Tanja A. Börzel

Tanja A. Börzel
Freie Universität Berlin | FUB · Otto-Suhr-Institute for Political Science

Doctor of Political and Social Sciences

About

240
Publications
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12,910
Citations

Publications

Publications (240)
Chapter
This chapter brings together the research of Detlef Jahn on political parties with his seminal contribution to diffusion research. We argue that diffusion does not only help to account for the populist tide in Europe. It also allows to open up research on political parties for a more global perspective.
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The chapter first explains what Europeanization means and outlines the main approaches to studying this phenomenon. The second section describes why this concept has become so prominent in research on the European Union (EU) and its member states. In the third section, the chapter reviews the state of the art with particular reference to how the EU...
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Eurosceptic political parties have gained substantial support in democratic elections. Scholars have widely studied their programmatic positions. We know much less about the behaviour of Eurosceptics within legislatures. How does Eurosceptic contestation translate into voting behaviour? How do members of Eurosceptic parties engage in plenary debate...
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THE EU – A FEDERAL SYSTEM SUI GENERIS The relationship between federalism and European integration has long been strained. For many, federalism and federation are ‘f words’, synonymous with centralization and the creation of a European super state. In the early days of European integration, federalism was indeed a political vision or programme for...
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The EU is surrounded by areas of limited statehood (ALS) and contested orders (CO) in its southern and eastern neighbourhood. Resilience has become a focus of attention in the academic debate on how to successfully deal with ALS and CO. Moreover, resilience-building is a new cornerstone in the EU’s foreign and security policy. However, to what exte...
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Policy makers and academics alike have mistakenly promoted an agenda which takes well-governed democratic and consolidated 'Weberian' states as the model for the world and the goal of development programs. Whilst Western industrial democracies are the exception, areas of limited statehood where state institutions are weak and ineffective, are every...
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The 1990s saw a systemic shift from the liberal post–World War II international order of liberal multilateralism (LIO I) to a post–Cold War international order of postnational liberalism (LIO II). LIO II has not been only rule-based but has openly pursued a liberal social purpose with a significant amount of authority beyond the nation-state. While...
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In this introductory article we explore the relationship between statehood and governance, examining in more detail how non-state actors like MNCs, international NGOs, and indigenous authorities, often under conditions of extreme economic scarcity, ethnic diversity, social inequality and violence, take part in the making of rules and the provision...
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This article introduces a special issue that investigates the interplay between domestic socio-political orders and changing external influences – of the EU, Russia, Turkey and other external actors in the region. In this introduction, we lay the conceptual framework and propose theoretical mechanisms linking state capacity and the actions of exter...
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The commentary returns to the beginning of the career of multilevel governance as a distinct perspective on the European Union and European integration. At the time, multilevel governance allowed a generation of students to overcome the stylised debates between Liberal Intergovernmentalism and Neofunctionalism on how to best capture the ‘nature of...
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In dieser Festschrift für Harald Fuhr behandeln Weggefährtinnen und Weggefährten unterschiedlicher beruflicher Stationen eine große Bandbreite an Themen aus sozialwissenschaftlicher Perspektive in drei Feldern: 1 Unter der Überschrift „Entwicklung und Verwaltung“ sind Beiträge gefasst, die sich wie Harald Fuhr mit der Frage auseinandersetzen, wie E...
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Abstract This article concentrates on the pathway from collective identities to the integration of core state powers. First, we focus on the European experience. We argue that elite identities have been crucial for the evolution of European integration. With regard to mass public opinion, European integration has been enabled by the permissive cons...
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This contribution re-engages grand theories of integration that have been developed with the European experience in mind. We ask to what extent these theories travel beyond Europe. Standard integration theories, such as neo-functionalism or liberal intergovernmentalism, privilege economic interdependence as a key driver of regional integration. We...
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This article advances our understanding of differences in hybrid stability by going beyond existing regime typologies that separate the study of political institutions from the study of economic institutions. It combines the work of Douglass North, John Wallis, and Barry Weingast (NWW) on varieties of social orders with the literature on political...
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This contribution examines whether and how economic divergence between the EU core and its southern and eastern peripheries relates to the emerging political divergence within the EU. Data show that persistent and growing economic disparities are linked to EU member states moving apart with regard to their democratic quality, but not as straightfor...
Chapter
The first section of the chapter explains what Europeanization means and outlines the main approaches to studying this phenomenon. The second section describes why this concept has become so prominent in research on the European Union (EU) and its member states. In the third section, the chapter reviews the state of the art with particular referenc...
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After twenty years of continuous deepening and widening, European integration has entered an era of recurrent crises. Most students of the European Union (EU) seem to agree that the constitutional equilibrium between intergovernmental and supranational institutions has changed. Some see ‘new intergovernmentalism’ and ‘integration without supranatio...
Book
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European Integration Theory provides an overview of the major approaches to European integration, from federalism and neofunctionalism to liberal intergovernmentalism, social constructivism, normative theory, and critical political economy. Each chapter represents a contribution to the ‘mosaic of integration theory’. The contributors reflect on the...
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This chapter deals with two litmus tests for theories of European integration. The first part asks, how and to what extent various approaches can explain the contemporary crises of European integration. It thereby tackles the question of whether European integration theories might have biased EU scholars towards ignoring evidence for (dis-)integrat...
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The European Union (EU) has become the main driver for environmental policy output for its member states whose number has more than tripled over the past four decades. The EU's deepening and widening has led researchers to expect more non-compliance with EU environmental legislation. in fact, however, the implementation gap has narrowed over the pa...
Book
Unpacking the major debates, leading authors of the field provide a state-of-the-art guide to governance in areas of limited statehood (ALS) where state authorities lack the capacity to implement and enforce central decision and/or to uphold the monopoly over the means of violence. While ALS can be found everywhere-not just in the global South-they...
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Business has become an important governor in areas of limited statehood (ALS). While the shadow of hierarchy is not necessary to incentivize companies, their contributions to governance still seem to require a minimum of statehood to be effective and legitimate. These findings point to a dilemma for (business) governance in ALS: companies are most...
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The European Union (EU) may not have met the expectations of many EU scholars muddling through crises rather than propelling forward. Reports about its demise, however, appear greatly exaggerated. Rather than taking it as a forgone conclusion that the EU is doomed, this contribution outlines a research strategy to assess the state of European integ...
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In this essay, we assess how the European Union supports the development of postconflict Western Balkan societies toward stable peace, economic prosperity, and consolidated democracy, moving them along the path to Denmark. Our analysis reveals that the EU has contributed to effective and democratic governance in its southeastern neighborhood. At th...
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This contribution argues that the three dominant approaches to European integration cannot fully explain why the two most recent crises of the European Union (EU) resulted in very different outcomes. Liberal intergovernmentalism and neofunctionalism can account for why the euro crisis resulted in more integration, but fail to explain why the EU has...
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Although enlargement increases the preference diversity in the EU, this paper shows that enlargement has not led to a deterioration of compliance with EU law. In three of the EU’s four enlargement rounds, the new member states comply better with EU law than the old member states. The southern enlargement in the 1980s is the only one that led to a s...
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This contribution introduces the concept of integration capacity and summarizes our research on the European Union (EU)’s integration capacity in Eastern enlargement. Integration capacity refers to the ability of the EU to prepare non-members for membership (external integration capacity) and to preserve its functioning and cohesion once they join...
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This contribution assesses the EU’s external political integration capacity: its ability to promote democracy and governance effectiveness in non-member and new member states. Based on macro-quantitative data, we examine the political trajectory of Central European, South-east European, and post-Soviet countries. We find that democracy and governan...
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This paper argues that the European Union’s (EU) performance in promoting democracy in its neighbourhood is not only compromised by the lack of a membership perspective but the selective sanctioning of non-compliance with democracy standards caused by conflicting foreign policy objectives. We identify two conditions for the EU’s consistent applicat...
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Key chapters, written by leading experts across the field, engage with important ongoing debates in the field of EU administrative law, focusing on areas of topical interest such as financial markets, the growing security state and problematic common asylum procedures. In doing so, they provide a summary of what we know, don’t know and ought to kno...
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This chapter examines the concept of Europeanization and why it has become prominent in research on the European Union and its member states. It first explains what Europeanization means before discussing the main approaches used in studying Europeanization. It then reviews the state of the art with particular reference to ‘top-down’ Europeanizatio...
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Areas of limited statehood where the state is absent or dysfunctional are rarely ungoverned or ungovernable spaces. The provision of rules and regulations, as well as of public goods and services – governance – does not necessarily depend on the existence of functioning state institutions. How can this be explained? To begin with, we identify funct...
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This paper provides an overview of the modes of political integration of the EU in the Eastern Partnership countries. It discusses the role of EU membership, and the absence thereof, as well as alternative modes at the EU’s disposal and explores how the EU has been using different instruments to achieve its goals in EaP countries, specifically in t...
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This conclusion summarizes the major findings of this special issue and discusses their implications for research on democratization and international democracy promotion. First, I compare the interactions between EU and US democracy promotion and the responses of non-democratic regional powers. In the cases in which Russia, Saudi Arabia, and China...
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Vor allem seit den 1990er Jahren hat sich in der Forschung zur europäischen Integration die Europäisierung als theoretischer Ansatz etabliert, mit welchem die Wechselwirkungen zwischen der nationalstaatlichen und der supranationalen Ebene des Mehrebenensystems der Europäischen Union (EU) erfasst werden können. Wechselwirkungen umfassen neben Politi...
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This article introduces the themes of this special issue which is devoted to the reactions by external actors including the EU to the events unfolding in the Arab world beginning in December 2010. In particular, we look at the balancing act by external actors between their desire for stability, on the one hand, and their normative principles toward...
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This article summarizes the findings from the special issue. The EU, the US, and to some extent Turkey are the only actors considered in this special issue who not only explicitly try to promote human rights and democracy, but also employ specific instruments and resources for this purpose. But all external actors prioritized stability and security...
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This contribution explores the "comparative turn" in research on regionalism which emerged at the intersection of International Relations and area studies. Seeking to capture the rise of regionalism after the end of the Cold War, studies have increasingly engaged in comparisons of region-building in different parts of the world. Such inter-regional...
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The European Union (EU) is a promoter and protector of ‘good governance’ par excellence. The Europeanization of its member states and attempts at external governance transfer towards third countries have earned the EU the name of a ‘transformative’ or ‘normative’ power (cf. Börzel and Risse 2009b; Manners 2006). Yet, in comparison with other region...
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The end of the Cold War witnessed a surge of regionalism, which triggered the proliferation of new research. While studies on the European Union (EU) used to dominate the field, developing distinctive concepts and theories, regionalism has gained prominence outside Europe. Students of area studies in particular felt that EU approaches had little to...
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Since the end of the Cold War, international organizations and states have developed programs to promote ‘good’ governance in member states and third countries. Regional organizations have gained an important role in governance transfer. They constitute an intermediate level of agency between the nation-state and global institutions. Their broad ma...
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Studies on governance transfer by regional organizations (ROs) are on the rise. The extant literature has mainly focused on democracy and human rights (for an overview see Pevehouse forthcoming; McMahon and Baker 2006). Meanwhile, the promotion of other governance standards, such as the rule of law and the fight against corruption, have received fa...
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Research on Europeanization has become a thriving research area. With the borders of the European Union (EU) moving eastwards, the research agenda extended to states that have to adapt their policies and institutions to the EU as a condition for membership. For the Central and Eastern European countries, “reinforcement by reward” was strong enough...
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The European Union (EU) is a multilevel system with expanding boundaries. The composition of its constituent governments changes over time and with it the institutional architecture structuring their interactions. Despite the system’s increasing complexity through enlargement, the EU is still dominated by multilateral institutions directed towards...
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The failure of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in bringing about democratic change in the European Union (EU)'s neighbourhood starts with the EU's limited effectiveness in shaping outcomes of international negotiations according to the ambitious objectives it pursues. This paper argues that this is not primarily a problem of a lack of actor...
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The 2013 ISA Convention held in San Francisco reflects the diversity of diffusion research, spanning wide-ranging thematic and methodological interests related to diffusion at the global and regional levels. Klinger-Vidra and Schleifer differentiate between models of diffusion that assume the existence of a single initial source and those that invo...
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This article asks under which conditions the state-building efforts of external actors in areas of limited statehood are likely to be effective. We argue that the legitimacy of the specific norms promoted by external actors among local actors is crucial for their success in strengthening state capacities. International efforts need to resonate with...
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The European Union has developed a one-size-fits-all approach to promote good governance reforms in African countries, focusing on strengthening the effectiveness of state institutions while increasingly asking for reforms that also target their democratic quality. Assessing the EU's policies in Angola and Ethiopia reveals, however, that the implem...
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This Introduction discusses the conventional wisdoms dominating the scholarship on policy change in the EU's Eastern neighbourhood countries and summarises the major findings of this collection. Drawing upon the empirical evidence underpinning the contributions to our collection, we argue that compliance with or convergence to EU policies happens d...
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The literature on European Union enlargement has identified misfit and membership conditionality as two factors that decisively shape the effectiveness of EU policy transfer to the Central and Eastern European accession countries. Thus, European neighbourhood countries would seem to be less likely cases of EU-induced policy change. Yet, rather than...
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Conventional wisdom holds that economic globalization leads to a regulatory ‘race to the bottom’ among countries. Global competition allows firms to invest in areas of limited statehood where governments lack the capacities to set and enforce regulations and generally refrain from measures affecting the costs of production. Likewise, firms will pre...
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Sans Fibre, a large chemical industrial textiles firm in Bellville, Cape Town, was a heavy environmental polluter during apartheid times (Héritier et al. 2009, Bray and Thauer 2014). The surrounding neighborhoods suffered badly from the Sans Fibre factory’s industrial fallout, effluents, uncontrolled hazardous waste disposal and emissions. With Sou...
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South Africa is not only Africa’s largest economy, it is also the continent’s biggest polluter, and it ranks among the 15 largest emitters of greenhouse gases worldwide. In February 2012, the South African government announced the introduction of a carbon tax to reduce high levels of harmful greenhouse gas emissions. ‘To minimise adverse impacts on...
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Climate change and related social and environmental changes present societies with increasingly urgent problems at multiple spatial scales. A diverse range of social actors is involved in contributing to climate change, and an even broader range is suffering and will suffer its manifold consequences. In this book we focus on business organisations...
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This paper explores the role of the state for an effective engagement of multinational corporations (MNCs) in corporate social responsibility (CSR).1 In the OECD context, the "shadow of hierarchy" cast by the state is considered an important incentive for MNCs to engage in CSR activities that contribute to governance. However, in areas of limited s...
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This symposium critically engages with the volume Experimentalist Governance in the European Union: Towards a New Architecture (2010), edited by Charles F. Sabel and Jonathan Zeitlin. “Experimentalist Governance” (EG) opens up an original theoretical perspective on the emergent governance architecture of the EU and sheds new light on developments i...
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Most students of the EU agree by now that it is best described as a governance system. There is far less consensus on what kind of governance the EU actually features: modern, postmodern, network, cooperative, innovative or simply new? Sabel and Zeitlin have advanced yet another concept. This paper discusses the added value of their “experimentalis...
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Member states of the European Union (EU) respond differently when they get caught for violations of European law and face prosecution. While Portugal tends to settle its non-compliance cases quickly and at an early stage of the EU's official infringement proceedings, Italy and Belgium like to sit them out and do not even comply with rulings of the...
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Viele Untersuchungen der Europäisierungswirkung auf die Institutionen der Mitgliedstaaten stützen sich auf Ansätze der Ressourcenabhängigkeit. Dieser Aufsatz argumentiert, dass solche Ansätze eines institutionalistischen Unterbaus bedürfen, um die innerstaatliche Wirkung der Europäisierung zu erklären. Erstens legen Institutionen die Verteilung von...
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In order to stabilise the post-Soviet region, the European Union seeks to transform the domestic structures of the Newly Independent States. In light of high adaptation costs, the lack of a membership perspective, and low levels of democracy, the prospects of Europeanisation appear to be limited. The Southern Caucasus belongs to the most corrupt co...
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This special issue explores to what extent policies and institutions of the European Union spread across different contexts. Are the EU's attempts to transfer its policies and institutions to accession and neighbourhood countries sustainable and effective? To what degree do other regions of the world emulate the EU's institutional features; what ar...
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The articles in this special issue find ample evidence for the EU's influence on domestic and regional institutions. Its impact is patchy, often shallow but certainly not spurious. This conclusion demonstrates that it is worthwhile to integrate the Europeanisation literature and its theoretical arguments into the larger literature on diffusion. But...

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