Tahira N. Reid

Tahira N. Reid
Purdue University | Purdue · School of Mechanical Engineering

Design Science

About

57
Publications
34,589
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864
Citations
Citations since 2016
32 Research Items
763 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
Human–machine interactions (HMIs) describe how humans engage various systems, including those that are smart, autonomous, or both. Most HMIs either allow the human to control the machine (an instrument panel), allow the machine to obtain data (a heart monitor), or even both (a virtual reality setup). HMIs may be placed in three broad classes. In on...
Article
Full-text available
Design thinking is a methodology that comes from the industrial design realm and is centred on culling better needs insight from users. Another popular methodology is based gaining insight on the potential of an opportunity through experimentation, testing, and iterating with users. This is commonly referred to as lean startup methods. However, fro...
Article
Aomation has become prevalent in the everyday lives of humans. However, despite significant technological advancements, human supervision and intervention are still necessary in almost all sectors of automation, ranging from manufacturing and transportation to disaster management and health care [1]. Therefore, it is expected that the future will b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human trust in automation plays an essential role in interactions between humans and automation. While a lack of trust can lead to a human's disuse of automation, over-trust can result in a human trusting a faulty autonomous system which could have negative consequences for the human. Therefore, human trust should be calibrated to optimize human-ma...
Article
While heat acts as an essential component of various hair care processes, the thermal properties of hair are little studied and these properties dictate how heat is spread and stored in hair. Here, the infrared microscopy enhanced Ångström's method is introduced for accurate measurement of thermal diffusivity of hair. Three factors that could influ...
Article
Intelligent and autonomous technology is performing tasks from driving to healthcare, in which calibration of human trust in automation is critical. In this paper, we use a model-based clustering algorithm to identify and model dominant dynamics of human trust in automation among a general population. In doing so, we seek to balance the tradeoffs b...
Article
Full-text available
Human-centered design provides a means to help designers create products or systems with ‘people’ as the focus. Compassionate Design (CD) , introduced in this paper, is an approach that addresses niche sensitive needs and involves a way of thinking where designers pay special attention to the users’ sense of dignity, empowerment, and security. Thes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces ContaBat, an attachable device for a cricket bat that provides important performance metrics like ball-bat impact location, rotation due to impact, and impact force which could be used by players, coaches and fans to gain insights about their performance. Of the metrics mentioned, obtaining the impact location is the most nove...
Article
Ångström's method has been used to quantify thermal diffusivity of materials for over 150 years via measurement of thermal waves propagating through a long, thin sample. However, the traditional Ångström's method has some limitations. First, the traditional method is insensitive to potential variability in thermal diffusivity along the length of a...
Article
To attain improved human-machine collaboration, it is necessary for autonomous systems to infer human trust and workload and respond accordingly. In turn, autonomous systems require models that capture both human trust and workload dynamics. In a companion paper, we developed a trust-workload partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) mod...
Article
In this paper, we establish a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model framework that captures dynamic changes in human trust and workload for contexts that involve interactions between humans and intelligent decision-aid systems. We use a reconnaissance mission study to elicit a dynamic change in human trust and workload with res...
Article
We developed an experiment to elicit human trust dynamics in human–machine interaction contexts and established a quantitative model of human trust behavior with respect to these contexts. The proposed model describes human trust level as a function of experience, cumulative trust, and expectation bias. We estimated the model parameters using human...
Article
Personal context-specific experience can affect how a designer evaluates a design problem and proposes solutions. However, this effect was seldom discovered in a quantitative manner in problem-solving design tasks. This paper uses empirical evidence and quantitative methods to show the effects of novice designers' contextual experience on design ta...
Article
Today, intelligent machines \emph{interact and collaborate} with humans in a way that demands a greater level of trust between human and machine. A first step towards building intelligent machines that are capable of building and maintaining trust with humans is the design of a sensor that will enable machines to estimate human trust level in real-...
Article
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Automakers are interested in creating optimal car shapes that can visually convey environmental friendliness and safety to customers. This research examined the influence of vehicle form on perceptions based on two subjective inference measures: safety and perceived environmental friendliness (PEF). A within-subjects study was conducted in 2009 (St...
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have become integral to modern prototyping and manufacturing. Therefore, guidelines for using AM are necessary to help users new to the technology. Many others have proposed useful guidelines, but these are rarely written in a way that is accessible to novice users. Most guidelines (1) assume the user has ex...
Article
Full-text available
Car designers are interested in understanding what attributes of naturally occurring, generated and modified sounds make them more or less desirable to endusers. In this research, we investigated millennials' perception of proposed next-generation car sounds and other product sounds. An auditory perceptional test was conducted to determine sound pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In an increasingly automated world, trust between humans and autonomous systems is critical for successful integration of these systems into our daily lives. In particular, for autonomous systems to work cooperatively with humans, they must be able to sense and respond to the trust of the human. This inherently requires a control-oriented model of...
Article
Using electroencephalography (EEG) to predict design outcomes could be used in many applications as it facilitates the correlation of engagement and cognitive workload with ideation effectiveness. It also establishes a basis for the connection between EEG measurements and common constructs in engineering design research. In this paper, we propose a...
Article
Full-text available
In engineering courses, exams and homework assignments are among the standard tools used to assess students' performance and comprehension of course material. However, they do not always provide opportunities to reveal whether students truly understand related engineering concepts. This paper seeks to bridge that research gap by using eye-tracking...
Article
Full-text available
Human trust in automation plays an important role in successful interactions between humans and machines. To design intelligent machines that can respond to changes in human trust, real-time sensing of trust level is needed. In this paper, we describe an empirical trust sensor model that maps psychophysiological measurements to human trust level. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have become integral to the modern manufacturing process. These roles are filled both in prototyping and production. Many studies have been conducted and lists been written on guidelines for AM. While these lists are useful, virtually none are written in a way that is accessible to novice users of AM, such a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study is the first stage of a research program aimed at understanding differences in how people process 2D and 3D automotive stimuli, using psychophysiological tools such as galvanic skin response (GSR), eye tracking, electroencephalography (EEG), and facial expressions coding, along with respondent ratings. The current study uses just one mea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present here the design and analysis of a cost-effective soap dispenser that prevents bar soap theft in schools in developing countries. The intended region of deployment is within Ethiopia and surrounding areas. Lack of public hygiene is attributed to 1.4 million global deaths annually due to preventable diarrheal diseases. Using soap while was...
Article
Full-text available
Lead users play an integral part in helping engineers to identify latent needs of customers, and this approach has been used in a variety of ways within the design community. However, despite their close resemblance to lead users, do-it-yourself (DIY) practitioners have not been directly examined by the design community. A seven-step framework is p...
Article
This study explores the role of empathic design techniques on solving design problems in a developing world context. In our study, over 100 graduate students were asked to individually conceptualize and design an extremely affordable washing machine to be used in developing countries. All participating students, many of whom had significant industr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Customer inputs in the early stages of design can potentially lead to completely new outlooks in concept generation. We propose crowd-based co-creation as a means to this end. Our main idea is to think of the customer as a source of initial design concepts rather than a means for obtaining preferences towards designer-generated concepts. For analyz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although the hair care industry is a multi-billion dollar industry , there still remains a dearth in the available technologies and research methods to answer one simple question: What temperature and frequency of use will lead to permanent structural damage (i.e. heat damage) to curly hair? Currently, trained professionals in the hair industry can...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on decision making in engineering design has focused primarily on how to make decisions using normative models given certain information. However, there exists a research gap on how diverse information stimuli are combined by designers in decision making. In this paper, we address the following question: how do designers weigh different in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research investigated the effect of warm-up activities on cognitive states during concept generation. Psychophysiolog-ical tools including electroencephalography (EEG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) were used along with self-report measures (NASA TLX). Participants were divided into 3 test conditions: 1) no warm-up activity; 2) simple warm-u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores functional decomposition in early design. In the first part of this study, we explore how the three most common methods (top-down, energy-flow, enumeration) affect concept generation for novice design teams (n=25). We found that nearly all the features in the final concept could be mapped to the function diagram, though not all...
Conference Paper
The objective of this research paper is to study the ways in which engineering students naturally apply elements of compassionate design thinking to design tasks. We hypothesize that engineers will engage in compassionate design ways of thinking only when explicit information is provided and/or if they have had prior experience with the design cont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mitigating human errors is a priority in the design of complex systems, especially through the use of body area networks. This paper describes early developments of a dynamic data driven platform to predict operator error and trigger appropriate intervention before the error happens. Using a two-stage process, data was collected using several senso...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to begin to explore which function identification methods work best for specific tasks. We use a three-level within-subject study (n = 78) to compare three strategies for identifying functions: energy-flow, top-down, and enumeration. These are tested in a product dissection task with student engineers who have minimal p...
Conference Paper
Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have traditionally been applied to mechanical, aerospace, and civil structures to identify loading and damage patterns. However, human operators in the loop play an important role in the operational performance of aircraft and other structural systems. The increased availability of sensors such as EEG,...
Article
Within the mechanical engineering discipline, product representation studies have been used to inform engineers on the suitability of their product designs for prospective customers. However, these studies are mainly based in customers' oral responses leading engineers to modify the product design accordingly. In contrast, we consider the eye track...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to continue to explore which function identification methods work best for specific design tasks. Prior literature describes the top-down and bottom-up approaches as equivalent methods for functional decomposition. Building on our prior work, this study tests the bottom-up method against the top-down and enumeration met...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Design educators in mechanical engineering departments have witnessed an evolution in the types of design problems that students prefer to address in their courses. Anecdotal evidence from discussions with colleagues indicate that over the last 30 years, projects have evolved from the design of purely mechanical systems to projects that require kno...
Article
Full-text available
When researchers ask customers to judge product form during the design process, they often manipulate simplified product representations, such as silhouettes and sketches, to gather information on which designs customers prefer. Using simplified forms, as opposed to detailed realistic models, make the analysis of gathered information tractable and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In design classes, functional analysis is a process that is typically used to assist students with identifying essential functions to aid in the development of their concepts. However, it has been observed that students sometimes struggle with this part of the design process. In this study, a group of 26 students were studied in a 3-level within-su...
Article
Despite some progress in increasing the numbers of women and minorities in engineering over the past 30 years, their full participation in the discipline has yet to be achieved, particularly in engineering academia. One cause is the "leaky pipeline"; even after women and minorities choose to major in engineering, they drop out at rates higher than...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Engineering graduates in advancing economies are not only expected to have engineering knowledge, but also use them in creative and innovative ways. The importance of visual thinking has been critical for creativity and innovation in design. However, today’s engineering students are proficient in detailed design tools but lacking in conceptual desi...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers often use simplified product form representations, such as silhouettes, sketches, and other two-dimensional representations of products, to examine customer preferences. While these simplified representations make the analysis procedure tractable, for example linking certain design manipulations to certain preferences, the reality is th...
Article
Full-text available
The quest for improved fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness is transforming automotive vehicle design. In addition to new energy sources and management, new powertrain technologies offer increased flexibility in the spatial arrangement (packaging) and exterior shape (styling) of a vehicle. Design choices in packaging and styling are close...
Article
Quantification of subjective attributes expressed as functions of design variables is a significant challenge in creating product design optimization models. For example, the objective assessment of a vehicle's environmental friendliness is typically based on fuel economy and emissions. But some design variables such as a vehicle's silhouette (two-...
Article
Full-text available
Design optimization problems have traditionally used engineering functionality attributes to inform the design of products and systems. However, the quantification and inclusion of subjective attributes has become a necessary part of the product design process. Previous research has assessed the aesthetics, emotional appeal, and expressiveness of "...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product design involves many diverse disciplines and is often treated as an experience-based skill following an apprenticeship learning process. While this is a valuable approach, it can be greatly enhanced by analysis capabilities derived from the diversity of disciplines that contribute to design, including engineering, economics, marketing, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Methods from psychology and engineering are used to quantify subjective, or perceptual, design attributes of artifacts. A modeling framework of perceptual attributes suitable for inclusion in design optimization is presented. The framework includes stimuli development based on design of experiments, survey design, and statistical analysis of data....
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers new models from Psychology and Marketing that extend the general Kan-sei approach. We sketch a framework that views design as understanding (1) the consumer's representation of the product space, (2) the consumer's choice function, (3) the designer's repre-sentation of the design space, (4) the designer's choice function, and a...

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Projects (5)
Project
The objective of the proposed research is to understand the dynamic relationship between machine user interfaces (UIs) and human trust in automated systems. The new knowledge gained through this research will enable us to improve the human-machine interactions through a redesign of the user interface that includes an emotional intelligence system for the machine to respond to the human in real-time.