Taavi Lai

Taavi Lai

MD, PhD

About

55
Publications
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25,924
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Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
Background Road safety has been receiving increased attention through the United Nations Decade of Action on Road Safety, and is also now specifically addressed in the sustainable development goals 3.6 and 11.2. In an effort to enhance the response to Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs), this paper aims to examine the cost effectiveness of proven preventi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report reviews health system challenges and opportunities in Estonia to scale up core services for the prevention, early diagnosis and management of noncommunicable diseases. Outcomes of noncommunicable diseases have been improving and Estonia is closing the gap with other EU countries. In part this is due to progress implementing core populat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 18...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess wh...
Article
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Background:The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal deat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 20...
Article
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Background: The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess wheth...
Article
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This paper is a country case study for the Universal Health Coverage Collection, organized by WHO. Taavi Lai and colleagues illustrate progress towards UHC and its monitoring and evaluation in Estonia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Article
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Background: In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date informati...
Article
Full-text available
Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this fie...
Chapter
This study is aimed to assess the health impacts of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations to entire population of Estonia. As the air quality monitoring network in Estonia is rather sparse (six urban, three rural and a few industrial sites), the exposure assessment was based on long-term modelling, controlled by monitoring data from existing stations. The m...
Article
Full-text available
In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the 'Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)' project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY), composed of years of life lo...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with th...
Article
Most estimates of disease burden due to infectious diseases focus on the impact of acute infections and do not fully capture the effects of (long-term) sequelae. To provide evidence-based and comparable estimates, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project. D...
Data
Full-text available
Estonian translation of the summary by T. L. (PDF)
Data
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Italian translation of the summary by S. L. (PDF)
Article
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Mirjam Kretzschmar and colleagues describe the BCoDE project, which uses a pathogen-based incidence approach to better estimate the infectious disease burden in Europe.
Article
A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia. Descriptive study. Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for...
Article
To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downtu...
Article
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Particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollution problem with health impacts in Estonia. The prevailing sources of particles are traffic and local heating. In this study, we quantified the health effects of PM in neighbourhoods of five main cities with a health impact assessment (HIA) approach that uses information on exposure, baseline mortality...
Article
Full-text available
Many countries have an overview on mortality and morbidity but few have performed contextualized national burden of disease studies. The objective of the present study is to provide a first set of national and sub-national burden of disease estimates for Estonia. Further, we present the causes and age-gender distribution of the burden. We conclude...
Article
Full-text available
Health impact assessments (HIA) use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures c...
Article
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People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions....
Article
Varasemad hinnangud on Eesti HIVnakatunute arvu pakkunud vahemikku mõnest tuhandest kuni mitmekümne tuhandeni, kuid samas on praeguseks registreerituid HIV-juhtumeid alla seitsme tuhande. Uuringu eesmärgiks oli täpsustada võimalikku HIV-nakatunute arvu Eestis, kasutades epidemioloogilisi mudeleid. HIVepideemia modelleerimise tulemused näitavad, et...
Article
Full-text available
Diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease (PD) rely heavily on evaluation of clinical symptoms and patients' subjective perception of their condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity, acceptability, and reliability of the Estonian version of the 39-question Parkinson 's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Study subjects wer...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian Kroon (EEK) for the year 2000, while effects were expressed in disability...
Article
Eestis on rinnavähi varajase avastamise sõeluuringut, mis on haigekassa rahastatav sihtotstarbeline ennetusprojekt, korraldatud alates 2002. aastast. Ravikindlustusraha efektiivse ja sihtotstarbelise kasutamise tagamiseks tehti 2006. aastal “Rinnavähi varajase avastamise projekti 2002–2006” välishindamine. Sõeluuringu tulemuslikkus ja juhtimise kor...
Article
Haiguskoormuse ehk tervisekaotuse hindamise metoodika ühendab suremuse ja haigestumuse andmed ühtseks tervikuks. Meetodi väljundiks on haiguste ja nende põhjustatud surmade tõttu kaotatud eluaastad rahvastikus. Käesolevas haiguskoormus-uuringus hinnati esimest korda Eesti rahvastiku tervisekaotuse ulatust ja põhjuseid, tuginedes 2002. aasta haigeka...
Article
Rahvastiku terviseseisundi terviklik hindamine on rahvatervishoiu planeerimisel niisama vajalik, kui üksikisiku tervise uurimine on eelduseks arstlikule otsusele. Suurema üldistusvõimega meetodite väljatöötamine sai alguse 1950. aastatel ja jõudis 1990. aastaks ülemaailmse haiguskoormuse uuringuni, mille korraldas Maailma Terviseorganisatsioon ja k...