Tal Oron-Gilad

Tal Oron-Gilad
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev | bgu · Department of Industrial Engineering and Management

Ph.D.
"Never forget that you are one of a kind"- Buckminster Fuller

About

212
Publications
34,635
Reads
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2,833
Citations
Citations since 2016
106 Research Items
1996 Citations
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Introduction
I am a full professor at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the Vice-dean of the faculty of engineering sciences. A Humanfactors engineer in heart and mind. I specialize in human-automation interaction and integration, and do research in decision support systems, human-robot-interaction, and user-centered design several domains: traffic safety, socially assistive robots and command and control.
Additional affiliations
February 2003 - February 2006
University of Central Florida
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (212)
Article
Child-pedestrians, especially those in the age range of 5–9-years, are amongst the most vulnerable road users. These youngsters are highly represented in fatal and severe injury road crashes, despite relatively low levels of exposure to traffic. The present research investigated child and adult pedestrians’ perception of hazards utilizing a crossi...
Article
Full-text available
Drivers adopt various strategies in order to cope with fatigue and falling asleep at the wheel. These strategies include a wide range of activities that may invigorate the body and/or the mind. To compare usage patterns and to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of different coping behaviors adopted by professional and nonprofessional drivers in o...
Article
This study examined the effects of age and driving experience on the ability to detect hazards while driving; namely, hazard perception. Studies have shown that young-inexperienced drivers are more likely than experienced drivers to suffer from hazard perception deficiencies. However, it remains to be determined if this skill deteriorates with adva...
Article
This paper focuses on how the autonomy level of an assistive robot that offers support for older adults in a daily task and its feedback affect the interaction. Identifying the level of automation (LOA) that prioritizes older adults’ preferences while avoiding passiveness and sedentariness is challenging. The feedback mode should match the cognitiv...
Article
Full-text available
There is a knowledge gap regarding which types of failures robots undergo in domestic settings and how these failures influence customer experience. We classified 10,072 customer reviews of small utilitarian domestic robots on Amazon by the robotic failures described in them, grouping failures into twelve types and three categories (Technical, Inte...
Article
Socially assistive robots (SARs) aim to provide assistance through social interaction. Previous studies contributed to understanding users` perceptions and preferences regarding existing commercially available SARs. Yet, very few studies regarding SARs' appearance used designated SAR designs, and even fewer evaluated isolated visual qualities (VQ)....
Preprint
Full-text available
Robots' visual qualities (VQs) impact people's perception of their characteristics and affect users' behaviors and attitudes toward the robot. Recent years point toward a growing need for Socially Assistive Robots (SARs) in various contexts and functions, interacting with various users. Since SAR types have functional differences, the user experien...
Conference Paper
With the increased use of unmanned aerial and ground systems in the military environment, the question of what information to distribute to ground military operators arises. Generally, ground operators prefer ground views over aerial ones. Aerial views can generate broader understanding of the environment and increase comprehension of the situation...
Article
Drivers of partially automated vehicles are relieved from parts of the driving tasks allocated to the automated driver. This reduction in driving demands encourages them to engage with nondriving related tasks, which may impair awareness of the road environment once a takeover request (TOR) is initiated. This article examined the four suggested str...
Article
Full-text available
In three laboratory experiments, we examine the impact of personally relevant failures (PeRFs) on users’ perceptions of a collaborative robot. PeR is determined by how much a specific issue applies to a particular person, i.e., it affects one's own goals and values. We hypothesized that PeRFs would reduce trust in the robot and the robot's Likeabil...
Article
Interaction with and dependency on intelligent autonomous systems, may bring about feelings such as discomfort or fear. Users’ willingness to accept new technologies can be hampered by unwanted emotions like discomfort, making the study of the onset of discomfort essential for future technology design and implementation. Interest in discomfort has...
Article
Caregivers in eldercare can benefit from telepresence robots that allow them to perform a variety of tasks remotely. In order for such robots to be operated effectively and efficiently by non-technical users, it is important to examine if and how the robotic system’s level of automation (LOA) impacts their performance. The objective of this work wa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on older adults' interaction with socially assistive robots (SARs) is evolving. Participatory design (PD) strategies can support designers in developing SARs that meet older adults' needs, capabilities, and preferences. Still, there is a gap between PD elicitation methods and the generation of design requirements. We aim to bridge this gap...
Article
Full-text available
Digitization in the battlefield enables bi-directional graphic communication, i.e., sharing pictures or video feeds derived from unmanned systems, among distributed elements. Introducing robotic technologies at the battalion level is aimed to support shorter OODA (observe-orient-decide-act) cycles and more agility. Our focus is on developing bi-dir...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Evaluating the ability of a Gibsonian-inspired artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm to reduce the cognitive workloads of military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operators. Background Military UAV operators use the command-and-control (C2) map for developing mission-relevant situation awareness (SA). Yet C2 maps are overloaded with infor...
Conference Paper
This study examines whether allowing a certain level of user customization of a socially assistive robot (SAR) affects users' perception of the robot and improves acceptance. Two hundred thirty-nine respondents participated in an online study of a telepresence-assistive robot. We formed three groups of respondents who differed in their ability to m...
Poster
The EU-H2020 RESIST project aims to increase the resilience of transport operations in extreme events on bridges and tunnels. • We present a theoretical module for assessing highway users' behavior under stress. It incorporates psychological and behavioral dimensions of safety and risk, critical for communicating with road users. • We identified th...
Conference Paper
As part of the EU-H2020 RESIST project, which aims to increase the resilience of transport operations in extreme events on bridges and tunnels, we present a theoretical module for assessing highway users' behavior under stress. The module incorporates psychological and behavioral dimensions of safety and risk that impact operational capacity and ar...
Preprint
Full-text available
In three laboratory experiments, we examine the impact of personally relevant failures (PeRFs) on perceptions of a collaborative robot. PeR is determined by how much a specific issue applies to a particular person, i.e., it affects one's own goals and values. We hypothesized that PeRFs would reduce trust in the robot and the robot's Likeability and...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a knowledge gap regarding which types of failures robots undergo in domestic settings and how these failures influence customer experience. We classified 10,072 customer reviews of small utilitarian domestic robots on Amazon by the robotic failures described in them, grouping failures into twelve types and three categories (Technical, Inte...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an exploratory study aimed at: (i) understanding participants’ first impression of the Cyton Gamma 1500, a small machine-like robot arm, and (ii) designing robot body language to convey certain intentions with regard to a personal assistant robotic application. The between-group study comprised of three distinct groups of part...
Chapter
For domestic service robots (DSRs) to be successful, their design must accommodate user needs and preferences when working from home. This study explores whether DSR usage patterns change when people spend more time at home and whether active observation of robotic behaviors (which is more likely to occur when working from home) impacts the percept...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traffic violations are deliberate deviations from safe driving rules associated with enhanced risks for crash involvement, impacted by traits and demographics. Violations tend to decrease with age, males and young drivers tend to make more violations. But some studies reported the opposite or no sex differences. We argue that part of this ambiguity...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the effect of a COVID-19 Officer Robot (COR) on passersby compliance and the effects of its minor design manipulations on human–robot interaction. A robotic application was developed to ensure participants entering a public building comply with COVID restrictions of a green pass and wearing a face mask. The participants’ attitud...
Preprint
This study examines the effect of a COVID-19 Officer Robot (COR) on passersby compliance and the effects of its minor design manipulations on human-robot interaction. A robotic application was developed to ensure participants entering a public building comply with COVID restrictions of a green pass and wearing a face mask. The participants' attitud...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human-SAR (socially assistive robot) relationships vary by context of use and interaction level. We argue that context and interaction considerations must be incorporated into the SAR’s physical design requirements to align the robotic visual qualities (VQs) with users’ expectations. We propose to consider situational-based and dynamics-based human...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to encourage older adults to remain active when interacting with assistive robots. This study proposes a schematic model for integrating levels of automation (LOAs) and transparency (LoTs) in assistive robots to match the preferences and expectations of older adults. Metrics to evaluate LOA and LoT design combinations are defined. W...
Conference Paper
A socially assistive robot (SAR) can support children in developmental and well-being aspects. Children's tendency to anthropomorphize and pretend play contributes to their ability to engage with robots and establish relationships. The robot's visual aesthetics influences users' initial judgments and is essential for creating first impressions, tru...
Preprint
Full-text available
Caregivers in eldercare can benefit from telepresence robots that allow them to perform a variety of tasks remotely. In order for such robots to be operated effectively and efficiently by non-technical users, it is important to examine if and how the robotic system's level of automation (LOA) impacts their performance. The objective of this work wa...
Article
Full-text available
To accomplish their missions, the operators of military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) aggregate and process information from multiple sources under time constraints, while experiencing partial sensory deprivation. We aimed to design, develop, and evaluate the need for designated information aids in the form of vi-sualizations of spatial and tempo...
Article
Full-text available
Unexpected robot failures are inevitable. We propose to leverage socio-technical relations within the human-robot ecosystem to support adaptable strategies for handling unexpected failures. The Theory of Graceful Extensibility is used to understand how the architecture of the ecosystem can influence its ability to respond to unexpected events. By e...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study provides user-studies aimed at exploring factors influencing the interaction between older adults and a robotic table setting assistant. The in-fluence of the level of automation (LOA) and level of transparency (LOT) on the quality of the interaction was considered. Results revealed that the interaction effect of LOA and LOT significantl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Feedback design is an important aspect of person-following robots for older adults. This paper presents a user-centred design approach to ensure the design is focused on the needs and preferences of the users. A sequence of user studies with a total of 35 older adults (aged 62 years and older) was conducted to explore their preferences regarding fe...
Conference Paper
Relationships are crucial for human existence. People form relationships with other humans, pets, objects, and places. We argue that the nature of human-SAR (Socially assistive robot) relationship changes by context of use and interaction level. Therefore, context and interaction must be incorporated into the design requirements. Earlier studies id...
Article
Operating a small carry-on unmanned aerial system (UAS) alone is challenging. Research on facilitating single-operator work has focused mainly on payload operation and health monitoring. Little focus has been given to mission-related aspects and how the command and control (C2) map display contributes to mission accomplishment. This study uses cogn...
Preprint
To accomplish their missions, the operators of military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) aggregate and process information from multiple sources under time constraints, while experiencing partial sensory deprivation. We aimed to design, develop, and evaluate the need for designated information aids in the form of visualizations of spatial and tempor...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored pedestrians' understanding of Fully Autonomous Vehicles (FAVs) intention to stop and what influences pedestrians' decision to cross the road over time, i.e., learnability. Twenty participants saw fixed simulated urban road crossing scenes with a single FAV on the road as if they were pedestrians intending to cross. Scenes differ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored pedestrians' understanding of Fully Autonomous Vehicles (FAVs) intention to stop and what influences pedestrians' decision to cross the road over time, i.e., learnability. Twenty participants saw fixed simulated urban road crossing scenes with a single FAV on the road as if they were pedestrians intending to cross. Scenes differ...
Article
This study explored pedestrians’ understanding of Fully Autonomous Vehicle (FAV) intention and what influences their decision to cross. Twenty participants saw fixed simulated urban road crossing scenes with a FAV present on the road. The scenes differed from one another in the FAV’s messages: the external Human-Machine Interfaces (e-HMI) backgroun...
Article
As unmanned systems become more intelligent, ground force may be able to interact directly with the UAS, without the need for a human UAS operator as a moderator. We looked at how interaction tools facilitate coordination between commanders and intelligent autonomous UASs. For this a mission execution interface (MEI) was developed. It was added to...
Article
Mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems feature a video conferencing interface on a mobile robot, enabling pilot users to remotely control the robot while communicating with a local user. For older adults in an assisted living facility, the operators are mostly caregivers or remote family members. This small-sample usability testing aimed to eval...
Article
Objective To implement auditory continual feedback into the interface design of a Level 3 automated vehicle and to test whether gaze behavior and reaction times of drivers improved in take-over situations. Background When required to assume manual control in take-over situations, drivers of Level 3 automated vehicles are less likely than conventio...
Preprint
21 Objective Evaluating the ability of a Gibsonian artificial-intelligence algorithm to 22 reduce the cognitive workload of military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operators. 23 Background Military UAV operators work in highly dynamic environments. The 24 command and control (C2) map is aimed to assist them with developing situation 25 awareness (SA...
Preprint
Operators of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) must maintain high levels of Situation Awareness (SA) to perform their missions. They use Command and Control (C2) maps for orientation, route planning, and hazard awareness. Yet, the C2 maps are cluttered with irrelevant information. An AI-based algorithm was developed to filter the map based on...
Conference Paper
The present study aimed at exploring the factors that induce discomfort when riding automated vehicles in various driving events. Using a Wizard-of-Oz design, participants were driven in what appeared to be a fully automated (level 5) vehicle. An analysis of participants’ reactions and verbal utterances revealed six specific sources of discomfort (...
Chapter
Full-text available
Vibro-tactile interfaces were proposed as an alternative to enhance human-machine communication in information-rich domains. The current study aims to examine the effectiveness of two levels of tactile alerts when combined with visual alerts, in MUM-T (Manned UnManned Teaming) setup. In MUM-T, aside from their primary mission, mounted operators are...
Chapter
In this paper, we introduce a novel perspective for research concerning autonomous vehicles, by applying a psychoanalytic approach that focuses on capturing passengers’ emotional experience. By applying psychoanalytic thinking that aims at the sub-conscious parts of the experience, those that are often unobservable using common methodologies of stu...
Conference Paper
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operators must maintain high levels of situation awareness on their area of operation. To achieve this, they use the a Command and Control (C2) map, which is shared among forces, and regularly overloaded with data that is irrelevant to their operational mission. Operators require distilled information at the right timi...
Preprint
Real-time continuous workload assessment is important for researchers and developers of tools that aim to reduce human operators' cognitive workload, especially in dynamic environments, as the military environment, where task demands and workload change rapidly. Most workload measurement techniques provide a single retrospective value, or require e...
Article
Full-text available
Feedback design is an important aspect in person-following robots for older adults. This paper presents a user-centered design approach to ensure the design is focused on users’ needs and preferences. A sequence of user studies with a total of 35 older adults (aged 62 years and older) was conducted to explore their preferences regarding feedback pa...
Conference Paper
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) operators must maintain high levels of situation awareness on their area of operation. To achieve this, they use the Command and control (C2) map, which are shared among forces, and is regularly overloaded with data that is irrelevant to their mission. UAV operators' missions require distilled information at the right...
Chapter
Previous studies suggested that communication modalities used for human control and robot feedback influence human-robot interactions. However, they generally tended to focus on one part of the communication, ignoring the relationship between control and feedback modalities. We aim to understand whether the relationship between a user’s control mod...
Article
ABSTRACT Understanding the shortcomings of child-pedestrians in evaluating traffic situations may contribute to producing intervention techniques which may increase their awareness to potential hazards as well as inform and inspire designers of autonomous vehicle and infrastructure systems to deal with the complications of crossing pedestrians. The...
Article
Introduction: Little is known about how characteristics of the environment affect pedestrians' road crossing behavior. Method: In this work, the effect of typical urban visual clutter created by objects and elements in the road proximity (e.g., billboards) on adults and children (aged 9-13) road crossing behavior was examined in a controlled lab...
Chapter
This study provides user-studies aimed at exploring factors influencing the interaction between older adults and a robotic table setting assistant. The influence of level of automation (LOA) and level of transparency (LOT) on the quality of the interaction was considered. Results revealed that the interaction effect of LOA and LOT significantly inf...
Article
Vibro-tactile interfaces can support users in various aspects and contexts. Despite their inherent advantages, it is important to realize that they are limited in the type and capacity of information they can convey. This study is part of a series of experiments that aim to develop and evaluate a “tactile taxonomy” for dismounted operational enviro...
Article
The intensive care unit (ICU) is one of the most complex areas in hospital care, as patients require continuous monitoring by physicians and nurses. Currently, clinicians are informed about the patients’ physiological conditions through visual color-coded signals and auditory alarms. Previous studies have shown that vibrotactile cues can be used to...
Conference Paper
Previous studies suggested that communication modalities used for human control and robot feedback influence human-robot interactions. However, they generally tended to focus on one part of the communication, ignoring the relationship between control and feedback modalities. We aim to understand whether the relationship between a user's control mod...
Conference Paper
Operators of military unmanned aerial systems (UASs) work in highly dynamic environments. Their main focus is on mission management via the UAS's payload, yet, they continuously interact with the command and control (C2) map to obtain situation awareness and decision-making. Since C2 maps are cluttered and overloaded with information, we aim to dev...
Article
One of the most significant safety concerns regarding Highly-Automated Driving (HAD) is drivers’ ability to regain control of the vehicle safely. Vibro-tactile alerts were already suggested as an effective modality for Take-Over Requests (TOR) in terms of reducing reaction times. However, it is not clear yet whether such alerts should be compatible...
Article
In Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) the vehicle commander (VC) and crew communicate through an audio system that all crew members inside the armored fighting vehicle (AFV) can hear. This can be distracting and inconvenient, especially for effective communication between the VC and the driver. We assessed the feasibility and usability of a tactile s...
Conference Paper
Operators of military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) work in highly dynamic environments. They have to complete numerous tasks, sometimes simultaneously, while maintaining high situational awareness (SA) and making rapid decisions. Their main focus is on mission management via the UAV's payload, yet, they continuously interact with the command and...
Conference Paper
To improve the design of a person-following robot, this preliminary study evaluates the influence of user tasks on human preferences of the robot's following angle and human perceptions of the robot's behavior. 32 participants were followed by a robot at three different following angles twice, once with an auditory task and once with a visual task,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The critical role of human factors in designing the interaction of autonomous vehicles with pedestrians. Human factors engineering principals are now being investigated and implemented widely in autonomous vehicles, mainly regarding the need of human drivers to resume control (take over requests), or, as the level of autonomy increases, with regard...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Poster
Most of the operational tasks that commanders do rely heavily on the visual modality. At the same time, use of advanced visual devices has become common. This, together with the need to execute tasks rapidly, may cause overload and decrease commanders' performance. One promising alternative is utilization of the tactile modality via wearables. In t...
Conference Paper
Command and control (C2) maps in military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are often cluttered beyond the needs of operators. Unfortunately, information overload increases the operators’ mental effort and mission performance suffers. To make C2 maps more useful and improve operator performance, this study proposes a triangular approach to highlighti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study is a preparatory stage of a larger study intended to increase the understanding between a dining table robot assistant and the user. The users are expected to be older adults who need assistance in their daily lives but the study begins with investigating the level of understanding with younger adults with the intention of comparing the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Person-following is an important aspect in many service robotic applications whilst supporting a person in performing daily tasks. Few studies have actively worked towards making person-following behavior usable, pleasurable or personal. As such, user studies are essential for promoting the interaction design, and increase user satisfaction and acc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Person-following is an important aspect in many service robotic applications whilst supporting a person in performing daily tasks. Few studies have actively worked towards making person-following behavior usable, pleasurable or personal. As such, user studies are essential for promoting the interaction design, and increase user satisfaction and acc...
Article
A detailed understanding of operator individual differences can serve as a foundation for developing a critical window on effective, adaptable, user-centered automation, and even for more autonomous systems. Adaptable automation that functions according to such principles and parameters has many potential benefits in increasing operator trust and a...
Conference Paper
One of the most significant concerns regarding the use of Highly-Automated Driving (HAD) is drivers' ability to regain control. Vibro-tactile alerts were already suggested as an effective modality for TakeOver Requests (TOR). However, it is not clear whether such alerts should be ipsilateral or contralateral relative to the location of hazards. Stu...
Poster
The present study is aimed to serve as a preliminary stage in the examination and implementation of a taxonomy of vibro-tactile cues for operational missions. Previous researches showed that using the tactile modality can help increase soldiers’ performance in terms of response time, accuracy in navigation and communication under busy conditions an...
Article
Full-text available
While substantial effort has been invested in making robots more reliable, experience demonstrates that robots operating in unstructured environments are often challenged by frequent failures. Despite this, robots have not yet reached a level of design that allows effective management of faulty or unexpected behavior by untrained users. To understa...