# Tak SiuMacquarie University

Tak Siu

## About

270

Publications

25,865

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

4,148

Citations

Citations since 2017

## Publications

Publications (270)

An important issue in functional time series analysis is whether an observed series comes from a purely random process. We extend the BDS test, a widely-used nonlinear independence test, to the functional time series. Like the BDS test in the univariate case, the functional BDS test can act as the model specification test to evaluate the adequacy o...

This paper proposes a two-stage approach to parametric nonlinear time series modelling in discrete time with the objective of incorporating uncertainty or misspecification in the conditional mean and volatility. At the first stage, a reference or approximating time series model is specified and estimated. At the second stage, Bayesian nonlinear exp...

In this paper, a class of reinsurance contracting problems is examined under a continuous-time principal–agent framework with mean-variance criteria, where a reinsurer and an insurer are assigned the roles of the principal and the agent, respectively. Both parties can manage their insurance risk by investing in a financial portfolio comprising a ri...

We consider a risk-sensitive optimization of consumption-utility on an infinite time horizon where the one-period investment gain depends on an underlying economic state whose evolution over time is assumed to be described by a discrete-time, finite-state, Markov chain. We suppose that the production function also depends on a sequence of independe...

Motivated by claims reserving in run-off triangles, a class of threshold autoregressive nearest-neighbour (TAR-NN) models extending a major class of parametric nonlinear time series models, namely threshold autoregressive (TAR) models, is introduced. The proposed class of models also introduces a flexible regime-switching mechanism to nearest-neigh...

Modeling of uncertainty by probability errs by ignoring the uncertainty in probability. When financial valuation recognizes the uncertainty of probability, the best the market may offer is a two price framework of a lower and upper valuation. The martingale theory of asset prices is then replaced by the theory of nonlinear martingales. When dealing...

This paper studies a continuous-time securities market where an agent, having a random investment horizon and a targeted terminal mean return, seeks to minimize the variance of a portfolio's return. Two situations are discussed, namely a deterministic time-varying density process and a stochastic density process. In contrast to [18], the variance o...

A generalized Esscher transform is introduced for option valuation in a Markov regime-switching model. It is intended that the generalized Esscher transform might provide novel insights into pricing regime switching risk. A new pricing kernel and the related martingale condition are derived which might provide a convenient way to price both diffusi...

We consider a risk-sensitive optimization of consumption-utility on infinite time horizon where the one-period investment gain depends on an underlying economic state whose evolution over time is assumed to be described by a discrete-time, finite-state, Markov chain. We suppose that the production function also depends on a sequence of i.i.d. rando...

This paper investigates a combined optimal risk exposure and dividend distribution decision making problem in presence of model uncertainty. In the context of model uncertainty, the decision maker regards the reference model (fitted by observed information) as an approximation to the true model and believes that the true model exists in a family of...

This article aims to investigate, from an academic perspective, a potential application of dynamic fund protection to protect a mortgagor of a property against the downside risk due to falling property price. The valuation of the dynamic fund protection is discussed through modeling the property price and interest rate, which may be considered to b...

Pairs trading is a typical example of a convergence trading strategy. Investors buy relatively under-priced assets simultaneously, and sell relatively over-priced assets to exploit temporary mispricing. This study examines optimal pairs trading strategies under symmetric and non-symmetric trading constraints. Under the assumption that the price spr...

Demand and supply uncertainty lead to a model of markets that set prices to acceptable risk levels for excess supplies and net revenues. The result is a two price partial equilibrium economy. The equilibrium solutions are applied to two price financial market data to infer demand and supply elasticities and log normal volatilities from market quote...

In this paper, we aim to study optimal decisions on consumption, investment and purchasing life insurance of a household with two consecutive generations, say parents and children. A continuous-time model featuring the impacts of labor income uncertainty and model uncertainty on those decisions is considered. Specifically, as in the economic litera...

This paper aims to study the impacts of long memory in conditional volatility and conditional non-normality on market risks in Bitcoin and some other cryptocurrencies using an Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated GARCH model with non-normal innovations. Two tail-based risk metrics, namely Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES), are adopt...

In this paper, we generalize the Almgren-Chriss's market impact model to a more realistic and flexible framework and employ it to derive and analyze some aspects of optimal liquidation problem in a security market. We illustrate how a trader's liquidation strategy alters when multiple venues and extra information are brought into the security marke...

This paper aims to study the pricing of Bitcoin options with a view to incorporating both conditional heteroscedasticity and regime switching in Bitcoin returns. Specifically, a nonlinear time series model combining both the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH) m...

In this paper, we construct quantitative models in which the dependence structure of the firms’ default times is incorporated. Such models serve as the underlying frameworks in our proposed approach to price and hedge basket credit derivatives. Through the Gaussian copula-based method, we model the default correlation risk and develop valuation for...

A fuzzy portfolio selection model is considered with a view to incorporating ambiguity about model and data structure. The model features the uncertainty about the exit time of each risky asset within a pre- specified investment horizon and also the presence of transaction costs. However, departing from the traditional paradigm where the transactio...

This work uses different classes of premium principles (including the expected value premium principle, the variance premium principle and the exponential premium principle) as well as optimal reinsurance problems to minimize the probability of ruin and maximize the expected utility in both a diffusion insurance risk model and a compound Poisson in...

The hedging of a European-style contingent claim is studied in a continuous-time doubly Markov-modulated financial market, where the interest rate of a bond is modulated by an observable, continuous-time, finite-state, Markov chain and the appreciation rate of a risky share is modulated by a continuous-time, finite-state, hidden Markov chain. The f...

This paper aims to investigate optimal reinsurance contracts in a continuous-time modelling framework from the perspective of a principal-agent problem. The reinsurer plays the role of the principal and aims to determine an optimal reinsurance premium to maximize the expected utility on terminal wealth. It is supposed that the reinsurer faces ambig...

Asset allocation with a derivative security is studied in a hidden, Markovian regime-switching, economy using filtering theory and the martingale approach. A generalized delta-hedged ratio and a generalized elasticity of an option are introduced to accommodate the presence of the information state process and the derivative security. Malliavin calc...

This paper investigates a consumption-leisure-investment problem, where the object of an economic agent is to maximize the expected value of discounted lifetime utility in a life-cycle model. The agent is allowed to have considerable labor flexibility and the date of retirement is fixed. To incorporate some well-documented behavioral features of hu...

With the advancement of behavioral economics, the use of exponential discounting for decision making in neoclassical economics has been questioned since it cannot provide a realistic way to explain certain decision-making behavior.The purpose of this paper is to investigate strategic decision making on dividend distribution policies of insurance co...

In this paper we discuss an option pricing problem in a hidden Markovian regime-switching model with a stochastic interest rate and volatility. Regime switches are attributed to structural changes in an hidden economic environment and are described by a continuous-time, finite-state, unobservable Markov chain. The model is then applied to the valua...

In this paper, the optimal pricing strategy in Avellande-Stoikov's for a
monopolistic dealer is extended to a general situation where multiple dealers
are present in a competitive market. The dealers' trading intensities, their
optimal bid and ask prices and therefore their spreads are derived when the
dealers are informed the severity of the compe...

The Heath-Jarrow-Morton model is an important tool for describing the term structure of interest rates. A regime switching version was considered by Elliott and Siu (Quant Finance 16(12):1791–1800, 2016). It is of interest to price the risk due to the regime switching and this was discussed in Elliott and Siu (Quant Finance 16(12):1791–1800, 2016)....

In this paper, we develop a new class of parametric nonlinear time series models by combining two important classes of models, namely smooth transition models and hidden Markov regime-switching models. The class of models is general and flexible enough to incorporate two types of switching behavior: smooth state transitions and abrupt changes in hi...

An event-triggered regime-switching jump-diffusion model is introduced with a view to incorporating the impact of asymmetric information on optimal trading decisions. The modeling structure is novel in the sense that it can disentangle the optimizing behavior of different types of traders, namely uninformed, partially informed and informed traders....

This paper presents a novel risk-based approach for an optimal asset allocation problem with default risk, where a money market account, an ordinary share and a defaultable security are investment opportunities in a general non-Markovian economy incorporating random market parameters. The objective of an investor is to select an optimal mix of thes...

The binomial model is a standard framework used to introduce risk neutral pricing of financial assets. Martingale representation, backward stochastic differential equations, and the Malliavin calculus are difficult concepts in a continuous-time setting. This paper presents these ideas in the simple, discrete-time binomial model.

Using stochastic flows, probabilistic solutions of Markovian, regime-switching, forward and backward Kolmogorov's equations are discussed. These equations may be related to some pricing equations in mathematical finance. Their solutions are derived by differentiating a family of conditional expectations.

In this paper, we propose a higher-order interactive hidden Markov model, which incorporates both the feedback effects of observable states on hidden states and their mutual long-term dependence. The key idea of this model is to assume the probability laws governing both the observable and hidden states can be written as a pair of higher-order stoc...

This note revisits the problem discussed in Meng et al. (2016) where an optimal insurance risk control problem was considered in a diffusion approximation model with multiple reinsurers adopting variance premium principles. It was shown in Meng et al. (2016) that under a certain technical condition, a combined proportional reinsurance treaty is an...

This paper studies an optimal portfolio selection problem under a discrete-time Higher-Order Hidden Markov-Modulated Autoregressive (HO-HMMAR) model for price dynamics. By interpreting the hidden states of the modulating higher-order Markov chain as different states of an economic condition, the model discussed here may incorporate the long-term me...

This paper studies an optimal portfolio selection problem in the presence of the Maximum Value-at-Risk (MVaR) constraint in a hidden Markovian regime-switching environment. The price dynamics of risky assets are governed by a hidden Markovian regime-switching model with a hidden Markov chain whose states represent the states of an economy. We formu...

An optimal reinsurance problem of an insurer is studied in a continuous-time model, where insurance risk is partly transferred to two reinsurers, one adopting the expected-value premium principle and another one using the variance premium principle. The insurer aims to select an optimal reinsurance arrangement to minimize the probability of ruin. T...

This paper considers a new stochastic volatility model with regime switches and uncertain noise in discrete time and discusses its theoretical development for filtering and estimation. The model incorporates important features for asset price models, such as stochastic volatility, regime switches and parameter uncertainty in Gaussian noises for bot...

In this paper, the valuation of an investment opportunity in a high-tech corporation using real option theory and modern capital budgeting is studied. Some key characteristics such as high-risk, multi-stage and technology life cycle of a high-tech project are considered in the proposed model. Since a real option is usually not tradable in the marke...

Using the popular Schwartz 97 two-factor approach, we study future contracts written on fresh farmed salmon, which have been actively traded at the Fish Pool Market in Norway since 2006. This approach features a stochastic convenience yield for the salmon spot price. We connect this approach with the classical literature on fish-farming and aquacul...

In this article, we discuss the pricing of a dynamic fund protection (DFP) when the value process of the
investment fund is governed by a geometric Brownian motion with parameters modulated by a continuoustime,
finite-state hidden Markov chain. Under a risk-neutral probability measure, selected by the Esscher
transform, we adopt the partial differe...

This paper studies a supply chain consisting of one supplier and n retailers. The market demand for each retailer is assumed to be dependent on the difference between the retail price and the average retail price. The supplier considers two wholesale price strategies. In the first strategy, Strategy I, the wholesale prices to all n retailers are th...

This article discusses option pricing in a Markov regime-switching model with a random acceleration for the volatility. A key feature of the model is that the volatility of the underlying risky security is randomly accelerated by a coefficient which is modulated by a continuous-time, finite-state Markov chain. Consequently, the degree of accelerati...

A risk-minimizing approach to pricing contingent claims in a general non-Markovian, regime-switching, jump-diffusion model is discussed, where a convex risk measure is used to describe risk. The pricing problem is formulated as a two-person, zero-sum, stochastic differential game between the seller of a contingent claim and the market, where the la...

We propose a threshold copula-based nonlinear time series model for evaluating quantitative risk measures for financial portfolios with a flexible structure to incorporate nonlinearities in both univariate (component) time series and their dependent structure. We incorporate different dependent structures of asset returns over different market regi...

In this paper, we propose a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) which incorporates the threshold effect of the observation process. Simulated examples are given to show the accuracy of the estimated model parameters. We also give a detailed implementation of the model by using a dataset of crude oil price in the period 1986-2011. The prediction of crude oil...

We consider the optimal harvesting problem for a fish farmer in a model that accounts for stochastic prices featuring Schwartz (1997) two-factor price dynamics. Unlike any other literature in this context, we take account of the existence of a newly-established market in salmon futures, which determines risk premia and other relevant variables, tha...

The appearance of new trading destinations facilitates trading the same financial instrument simultaneously in different venues. To execute a large order, market participants may need to make decisions about how to split the order across multiple venues and at what prices to post the limit orders during the trading horizon to control the overall tr...

In this paper, we investigate the pricing of European-style options under a Markovian regime-switching Hull-White interest rate model. The parameters of this model, including the mean-reversion level, the volatility of the stochastic interest rate and the volatility of an asset's value, are modulated by an observable, continuous-time, finite-state...

An optimal selection problem for bid and ask quotes subject to a stock inventory constraint is investigated, formulated as a constrained utility maximisation problem over a finite time horizon. The arrivals of buy and sell orders are governed by Poisson processes, and a diffusion approximation is employed on assuming the Poisson arrivals intensity...

A self-exciting threshold jump-diffusion model for option valuation is studied. This model can incorporate regime switches without introducing an exogenous stochastic factor process. A generalized version of the Esscher transform is used to select a pricing kernel. The valuation of both the European and American contingent claims is considered. A p...

In this paper, we discuss a Markov chain approximation method
to price European options, American options and barrier options in a Markovian
regime-switching environment. The model parameters are modulated by a
continuous-time, finite-state, observable Markov chain, whose states represent
the states of an economy. After selecting an equivalent mart...

An optimal insurance risk control problem is discussed in a general situation where several reinsurance companies enter into a reinsurance treaty with an insurance company. These reinsurance companies adopt variance premium principles with different parameters. Dividends with fixed costs and taxes are paid to shareholders of the insurance company....

In this paper we consider a reduced-form intensity-based credit risk model with a hidden Markov state process. A filtering method is proposed for extracting the underlying state given the observation processes. The method may be applied to a wide range of problems. Based on this model, we derive the joint distribution of multiple default times with...

We study a consumption-portfolio optimization problem in a hidden Markov-modulated asset price model with multiple risky assets, where model uncertainty is present. Under this modeling framework, the appreciation rates of risky shares are modulated by a continuous-time, finite-state hidden Markov chain whose states represent different modes of the...

In this paper, we employ the Heston stochastic volatility model to describe the stock's volatility and apply the model to derive and analyze the optimal trading strategies for dealers in a security market. We also extend our study to option market making for options written on stocks in the presence of stochastic volatility. Mathematically, the pro...

This paper discusses an optimal investment–consumption problem in a continuous-time co-integration model, where an investor
aims to maximize an expected, discounted utility derived from intertemporal consumption and terminal wealth in a finite time
horizon. Using the dynamic programming principle approach, we obtain an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equat...

A combined optimal dividend/reinsurance problem with two types of insurance claims, namely the expected premium principle and the variance premium principle, is discussed. Dividend payments are considered with both fixed and proportional transaction costs. The objective of an insurer is to determine an optimal dividend–reinsurance policy so as to m...

A model for valuing a European-style commodity option and a futures option is discussed with a view to incorporating the impact of changing hidden economic conditions on commodity price dynamics. The proposed model may be thought of as an extension to the Gibson-Schwartz two-factor model, where the model parameters vary when the hidden state of an...

Convex risk measures for European contingent claims are studied in a non-Markovian jump-diffusion modeling framework using functional Itô's calculus. Two representations for a convex risk measure are considered, one based on a nonlinear g-expectation and another one based on a representation theorem. Functional Itô's calculus for càdlàg processes,...

Using backward stochastic difference equations, this paper develops a discrete-time, binomial model to implement a dynamic convex risk mea-sure for the nonlinear risk inherent when trading a derivative security. The dynamic convex risk measure is represented as a conditional nonlinear-expectation, or g-expectation, which is the solution of a backwa...

A forward equation, which is also called the Dupire formula, is obtained for European call options when the price dynamics of the underlying risky assets are assumed to follow a regime-switching local volatility model. Using a regime-switching version of the adjoint formula, a system of coupled forward equations is derived for the price of the Euro...

By utilizing information about prices and trading volumes, we discuss the pricing of European contingent claims in a continuous-time hidden regime-switching environment. Hidden market sentiments described by the states of a continuous-time, finite-state, hidden Markov chain represent a common factor for an asset’s drift and volatility, as well as i...

This paper is concerned with the valuation of equity-linked annuities with mortality risk under a double regime-switching model, which provides a way to endogenously determine the regime-switching risk. The model parameters and the reference investment fund price level are modulated by a continuous-time, finite-time, observable Markov chain. In par...

An optimal asset allocation problem for a quite general class of utility functions is discussed in a simple two-state Markovian regime-switching model, where the appreciation rate of a risky share changes over time according to the state of a hidden economy. As usual, standard filtering theory is used to transform a financial model with hidden info...

Using stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms relating to a Markov chain together with the Itô's differentiation rule, the differentiability of the price of a European-style contingent claim with respect to the underlying state variables is proved in a continuous-time Markov chain market. The differentiability results are also used to calculate the Gre...

We investigate an optimal investment problem of an insurance company in the presence of risk constraint and regime-switching using a game theoretic approach. A dynamic risk constraint is considered where we constrain the uncertainty aversion to the ‘true’ model for financial risk at a given level. We describe the surplus of an insurance company usi...

Strategic asset allocation is discussed in a discrete-time economy, where the rates of return from asset classes are explained in terms of some observable and hidden factors. We extend the existing models by incorporating long-term memory in the rates of return and observable economic factors, which have been documented in the empirical literature....

Integration-by-parts formulas for functions of fundamental jump processes relating to a continuous-time, finite-state Markov chain are derived using Bismut's change of measures approach to Malliavin calculus. New expressions for the integrands in stochastic integrals corresponding to representations of martingales for the fundamental jump processes...

We discuss a general problem of optimal strategies for insurance, consumption and investment in a changing economic environment described by a continuous-time regime switching model. We consider the situation of a random investment horizon which depends on the force of mortality of an economic agent. The objective of the agent is to maximize the ex...

This paper is concerned with option valuation under a double regime-switching model, where both the model parameters and the price level of the risky share depend on a continuous-time, finite-state, observable Markov chain. In this incomplete market set up, we first employ a generalized version of the regime-switching Esscher transform to select an...

The valuation of a European-style contingent claim is discussed in a hidden Markov regime-switching jump-diffusion market, where the evolution of a hidden economic state process over time is described by a continuous-time, finite-state, hidden Markov chain. A two-stage procedure is used to discuss the option valuation problem. Firstly filtering the...

Credit ratings and accounting-based Altman Z-scores are two important sources of information for assessing the creditworthiness of firms. In this paper we build a model based on a double hidden Markov model, (DHMM), to extract information about the “true” credit qualities of firms from both the Z-scores evaluated from the accounting ratios of the f...

We investigate the empirical performance of hedging strategies based on Greeks, such as Delta and Delta-Gamma, for (European-style) crude oil options in a GARCH model environment. Particular attention is paid to studying the impacts of the conditional heteroscedasticity and the conditional non-normality of the GARCH innovations on the option prices...

Corporate defaults may be triggered by some major market news or events such as financial crises or collapses of major banks or financial institutions. With a view to develop a more realistic model for credit risk analysis, we introduce a new type of reduced-form intensity-based model that can incorporate the impacts of both observable ‘trigger’ ev...

We consider a risk-based asset allocation problem in a Markov, regime-switching, pure jump model. With a convex risk measure of the terminal wealth of an investor as a proxy for risk, we formulate the risk-based asset allocation problem as a zero-sum, two-person, stochastic differential game between the investor and the market. The HJB dynamic prog...

A continuous-time Markov chain which is partially observed in Poisson noise is considered, where a structural change in the dynamics of the hidden process occurs at a random change point. Filtering and change point estimation of the model is discussed. Closed-form recursive estimates of the conditional distribution of the hidden process and the ran...

In this paper, we investigate the valuation of two types of foreign equity options under a Markovian regime-switching mean-reversion lognormal model, where some key model parameters in the dynamics of the foreign equity price and the foreign exchange rate are modulated by a continuous-time, finite-state Markov chain. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)...

We consider the valuation of both European-style and American-style barrier options in a Markovian, regime-switching, Black-Scholes-Merton economy, where the price process of an underlying risky asset is governed by a Markovian, regime-switching, geometric Brownian motion. Both the probabilistic and partial differential equation (PDE), approaches a...

This paper discusses a mean–variance portfolio selection problem under a constant elasticity of variance model. A backward stochastic Riccati equation is first considered. Then we relate the solution of the associated stochastic control problem to that of the backward stochastic Riccati equation. Finally, explicit expressions of the optimal portfol...

We introduce a new double threshold model with regime switches. New filtering equations are derived based on a reference probability approach. We also propose a new and practically useful method for implementing the filtering equations.

In this paper, a generalized GARCH-based stochastic mortality model is developed, which incorporates conditional heteroskedasticity and conditional non-normality. First, a detailed empirical analysis of the UK mortality rates from 1922 to 2009 is provided, where it was found that both the conditional heteroskedasticity and conditional non-normality...

We use convex risk measures to assess unhedged risks for American-style contingent claims in a continuous-time non-Markovian economy using reflected backward stochastic differential equations (RBSDEs). A two-stage approach is adopted to evaluate the risk. We formulate the evaluation problem as an optimal stopping-control problem and discuss the pro...

In this paper, we discuss three different approaches to select an equivalent martingale measure for the
valuation of contingent claims under a Markovian regime-switching Lévy model. These approaches are the
game theoretic approach, the Esscher transformation approach and the general equilibrium approach.We
employ the dynamic programming principle t...

We propose a model for the valuation of participating life insurance products under a generalized jump–diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure in the incomplete market. The results are further manipulated through the utilization of the change of numeraire t...

In this article we discuss an intensity-based model for portfolio credit risk using a collection of hidden Markov-modulated single jump processes. The model can be viewed as a “dynamic” version of a frailty-based approach to describe the dependent default risk, where firms are exposed to a common hidden dynamic frailty factor described by a hidden...

In this paper, we propose a novel Two-level Particle Swarm Optimization (TLPSO) to solve the credit portfolio management problem. A two-date credit portfolio management model is considered. The objective of the manager is to minimize the maximum expected loss of the portfolio subject to a given consulting budget constraint. The captured problem is...

The optimal dividend problem is a classic problem in corporate finance though an early contribution to this problem can be traced back to the seminal work of an actuary, Bruno De Finetti, in the late 1950s. Nowadays, there is a leap of literature on the optimal dividend problem. However, most of the literature focus on linear insurance risk process...