T. S. Zhao

T. S. Zhao
SUSTech

PhD

About

583
Publications
122,748
Reads
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28,003
Citations
Introduction
Our research aims to establish the scientific underpinnings for innovations and breakthroughs in fuel cells and advanced battery technologies. With an interdisciplinary approach that combines the knowledge of thermofluids science and electrochemistry, we study the coupled transport of heat, mass, electrons and ions to simultaneously maximize the flows of all the species in multi-scaled porous structures.
Additional affiliations
November 2019 - present
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Academician
July 2017 - present
November 2013 - present
HKUST Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (583)
Article
Microporous layers (MPLs) play a crucial role in improving water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Highly tunable electrospun carbon fibers offer a promising candidate for MPLs to facilitate two-phase water and gas transport in PEMFCs. In this work, we present a two-phase PEMFC model to investigate the mass transport chara...
Article
A newly introduced fuel cell which employs an electrically rechargeable liquid fuel (e-fuel) has piqued increasing research interest in recent years as it eliminates the need for catalyst materials at the anode. To further boost the performance of the e-fuel cell and realize its application in airtight environments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is cons...
Article
Conventionally, electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized in lab-scale single cells. However, electrodes selected in such a manner may not provide the best performance in practical large-scale battery stacks, as the flow rates and electrode compression ratios in large stacks are usually much lower than those in single c...
Article
Order-structured catalyst layers offer a promising solution to substantially reducing the Pt loading while maintaining the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, we develop a multiscale model to investigate the mass transport characteristics of a PEMFC with ordered catalyst layers. A Langmuir adsorption equation...
Article
Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes are one of the most promising proton exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) due to their excellent ion selectivity. However, their relatively lower proton conductivity limits their application. Herein, a PBI membrane with both high proton conductivity and ion selectivity is prepared thro...
Article
Given the high energy density and eco-friendly characteristics, lithium-carbon dioxide (Li-CO2) batteries have been considered to be a next-generation energy technology to promote carbon neutral and space exploration. However, Li-CO2 batteries suffer from sluggish reaction kinetics, causing large overpotential and poor energy efficiency. Here, we o...
Article
Fabricating fiber‐based electrodes with a large specific surface area while maintaining high flow permeability is a challenging issue in developing high‐performance redox flow batteries. Here, a sponge‐like microfiber carbon electrode is reported with a specific surface area of as large as 853.6 m2 g−1 while maintaining a fiber diameter in the rang...
Article
An efficient pack-level battery thermal management system is essential to ensure the safe driving experience of electric vehicles. In this work, we perform three-dimensional modeling of a liquid thermal management system for a real-world battery pack powering electrical vehicles. The effects of system structures, coolant flow direction layout, cool...
Article
Solid polymer electrolytes offer a promise for all-solid-state Li batteries due to their low cost and good processability. However, dendrites and the associated contact loss occurring at the undesirable Li/electrolyte interface during repeated plating and stripping remain a challenge. To address the issue, here, we propose to coat a thin layer cont...
Article
Safe and low-cost aqueous zinc batteries offer a promise for energy storage. However, dendrite formation and parasitic reactions of zinc anodes hinder the practical application of this type of battery. In this work, guided by theoretical modeling, we formulate a new low-concentration electrolyte to boost the reversibility and stability of zinc anod...
Article
The performance and reliability of aqueous redox flow batteries (ARFBs) are closely related to the operating temperature. Therefore, it is essential to build a robust method to predict their thermal behaviours. In this work, an electrochemical-thermal coupled model is developed to predict the heat generation and temperature variation of ARFBs syste...
Article
Approaches to generate and manipulate Cherenkov radiation (CR) are challenging yet meaningful. Optical topological transition (OTT) in novel materials and metamaterials is also promising for modern photonics. We study the OTT of CR in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials (GHMs) for the first time. In GHMs, conventional and hyperbolic CR can be s...
Article
Batteries are critical for energy storage and electrical vehicles. In this study, a new battery thermal management system (BTMS) is proposed by employing a mini-channel cold plate with pin fins. The performance of BTMS is evaluated by a 3D numerical model. The heat transfer characteristics, pressure loss and flow structure in the BTMS are analyzed,...
Article
Full-text available
Flow fields are a crucial component of redox flow batteries (RFBs). Conventional flow fields, designed by trial-and-error approaches and limited human intuition, are difficult to optimize, thus limiting the performance of RFBs. Here, we develop an end-to-end approach to the design of flow fields by combining machine learning and experimental method...
Article
Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based solid electrolytes have been widely studied in all-solid-state lithium (Li) metal batteries due to their favorable interfacial contact with electrodes, facile fabrication, and low cost, but their inferior Li dendrite suppression capability renders low actual areal capacities of Li metal anodes. Here, we develop a high...
Article
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) with anion exchange membranes (AEMs) exhibit a high columbic efficiency and slow capacity decay due to the reduced crossover rate of vanadium ions. Modeling of this promising type of flow battery is challenging because of the difficulty in the description of charge and mass transfer through AEMs. In this work,...
Article
A cost-effective membrane is critical for commercialization of aqueous redox flow batteries (ARFBs). In this work, we design and fabricate a membrane composed of a thin polybenzimidazole (PBI) dense film physically sandwiched by two polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun nanofiber layers. The thin PBI dense film (7 μm thick) simultaneously diminishes...
Article
The promising features and capabilities of liquid fuel cells for power generation and further application in electric vehicles have drawn more research attention in recent times. Notably is the recently proposed and demonstrated fuel cell which employs an electrically rechargeable liquid fuel (e-fuel) along with a catalyst-free material at its anod...
Article
High-voltage solid lithium-metal batteries (HVSLMBs) are not only energy denser but also safer than state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, the narrow electrochemical stability windows and low ionic conductivities of polymer solid electrolytes severely hinder the practical application of this type of battery. To simultaneously address thes...
Article
Iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe–N–C) electrocatalysts offer great promise to replace their noble metal-based counterparts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the practical applications of this type of catalyst are hindered by insufficient accessible active sies, low electrical conductivity, and poor durability. Here, we report a Ti3C2 MXene sup...
Article
The electrochemical performance of carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) is enhanced by optimizing the morphological and physical properties of low-cost electrospun CNFs. The surface area, porosity and electrical conductivity of CNFs are tailored by modifying the precursor composition, especially the sacrificing...
Article
Decreasing the charge-discharge voltage gap and increasing the cycling stability is pivotal but challenging for the practical application of rechargeable Zn-air battery (ZAB). Until now, many efforts have been paid in the electrocatalyst development for the air electrode, but few works have been done on the electrode structure design which is quite...
Article
Voltage reversal induced by hydrogen starvation can severely corrode the anode catalyst support and deteriorate the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. A material-based strategy is the inclusion of an oxygen evolution reaction catalyst (e.g., IrO2) in the anode to promote water electrolysis over harmful carbon corrosion. In this wor...
Article
Full-text available
Electrical gating has been typically used for Graphene-based devices to deliver high performance with superior electrical controllability. In this study, we utilize direct electron beam irradiation to attain the electrical controllability of graphene. The newly established system combines terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) with scanning elect...
Article
Efficient thermal management is crucial for ensuring the safety and performance of lithium-ion batteries powering electric vehicles. Here, we develop a passive battery thermal management system with thermally enhanced water adsorbents by evenly loading MIL-101(Cr) particles onto a copper foam. MIL-101(Cr) particles can absorb water from the ambient...
Article
The emerging localized high-concentration electrolytes (LHCEs) with small salt dosage, low viscosity, and favorable electrode wettability have triggered extensive research interest recently. However, so far, it is still challenging to develop an LHCE that has both superior anode compatibility and high voltage stability, as well as low density and l...
Article
Non-aqueous redox flow batteries based on total organic electrolytes, consisting of earth-abundant elements, i.e., C, H, N, O, are regarded as a promising technology for sustainable and large-scale energy storage. In particular, bipolar redox-active organic materials (BROMs) are distinctly fascinating as electroactive species because they have mult...
Article
High-performance vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) necessitate robust carbon electrodes, whose rational design demands quantitative relationships between the electrode properties and performance. Here, we decipher the exceptional kinetics of VO2+/VO2+...
Article
Nafion membranes are extensively used in aqueous redox flow batteries due to high proton conductivity and excellent chemical stability, but their low ion selectivity and high cost restrict the further...
Chapter
Due to the much higher electronic conductivity of selenium (Se) than sulfur (S), selenium doping has shown as an effective strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance of the sulfur cathodes in lithium (Li) metal-sulfur batteries. As a result, the Se-doped S cathode (SexSy) has received increasing interest for next-generation battery systems...
Article
The high theoretical capacity and graphene-like structure enable WS 2 to be a promising anode material for fast-charging sodium-ion batteries. However, poor intrinsic electrical conductivity and large Na ⁺ diffusion energy barrier...
Article
Full-text available
Battery thermal management systems (BTMS) with favorable working performance are essential for lithium-ion battery inside the electrical vehicles. In this research, a novel BTMS is proposed by introducing vertically and horizontally arranged square pin fins (SPFs), circular pin fins (CPFs), and ellipse pin fins (EPFs) into the cold plate. The overa...
Article
A three-dimensional electrochemical-thermal coupled model is developed to investigate the interactive electrochemical and thermal characteristics of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries under natural convection conditions. The heat generation rate calculated by the electrochemical model is applied to the thermal model as the heat source, while the temp...
Article
Replacing conventional gasoline-powered cars with electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce not only pollution emissions but also the dependence on fossil fuels. As the most widely used power source to propel EVs, lithium-ion batteries are highly sensitive to the operating temperatures, rendering battery thermal management indispensable to ensure their hi...
Article
In this work, we propose and fabricate a convection-enhanced flow field for aqueous redox flow batteries. Similar to the conventional single serpentine flow field, the new flow field here has an inlet and outlet, but the repatterned flow path induces higher pressure differences between adjacent flow channels over the entire electrode surface, there...
Article
Full-text available
Black inorganic materials with low infrared absorption/emission (or IR white) are rare in nature but highly desired in numerous areas, such as solar–thermal energy harvesting, multispectral camouflage, thermal insulation, and anti-counterfeiting. Due to the lack of spectral selectivity in intrinsic materials, such counter-intuitive properties are g...
Article
The fibrous electrode is an essential component of the redox flow batteries, as the electrode structure influences the reactant/product local concentration, electrochemical reaction kinetics, and the pressure loss of the battery. A three-dimensional numerical model of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was developed in this work. After model valida...
Article
Full-text available
Single-atom catalysts have been widely investigated for several electrocatalytic reactions except electrochemical alcohol oxidation. Herein, we synthesize atomically dispersed platinum on ruthenium oxide (Pt 1 /RuO 2 ) using a simple impregnation-adsorption method. We find that Pt 1 /RuO 2 has good electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidati...
Article
Liquid fuel cell has been regarded as a promising power generation system due to its high energy density, instant recharging, and ease of fuel handling. However, its widespread commercialization is still being hampered by its limited performance resulting from the poor reaction kinetics of the conventional alcohol fuels. Recently, a liquid e-fuel c...
Article
The design of porous electrodes with large specific surface area and high hydraulic permeability is a longstanding target for the development of redox flow batteries (RFBs), but traditional trial-and-error strategies are hindered by the heavy cost of collecting large amounts of data and the limitation of human intuition when multiple trade-offs are...
Article
Lithiated silicon-sulfur (Si–S) batteries are promising next-generation energy storage systems because of their high theoretical energy density, low cost, and high safety. However, the unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si anode and its side reactions with highly soluble polysulfides limit the lifespan of lithiated Si–S batteries. T...
Article
An electrically rechargeable liquid fuel (e-fuel) system, which comprises an e-fuel charger and an e-fuel cell, has recently been proposed and proven as an effective approach for storing renewable energy. Potential e-fuels are stated to be obtainable from various electroactive materials including metal ions. In this work, a liquid e-fuel made of va...
Article
Full-text available
Silicon offers a high theoretical specific capacity for anodic lithium storage. However, its applications are hindered by the electrode instability caused by the sharp volume change, and the limited rate performance resulted from the insulating property. Herein, we introduce a facile and fast method of preparing honeycomb‐like silicon‐based anodes...
Article
Gaps in metal structures are accompanied by strong field enhancement (FE) and localized electromagnetic effects. However, completely different characteristics are presented when the microgaps and nanogaps in metallic structures are imaged using THz s-SNOM. We find that the near-field signal profile measured across the gap varies significantly with...
Article
Symmetric redox flow batteries utilizing a single redox active material as catholyte and anolyte, offer a plausible and unique strategy to alleviate cross-contamination issues during cycling, making them an ideal energy storage device for large scale applications. In this work, a low-cost riboflavin organic molecule is coupled with a 2,2,6,6-Tetram...
Article
In this work, we propose and develop a novel electrode made of aligned microscale carbon fibers interweaved with highly porous carbon nanofibers for vanadium redox flow batteries. Such a unique combination not only endows the electrode with a high permeability due to the reduced tortuosity and large macropores, but also an ultra-large specific surf...
Article
Electrochemical energy storage systems are considered as one of the most viable solutions to realize large-scale utilization of renewable energy. Among the various electrochemical energy storage systems, flow batteries have increasingly attracted global attention due to their flexible structural design, high efficiencies, long operating life cycle,...
Article
A new energy storage system that utilizes electrically rechargeable liquid fuels (e-fuels) obtainable from diverse electroactive materials has been recently proposed. The system is composed of an e-fuel charger to charge e-fuels and an e-fuel cell to generate electricity for end use. Here, we develop a model for a liquid e-fuel cell by incorporatin...
Article
Cherenkov radiation (CR), generated when charged particles move faster than the light velocity in a medium, is an important radiation phenomenon of electron–matter interactions. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency threshold-less in-plane CR generation in the terahertz (THz) band using a periodic graphene hyperbolic grating (GHG) structure. Our the...
Article
Current all‐solid‐state lithium battery (ASSLB) manufacturing typically involves laborious fabrication and assembly of individual electrodes and solid electrolyte, which inevitably result in large interfacial resistances. Moreover, due to the unfavorable mechanical strength, most solid electrolytes are fabricated to be overly thick and are incapabl...
Article
A 500 GHz TE85 mode continuously frequency-tunable gyrotron has been designed, fabricated and investigated experimentally. In the experiment, the gyrotron operates at the second cyclotron harmonic stably. The operating frequency is tuned by means of adjusting the operating magnetic field or the beam energy. The variation of the output power is also...
Article
The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) with a bipolar membrane promises to offer higher performance, since the cation exchange layer exhibits high conductivity, while the anion exchange layer reduces vanadium crossover. However, due to the wide range of optional structures and layer properties, the optimal design of bipolar membranes calls for a ro...
Article
Metallic zinc (Zn), featuring high specific capacity, low redox potential, and low cost, is a promising anode material for next-generation rechargeable aqueous batteries. However, Zn anodes suffer from the dendrite formation and side reactions during the plating/stripping process, which severely hinder their practical applications. To simultaneousl...