T V Ramachandra

T V Ramachandra
Indian Institute of Science | IISC · Centre for Ecological Sciences

Ph.D
Research -ecology, environment, Natural capital accounting and valuation of ecosystem services - Karnataka State, India

About

1,125
Publications
967,542
Reads
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13,362
Citations
Introduction
Dr. T.V. Ramachandra, FIE, FIEE (UK) obtained Ph.D. in Ecology and Energy from Indian Institute of Science. At present, Coordinator of Energy and Wetlands Research Group (EWRG), Convener of Environmental Information System (ENVIS) at Centre for Ecological Sciences (CES). During the past twenty years he has established an active school of research in the area of energy and environment. Details of the research and publications are archived at (http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy).
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
Indian Institute of Science
Description
  • Research details of the group is available at http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy Opensource GIS at http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/foss Biodiversity http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity
January 1990 - April 2017
Indian Institute of Science
Position
  • Co-ordinator, Energy & Wetlands Research Group, CES TE15
January 1990 - April 2017
Indian Institute of Science
Position
  • Co-ordinator, Energy & Wetlands Research Group, CES TE15

Publications

Publications (1,125)
Poster
Full-text available
Lake 2022 - 13th Biennial Lake Symposium Conservation of Wetlands: Ecosystem-based Adaptation of Climate change, 28th -30th December 2022 Venue: Auditorium, Ground Floor, New Biological Sciences Building [Near D Gate], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Phone: +91 080-22933503/22933099 Symposium Web: http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/e...
Poster
Full-text available
This course provides an overview of the key concepts and principles in environmental management, areas of global and national environmental concern, and strategies and tools for effective environmental management. Attempt to understand the genesis of environmental problems; the concerns that lead to various international and national initiatives to...
Article
Full-text available
Water sustenance in streams and rivers depends on the integrity of the catchment (watershed), as vegetation helps in retarding the velocity of water by allowing impoundment and recharging of groundwater through infiltration. Forests with native vegetation act as a sponge by retaining and regulating water transfer between land and the atmosphere. He...
Article
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Rivers are vital freshwater resources that cater to the needs of society. The burgeoning population and the consequent land-use changes have altered the hydrologic regime with biophysical and chemical integrity changes. This necessitates understanding the land-use dynamics, flow dynamics, hydrologic regime, and water quality of riverine ecosystems....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
LAKE 2020: CONFERENCE ON ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, GOODS AND SERVICES [THE 12TH BIENNIAL LAKE CONFERENCE] Date: 28-30th December 2020 Venue: Auditorium, Ground Floor, New Biological Sciences Building [Near D Gate], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Phone: +91 080-22933503/22933099 Symposium Web: http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/ener...
Article
Full-text available
The comprehensive knowledge of the ecological fragility of a region is quintessential for evolving strategies for the conservation of the area. This entails identifying factors responsible for ecological sensitiveness, including landscape dynamics, future transitions to mitigate the problems of haphazard and uncontrolled development approaches. The...
Article
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Bangalore is experiencing unprecedented rapid urbanisation and sprawl in recent times due to unrealistic concentrated developmental activities with impetus on industrialisation for the economic development of the region. This has led to large scale land cover changes with serious environmental degradation, posing serious challenges to the decision...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem services are broadly categorised as (i) provisioning services are those ecosystem services representing the contributions to benefits that are extracted or harvested from ecosystems, (ii) regulating and maintenance services are those ecosystem services resulting from the ability of ecosystems to regulate biological processes and to influe...
Article
The rapidly depleting fossil fuel reserves with rising greenhouse gas levels (GHGs) in the atmosphere necessitate exploring alternate sustainable energy options. Biofuels from microalgae are emerging as a viable renewable energy resource owing to their inherent characteristics of higher biomass and lipid yield per hectare compared to other terrestr...
Article
Full-text available
Ecologically susceptible zones (ESZs) are endowed with the distinct bio, geo, climatic, hydrological, and ecological integrity that sustain natural resources to support the livelihood of dependent populations. However, globalization and consequent anthropogenic activities have led to the erosion of the natural resource base and enhanced the levels...
Article
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Phytoremediation refers to the ability of certain plants to bioaccumulate, degrade, or render harmless the contaminants in soil, water, etc. Wetlands function as the kidneys of a landscape as plants in wetlands act as sinks by uptake of nutrients and heavy metals. The current study focuses on estimating the phytoremediation potential of some select...
Book
Full-text available
Landscapes are the composition of dynamic heterogeneous components of complex ecological, economic, and cultural elements on which human and other life forms depend directly. Landscape dynamics driven by land use land cover (LULC) changes due to anthropogenic activities are affecting ecology, biodiversity, hydrological regime, and hence people’s li...
Article
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Land-use transformations altering the ecosystem function have impacted the sustenance of natural resources. Implementation of unplanned developmental activities in the ecologically fragile regions has contributed to frequent landslides, conversion of perennial rivers to intermittent or seasonal rivers, reduced water retention capability, etc. Addre...
Article
Full-text available
Macroalgal biomass for bioethanol production has proved to be a viable alternative to feedstocks of first-generation (food crops rich in starch) and second-generation biofuel (agricultural residues and woody biomasses rich in lignocellulosic components). Production of bioethanol from biomass involves fermentation of mixed monosugars such as glucose...
Article
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Spatio-temporal patterns of four neighbouring river-scapes in the central Western Ghats, India through land-use analyses using temporal remote sensing data (1973, 2018), reveal a decline in evergreen forests (41%) and fragmentation of intact or contiguous forests (60%). Hydro-ecological footprint illustrates that catchment integrity plays a decisiv...
Chapter
Industrialization and globalization have connected the world culturally, developed economies, and have aided in developing business relations, thus shifting the work paradigm. However, this has come at the cost of climatic alterations harmful to the organisms residing on the earth. Humanoid activities have threateningly converted the natural landsc...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorus (P) is the most vital nutrient that regulates primary production and determines the trophic state of freshwater bodies. However, the concern over dwindling stock coupled with the consequences of eutrophication of water bodies due to enrichment of nutrients has been increasing worldwide. P is a very essential macronutrient required to mee...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of multi-resolution spatial data and advances in modeling techniques have given an impetus to land use land cover (LULC) change analyses. Geo-visualization of possible land uses (LU) with policy decisions is vital for formulating appropriate sustainable resource management policies. For the prudent management of natural resources,...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming with the escalation of greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint (400 parts per million from 280 ppm CO2 emissions of the pre-industrial era) and consequent changes in the climate has been affecting the livelihood of people with the erosion of ecosystems productivity and recurring disasters such as floods, droughts, landslides, etc. The anthrop...
Chapter
The escalating concentrations of atmospheric carbon due to anthropogenic activities have altered the global carbon cycle, and contributing to warming the earth. Mitigating carbon and sustainable development of the region requires estimating carbon footprint by accounting sector-wise carbon emissions at a detailed spatial scale covering all sectors....
Chapter
Fossil fuel depletion due to over exploitation in industrial and transportation sector have increased the concern towards finite fossil reserves and led to exploration for sustainable, environmentally benign energy sources for the future generations. Biofuels from biomass emerge as promising potential alternative to fossil fuels. Among this, bioeth...
Article
The isolated diatom Nitzschia punctata was subjected to different trophic modes - autotrophy, heterotrophy, and mixotrophy and evaluated variations in growth rate, morphology, biochemical composition, and fatty acid profiles of diatoms in response to different nutritional modes. Glucose was used as a nutrient source in hetero and mixotrophic cultiv...
Article
Full-text available
Landslides occur when masses of rock, earth or debris move down a slope. Mudslides, debris flows or mudflows, are common type of fast-moving landslides that tend to flow in channels. These are caused by disturbances in the natural stability of a slope, which is triggered due to high intensity rains with the extensive changes in land cover. Mudslide...
Article
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The current study prioritizes regions of conservation importance at the disaggregated level in the Udupi district, Central Western Ghats, based on ecological, geo-climatic, land, and social aspects. Conservation importance regions (CIR) or Ecological Sensitive Regions (ESR) are the distinct ecological units with exceptional biotic and abiotic eleme...
Article
Full-text available
Production of bioethanol from macroalgal feedstock involves pretreatment and hydrolysis of biomolecules for release of sugar followed by the fermentation of the sugar. The most commonly used pretreatment method for macroalgal biomass is dilute acid hydrolysis using mineral acids H 2 SO 4 and HCl. The optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of Ulva l...
Article
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Purpose of the study: Heavy metals in food (vegetables, etc.) are harmful to humans due to their non-biodegradable nature, long biological half-lives, and their potential to accumulate in different body parts. Prolonged consumption of such heavy metal contaminated vegetables through foodstuffs may lead to chronic accumulation of heavy metals in hum...
Article
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The development goals need to be ecologically, economically, and socially sustainable, which can be achieved through the conservation and sustainable management of ecosystems. Sustainability implies the equilibrium between society and natural resources.
Article
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At the beginning of the 20th century, 80 per cent of landscape in Western Ghats districts was covered in thick forests. Now the forest cover as per Forest Survey of India - Karnataka's forest cover stands at 20.11% out of 1,91,791 sq km geographical area. As per the report, the State has 4,501 sq km of very-dense forest, 21,048 sq km of moderately-...
Article
In the present study, the adsorption potential of an agricultural waste material Bengal gram husk was evaluated for the removal of Ni²⁺ions. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Ni²⁺ions were conducted by batch experiments. Parameters studied include initial concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The experimental data fitted...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the time required to achieve stabilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and to develop a decay model to describe volatile solid (VS) loss from open degradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in open dump sites. The role of soil contact and access to degradation by micro and...
Article
Developing country municipal solid waste management is complex, managed by multiple institutions , prone to socio-political disruptions and often requires frequent and rapid estimates of good functioning. Estimating the quantity, composition and status of municipal solid waste found at unauthorized dump sites helps in diagnosis and in improving sol...
Article
Full-text available
NEED TO PRESERVE THE BUFFER ZONE INTEGRITY OF WATER BODIES Executive Summary Buffer zones are flood plains, an area of land adjacent to a water body (lake, tank, pond, stream or river), which experiences flooding or stagnation of water during periods of precipitation. The soils usually consist of levees, silts, and sands deposited during floods. B...
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) entails the analysis of potential environmental loads and natural resources utilised while manufacturing a product, which helps in sustainable production of biofuel and prudent management of natural resources. A variety of bio resources including microalgae are being explored for its potential as viable alternatives to c...
Article
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First Report of Vernal Hanging Parakeet from IISc Bengaluru Campus
Article
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The concept of economic clustering and trade guilds in India has roots in pre-history. The cocoons and silk processing industry has traditionally existed in clusters, in places such as Banaras, Kancheepuram, Kashmir etc. Cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for researchers and economic development professional...
Article
Full-text available
Urban footprint refers to the proportion of paved surface (built up, roads, etc.) with the reduction of other land use types in a region. Rapid increase in the urban areas is the major driver in landscape dynamics with the significant erosion in the quality and quantity of the natural ecosystems. The urban expansion process hence needs to be monito...
Poster
Full-text available
Lake 2020: CONFERENCE ON ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, GOODS AND SERVICES Introduction: Symposium focusing on lakes/wetlands popularly known as “Lake Symposium” was initiated by the Energy & Wetlands Research Group at Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in the year 1998. The theme was broadened in 2000 (Lake 200...
Article
Forest ecosystems play a vital role in sustaining various life forms on the earth. These ecosystems support society through the provision of goods (timber, fuelwood, etc.) and an array of ecological services (carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, etc.). However, unplanned developmental activities have been affecting the ecological integrity evide...
Article
Full-text available
This course provides an overview of the key concepts and principles in environmental management, areas of global and national environmental concern, and strategies and tools for effective environmental management. Attempt to understand the genesis of environmental problems; the concerns that lead to various international and national initiatives to...
Chapter
Full-text available
Higher greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint with the burgeoning anthropogenic activities has altered the energy cycle contributing to the changes in the climate with the global warming. Imbalances are evident with the increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere. The increased loads of Green House Gas (GHG) emission due to a...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming with the burgeoning anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (400 parts per million from 280 ppm CO2 emissions of pre-industrial era) has altered climate, eroding the ecosystem productivity and sustenance of water, affecting the livelihood of people. The anthropogenic activities such as burning fossil fuel, power generation, agri...
Article
Full-text available
India has committed at the Paris Climate Change Agreement to reduce its emissions by 33-35% by 2030, which necessitates immediate implementation of carbon capture with afforestation of degraded landscapes with native species, regulations of land use land cover (LULC) changes and de-carbonisation through large-scale implementation of renewable and s...
Data
The experts have warned that proposals like the Sharavathi Pumped Storage Project will prove to be a catalyst for a cataclysm. T V Ramachandra of IISc’s Energy and Wetlands Research Group, along with researchers Setturu Bharath and Aithal H Bharath,analysed data, from government satellites, forest boundaries, from 1973 to 2018 and studied topograph...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of the study: The main objective of the present work is to assess the efficacy of the restoration endeavour in Bengaluru lakes, Karnataka, India. Rapid urbanisation coupled with industrialisation in urban areas has greatly stressed the available water resources qualitatively and quantitatively. This has also resulted in the generation of en...
Article
Purpose of the study: Microalgae with better carbon sequestration potential, higher biomass, and lipid productivity in comparison to terrestrial counterparts is emerging as a viable sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Diatoms, a subgroup of a broader category of microalgae are well-known for their role as a bio-indicator in palaeo-climatologic...
Article
Forest ecosystems play a vital role in sustaining various life forms on the earth. These ecosystems support society through the provision of goods (timber, fuelwood, etc.) and an array of ecological services (carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, etc.). However, unplanned developmental activities have been affecting the ecological integrity evide...
Poster
Full-text available
GSDP - BACKGROUND: Green skills contribute to preserving or restoring environmental quality for sustainable future and include jobs that protect ecosystems and biodiversity, reduce energy and minimize waste and pollution. In line with the Skill India Mission of Hon’ble Prime Minister, utilising the vast network and expertise of ENVIS Hubs/RPs, the...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Between August 1-11, this year, Kodagu received 647 mm of rain, leading to floods and landslides. The GSI report on 2019 landslides points to a surface crack that had developed near the mid-slope of Brahmagiri Hill where the landslip occurred this year. Experts point to change in rainfall pattern and land-use modification to support tourism and lin...
Article
Full-text available
Lakes or wetlands in urban landscapes provide services such as groundwater recharge, provide fish, fodder and food to the dependent local population, mitigate floods, habitat for fauna, support recreation, etc. Unplanned rapid urbanization with globalization and industrialization has led to the sustained inflow of untreated wastewater from domestic...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
A study by a team of experts from the Indian Institute of Science (IISc.), Bengaluru, has highlighted the dangers of increased landslip, if the current development trend is allowed to continue. The findings are by T.V. Ramachandra, S. Vinay and S. Bharat of Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, IISc.. It has been publi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cities across the globe are expanding and increasing their paved footprint, significantly disturbing environmental factors. Urbanization characterizes the physical growth of a town, city, or a region with the influx of population due to improved job opportunities, infrastructure, basic amenities etc. The dynamic process of urbanization fuels altera...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
The current dilution of the Karnataka Land Reforms Act, 1961, via an modification to Section 109 enabling direct buy of agricultural land from farmers, is about to convey the federal government and the native stakeholders on a collision course within the hilly district of Kodagu. Ravaged by two back-to-back Ĉoods in 2018 and 2019 abetted by unbridl...
Data
Large-scale development activities led to massive degradation of forests in Uttara Kannada from a high 74.19% of the land area in 1973 to 48.04% in 2018, shows a new study by researchers of the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur. The research focussed on the landscape dynamics across the west-flow...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gondwana break-up is one of the key sculptors of the global biogeographic pattern including Indian subcontinent. Myrtaceae, a Gondwana family, demonstrates a high diversity across Indian Western Ghats. A rich paleo-records in Deccan Intertrappean bed in India strive to reconcile two contending hypothesis of origin and diversification of Myrtaceae i...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication and metal contamination are the principal pollution problem for almost all inland lakes in world. Phytoremediation is one of the viable solutions for this concern. The present study analysed the concentration and distribution of six metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc) in sediment and macrophyte samples of Varthu...
Article
Fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) has been derived from oil present in algae through transesterification using catalysts of acids, base, supercritical fluids, etc. These catalysts are corrosive and have been posing challenges of contaminating the environment necessitating environmentally friendly and biodegradable catalysts such as enzyme (lipase...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
BENGALURU: Best to live away from Bengaluru South, Whitefield, Mahadevapura zone and Peenya, the most congested parts of Bengaluru. Besides, the city’s growth is now being compared to China’s Wuhan and Beijing. According to IISc report ‘Micro-level analyses of environmentally disastrous urbanisation in Bengaluru’, released on Monday, the city is c...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Breackneck growth of residential apartments has shrunk open spaces and vegetation cover in Bengaluru South Region (BSR) — primarily dominated by residential, commercial complexes and IT companies — to an alarming 2.66% from a high of 55.17% in 1973, a new study has revealed. In Peenya Industrial Estate (PIE), the decline in vegetation has been even...
Article
Full-text available
Indian metropolitan (tier I) cities have been undergoing rapid urbanization during the post-globalization era with the unprecedented market interventions, which have led to the rapid land cover changes affecting the ecology, climate, hydrology, and local environment. The unplanned urbanization has given way to the dispersed, haphazard growth at the...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization is associated with large-scale irreversible landscape changes in response to the demands of burgeoning population, etc. Lack of basic amenities, job, and infrastructures in rural areas often drives migration towards the urbanizing landscapes. Urbanization is resource centric, which involves, large-scale transformation of the landscape...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Green skills contribute to preserving or restoring environmental quality for sustainable future and include jobs that protect ecosystems and biodiversity, reduce energy and minimize waste and pollution. In line with the Skill India Mission of Hon’ble Prime Minister, utilising the vast network and expertise of ENVIS Hubs/RPs, the Ministry of Environ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Landscape refers to an area of land, the visible features, its landforms, and consists of the diverse elements integrating the natural or man-made features. Landscape dynamics refers to the changes in the biotic and abiotic assets of a landscape. Drastic changes in the structure of a landscape alter the hydrologic regime, nutrient cycling, biogeoch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Land cover [LC] refers to the physical and biological cover over the surface of the land, while land use refers to functional role of land for economic activities. Land use [LU] dynamics is a consequence of transforming the natural landscape by anthropogenic activities, Large scale land use land cover changes due to the unplanned developmental acti...