can also accumulate in the caves.
Chapter
In Western Slovenia, a paleokarstic surface with clayey bauxite deposits separates late? Cenomanian to late Turonian strata from middle/late Coniacian palustrine?, peritidal and shallow-marine carbonate deposits along the external-most preserved parts of the Adriatic Carbonate Platform (AdCP).
Chapter
The rock relief of karst phenomena is often a revealing and graphic trace of their formation and development. It is composed of rock forms.
Chapter
Quantification of present-day fundamental chemical processes in caves (dissolution and calcite precipitation) can provide basic objective information on rates, make possible comparison with other speleogenetic processes, and provide insights into spatial and temporal variability as well as factors controlling both processes.
Chapter
This chapter introduces Škocjanske jame (Škocjan Caves) and their immediate karstic surroundings to those who are not already familiar with the place, and its overall history over several centuries.
Chapter
Research data management planning is a key practice in science today, with a fundamental role in the organisation, use and reuse of research data, as well as in the verification of results.
Chapter
Caves represent a discontinuity in a rock matrix and are considered as “dark openings” into the underground. Typical cave features—voids, cracks, fissures, or conduits—are filled with air (or mixture of various gases), water, or solid inorganic and/or organic material.
Book
This book presents the latest advances in karstology by researchers at the ZRC SAZU Karst Research Institute, Slovenia – home of Classical Karst. It features interdisciplinary investigations carried out on the karst surface, subsurface, caves, and associated waters. It covers various topics, such as analysis of karst processes, including the minera...
Article
Troglobionts are organisms that are specialized for living in a subterranean environment. These organisms reside prevalently in the deepest zones of caves and in shallow subterranean habitats, and complete their entire life cycles therein. Because troglobionts in most caves depend on organic matter resources from the surface, we hypothesized that t...
Article
Scientists of different disciplines have recognized the valuable role of terrestrial caves as ideal natural laboratories in which to study multiple eco-evolutionary processes, from genes to ecosystems. Because caves and other subterranean habitats are semi-closed systems characterized by a remarkable thermal stability, they should also represent in...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, there are at least 12 ILTER sites with an emphasis on karst, landforms arising from the combination of high rock solubility and well-developed solutional channel porosity underground, but the study of cave ecosystems has been largely neglected. Only two ILTER sites, both in Slovenia, are primarily caves. Caves are under-represented for s...
Article
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Evolutionary processes, including natural selection, neutral mutation, and habitat filtering, act upon morphology and other aspects of their biology, as well as species composition itself, to produce the observed patterns or community structure and morphology. The context for these evolutionary processes (the ecological theater in G.E. Hutchinson’s...
Presentation
Postojna Cave System is one of the world’s biologically best studied caves and best known hotspots of specialized subterranean fauna. The diversity of the obligate cave-dwelling fauna has proved difficult to measure because of the highly localized distributions of most species. We investigated the local diversity patterns of a major component of th...
Article
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The decomposition of diversity into within site (α) and between site (β) components is especially interesting in subterranean communities because of their isolated nature and limited dispersal potential The aquatic epikarst fauna, sampled from water drips in caves affords a unique opportunity to provide comparable, quantitative samples of a portion...
Data
Number of copepods found, by species and by drip, in the study caves of the Isolated region. (XLSX)
Data
Numbers of copepods found, by species and by drip, in the study caves of the Dinaric region. (XLSX)
Data
Number of copepods found, by species and by drip, in the study caves of the Alpine region. (XLSX)
Chapter
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The first cave‐dwelling invertebrate known to science was the beetle Leptodirus hochenwartii, described by Ferdinand Schmidt in 1832. This chapter presents a discussion of L. hochenwartii. It describes the variety of subterranean spaces, including but not limited to caves, that insects inhabit, the ecological roles of insects in subterranean habita...
Article
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Subterranean habitats are known for their rich endemic fauna and high vulnerability to disturbance. Many methods and techniques are used to sample the biodiversity of terrestrial invertebrate fauna in caves, among which pitfall trapping remains one of the most frequently used and effective ones. However, this method has turned out to be harmful to...
Article
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variety of subterranean habitats share an absence of light and a dependence on allochthonous productivity, but they differ in many features, including habitat volume. We examined the hypothesis that habitat volume is an important factor in community organization, especially with reference to body size, for a variety of communities for which data we...
Article
Full-text available
Subterranean habitats are known for their rich endemic fauna and high vulnerability to disturbance. Many methods and techniques are used to sample the biodiversity of terrestrial invertebrate fauna in caves, among which pitfall trapping remains one of the most frequently used and effective ones. However, this method has turned out to be harmful to...
Article
Full-text available
Although primarily known as a journal of karst geosciences and hydrology, Acta Carsologica has played a vital role in the development of speleobiology. A total of 65 biological papers on speleobiology were published in the journal from 1955 to 2014. Many of the papers, especially in the early years of the journal, added to the knowledge base of spe...
Chapter
The entire landscape in question belongs to the Krka River basin. Both surface and underground waters flow towards the Temenica and Igmanica rivers which act as the local base level. It can be assumed that the larger part of the motorway section of the Sv. Ana variant is draining towards the Temenica River. The study of the hydrological conditions...
Chapter
The bottom of the Vipava Valley is made mostly of clastic rocks and sediments of different age and origin. The motorway between Vipava and Selo initially runs across the agriculturally changed Quaternary alluvium sediments, then it crosses the slightly undulating landscape made of Lower Eocene non-carbonate and carbonate turbidites, and in its last...
Chapter
Denudation of the karst surface and the corresponding earthworks necessary for road construction revealed a myriad karst features. These include old caves, which are either empty or filled with sediment; shafts, draining water from the surface into the karst interior; and various dolines. Caves that were opening up in the motorway route between Čeb...
Chapter
The construction works of the motorway section Pluska–Ponikve uncovered the characteristics of subsoil formation of the karst area of the Dolenjska region, which is covered with more or less thick layers of fine-grained alluvium and soil. The karst surface is dissected by stone forests and stone teeth, the exception being strips of karren, i.e. sto...
Chapter
Between 1994 and 2002, archaeological test probes were excavated in a great number of dolines along the motorway route between Divača and Kozina, thus opening up the possibility of examining the mineral composition of the clastic sediment layers found in them. In dolines, red and yellow sediments prevailed, occurring in several shades and transitio...
Chapter
The motorway section from Divača to Kozina, stretching 7.5 km, revealed 50 old caves, most of them filled with alluvium, many of which unroofed, and six of them qualifying as shafts. The old caves were once, in a time when the underground water table was still high enough, characterized by through-flowing water. At that time, the aquifer was encase...
Chapter
The karst surface in the area of the motorway section Ponikve–Hrastje is most distinctly characterized by its subsoil formation. The lower parts of the surface, dolines and the slope notches in particular were covered with relatively thick layers of alluvium and soil, which is why the rock beneath these features displays typical signs of subsoil fo...
Chapter
Škocjanske jame Caves (a system of a large number of caves) in the karst area of the Škocjan Caves Regional Park are on the list of World Heritage by Unesco and also on the Ramsar list of wetlands. The importance of these caves is in their position, in their function as a sink and as a part of the water system of the karst aquifer, and also in a un...
Chapter
Unroofed caves are old caves that were revealed on account of the lowering of the karst surface. They are preserved by their infill—mostly alluvium and flowstone. It became clear during the motorway construction undertaking in Slovenia that unroofed caves constitute a relatively common karst landform. In fact, more common than karstologists had ima...
Chapter
From the time of their sedimentation until today, the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Paleogene limestones of the south-western Slovenia underwent karstification over several karst periods and were subject to a number of karstification and epikarst development phases. Due to denudation, the epikarst, where the rock is markedly dissected by typical surfa...
Chapter
The S-647 Cave was uncovered during the process of constructing the left tube of the Kastelec tunnel and was unknown until then. It is over 550 m long and 50 m deep. The eastern part descends evenly and reaches its lowest accessible point at the altitude of 315 m, i.e. 47 m under the bottom of the tunnel. The western part ascends gently so that the...
Chapter
A sediment profile for palaeomagnetic research was taken in the filled karst depression during highway construction in the section Hrastje–Lešnica, on the pass between Karteljevo and Novo mesto in the Dolenjska region. The depression was filled with greyish laminated to thin bedded clayey deposits, rather uncommon in the area, where reddish-brown h...
Chapter
Slovenia and Croatia are connected with only one motorway that connects capitals, Ljubljana and Zagreb, while the motorway between Maribor and Zagreb and semi-motorway between Koper and Pula are currently under construction. To make the connection between Croatia and Italy safer and more efficient by diverting traffic from local roads, from 2005 on...
Chapter
South of Divača a cave previously completely filled with yellow fluvial clastic sediments was exposed on the eastern edge of the motorway in 1997. The cross-section of the cave was app. 6 m high, with a few metres of ceiling above it. In view of the knowledge available back then, it could be assumed that applying the palaeomagnetic method was the o...
Chapter
The earthworks during construction of the motorway section Lešnica–Kronovo revealed a karst surface and a part of the epikarst. Both were most distinctly characterized by their subsoil formations, i.e. the development underneath the thicker layers of alluvia and soil. The water percolating through them intersected the carbonate rocks, limestone, an...
Chapter
Limestone along the Bič–Korenitka motorway route is tectonically heavily fractured, forming broad collapsed and crushed zones, where it is often fractured to the level of tectonic breccia. This is understandable, as the area in question is part of the Sava compressive wedge which has undergone several phases of tectonic processes. Unlike southweste...
Chapter
During the motorway construction around Divača, construction works had unearthed a large number of dolines and caves filled with mechanic sediments. The clastic sediments in some of them have been subjected to in-depth analyses. A sediment analysis has shown that some of these depressions were in fact old caves, filled with fluvial allochthonous se...
Article
The comprehensive knowledge of karst surface, caves, waters and biodiversity were examined with special emphasis on planning for environmental management and land use in karst regions using examples of projects performed by the sta from the Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU. Based on the knowledge of karst, karst phenomena, karst waters and karst b...
Article
Full-text available
The unique morphology of cave animals has interested biologists at least since the time of Lamarck. After a number of non-adaptive explanations for the morphology of cave animals, especially with respect to eye and pigment loss, a neo-Darwinian explanation, emphasizing constructive morphological changes rather than losses, was put forward by Barr,...
Chapter
The road runs in the NW–SE direction across two landscape units: across the bottom of the Vipava Valley and the southwestern slopes of Mount Nanos, Breg and Rebrnice. The geological, geomorphological, speleological, and hydrological diversity of the Slovene karst has been demonstrated also by the study of karstification of breccia that have been fo...
Chapter
The northwestern part of the motorway section between Hrastje and Lešnica runs on a typical Dolenjska lowland. The landscape there is covered with laterally transforming and relatively thick layers of alluvia and soil. The soil water is located near the surface, with fluviokarst prevailing. Here we can find individual karst formations, including sm...
Chapter
The unroofed cave from which samples for the palaeomagnetic analysis were taken, is located to the northeast of Kozina, near the existing Ljubljana–Koper main road, in the cutting which was formed during the construction of the Divača–Klanec motorway. The sampled profile consists of more than 5 m of alluvium in two main sequences. The lower sequenc...
Chapter
A large part of motorways in Slovenia runs across the karst aquifers which are an important source of drinking water supply. Contamination washed off road surfaces by precipitation water can be a great threat to the quality of water sources. When the water, and with it harmful substances, enters the karst underground, it flows away rapidly through...
Chapter
The largest unroofed cave in the entire motorway route across Classical Karst was the 230 m long unroofed cave named Brezstropa jama which was unearthed near the village of Povir. It contained flowstone, stalactites, stalagmites and various sediments. Inside the cave, flowstone has been preserved in the form of crusts, massive flowstone heaps, and...
Chapter
Between Klanec and Črni Kal, on a 6.5 km route of the motorway, 67 caves opened during earthworks, road cutting and tunnel digs. The majority consisted of old caves, i.e. caves which once had water passing through. Two thirds of these caves were filled with alluvium. Research carried out in these caves augmented knowledge about the development of t...
Chapter
The motorway route between Dane and Fernetiči penetrates the karst ridge near Sežana, running over the karst plain to the border with Italy. The karst developed in Cretaceous limestone, which is intersected by smaller faults; this was best visible during the tunnel excavation under the Tabor Hill. It is quite remarkable the extent to which the surf...