T Joel Wade

T Joel Wade
Bucknell University · Department of Psychology

Ph.d

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78
Publications
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1,111
Citations
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August 1987 - December 2013
Bucknell University

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
We analyzed the responses of 448 participants who completed questions on attractiveness and other evolutionary fitness related traits, and long- and short-term mating potential, of a woman in either high heeled or flat shoes. We hypothesized that the woman in high heels would be rated as more attractive and evolutionarily fit by both men and women,...
Article
Flirting involves various signals communicated between individuals. To attract potential mates, men and women exhibit flirtatious behavior to get the attention of, and potentially elicit sexual or romantic interest from, a desired partner. In this first large, preregistered study of judgement of the effectiveness of flirtation tactics based on Sexu...
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While a great deal of psychological research has been conducted on sex-specific mate choice preferences, relatively little attention has been directed toward how heterosexual men and women solicit short-term sexual partners, and which acts are perceived to be the most effective. The present research relied on an act nomination methodology with the...
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The question of whether or not cranial hair affects perceptions of attractiveness, personality, career success, and other traits related to fitness for men in two populations was investigated in two experiments. Experiment 1 used a 2 (race) × 2 (cranial hair of man) design, and examined attractiveness, fitness, and socially desirable personality me...
Article
Here we explored nonverbal actions women use to flirt competitively against each other for the purposes of accessing a mate. We also investigated the perceived effectiveness of these competitive flirting actions. Using act nomination, Study 1 (n = 91) yielded 11 actions (eye contact with the man, dancing in his line of sight, smiling at him, touchi...
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Popular culture has recently publicized a seemingly new postbreakup behavior called breakup sex. While the media expresses the benefits of participating in breakup sex, there is no research to support these claimed benefits. The current research was designed to begin to better understand this postbreakup behavior. In the first study, we examined ho...
Article
Prior research demonstrates the negative relationship between self esteem and alcohol use, and prior research demonstrates how self perceptions of attractiveness are fundamentally important. However, there is a paucity of research regarding exactly how self-perceptions of attractiveness, and mate value, which are related to self-esteem, influence a...
Article
We examined which pickup lines that women may use on men, in the context of dating, are the most effective. Effectiveness was defined as success in securing a phone number or agreeing to meet again. We tested to determine which type of line (direct, innocuous, or flippant) was rated as most effective when attractiveness and perceived promiscuity of...
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Snapchat is a popular social media app that provides users the opportunity to send and receive photos and videos; however, these photos and videos only last ten seconds with a close group of friends. However, there is little research regarding user's sexual behavior with the app. This current project (N = 450, 126 men and 324 women), investigated t...
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Prior research examining mate expulsion indicates that women are more likely to expel a mate due to deficits in emotional access while men are more likely to expel a mate due to deficits in sexual access. Prior research highlights the importance of accounting for measurement limitations (e.g., the use of incremental vs. forced-choice measures) when...
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Prior research shows that patterns of mate selection, attraction, and expulsion are the product of evolved sex differences in computational adaptations. Within long-term romantic relationships, men typically prioritize information relevant to a mate’s reproductive (i.e., sexual) value whereas women more often prioritize a mate’s willingness to inve...
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The present research sought to determine whether or not there are sex differences in reactions to an inequity in one partner's love or sexual attraction towards her/his partner. Study 1 used a categorical measure where participants were asked to indicate which scenario, partner is less sexually attracted to you than you are to her/him, and partner...
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Short-term poaching allows men to gain reproductive benefits with a mated woman without the costs of commitment (Schmitt & Buss, 2001). The current research explores whether men (N = 38) target mated women for short-term poaches as a function of their and their partners' relative physical attractiveness. By manipulating a hypothetical couple's attr...
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Three studies were implemented in order to ascertain how men and women flirt with potential partners, and whether or not there are sex differences in which flirtatious actions are considered most effective. Study 1 (n = 40) and Study 2 (n = 60) sought to discover the actions that men and women, respectively, engage in to indicate romantic interest...
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The present research sought to determine how skin color, facial shape, and facial width to height ratio (fWHR) affect ratings of 10 Black male facial shapes. Based on evolutionary theory and prior research, the rectangular, quadratic, inverted trapezium, and pentagonal faces were hypothesized to receive the highest attractiveness, dominance, maturi...
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Mating intelligence is a fairly new construct with only limited empirical examination. Yet, previous research has found important implications for the construct's role in mating behavior. The present study sought to expand the existing body of research on mating intelligence by investigating its relationship with self-esteem, self-perceived attract...
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Four studies were implemented in order to ascertain how men and women flirt with potential partners and which flirtatious actions are considered most effective. Study 1 (n = 40) and Study 2 (n = 60) sought to discover the actions that men and women, respectively, engage in to indicate romantic interest to a partner. Study 3 (n = 110) sought to dete...
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The present research examined how being described as a dancer affects Black and White men and women's assessed mate value in two studies. Study 1 examined evaluations of men by women and study 2 examined evaluations of women by men. Based on prior research examining how dancers are perceived and how body movements affect social perceiver's evaluati...
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This series of studies is the first to use conjoint analysis to examine how individuals make trade-offs during mate selection when provided information about a partner's history of sexual infidelity. Across three studies, participants ranked profiles of potential mates, with each profile varying across five attributes: financial stability, physical...
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Previous research has characterized human mate poaching as a prevalent alternative mating strategy that entails risks and costs typically not present during general romantic courtship and attraction. This study is the first to experimentally investigate friendship between a poacher and his/her target as a risk mitigation tactic. Participants (N = 3...
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The present research was implemented in order to determine whether or not the Big-5 personality dimensions relate to the perceived effectiveness of love acts discovered in prior research. An internet based questionnaire was utilized and college undergraduates and as well as non-college students were included in the sample. !e Big-5 dimensions of Ag...
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In the current research, we assessed the impact of parent-child relationships on attitudes toward, and engagement in, hookup behaviors using a sample of 407 college students. Based on prior research, it was hypothesized that heterosexual participants, especially women, who do not perceive themselves as having a strong, close, positive relationship...
Chapter
Full-text available
Individuals in long-term romantic relationships expect their partners to be sexually accessible, to honor the reproductive aspects of the partnership, and to be faithful. When this does not happen, sexual conflict occurs. That conflict can lead to mate expulsion. The present chapter points out how individuals select mates, how sex and sexuality pla...
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Evolutionary theory based research shows that women and men can differ in their responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. However, research has not examined the question of whether men and women react similarly or differently to a partner's engagement in different types of sexual infidelity. The present research sought to answer this question....
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The current research was conducted to determine which of type of jealousy induction tactics are considered most effective. One hundred eighteen participants responded to a questionnaire that included jealousy induction tactics, demographic questions, and social desirability measures. Based on prior evolutionary theory based research on love acts in...
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One-hundred and twenty five participants were administered an online survey to investigate: which type of cheating, emotional or sexual, is more likely to be used in an attempt to induce jealousy in a partner, which type of cheating is perceived as most effective for inducing jealousy, and whether or not the Big-5 personality dimen-sions are relate...
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Evolutionary theory based research shows that attractiveness is based on biological correlates that index appropriate estrogen and testosterone levels. Symmetry affects or plays a role in the perception of many of these correlates of attractiveness. Additionally, since attractiveness affects infidelity perception and reactions, sexual satisfaction,...
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To determine whether or not love acts have changed since Buss first examined them in (1988) and to determine which love acts are perceived as most effective, three studies were implemented. Studies 1 and 2 presented questionnaires to college undergraduates. Study 3 used an internet based questionnaire and included college undergraduates and individ...
Article
The present research implemented three studies in order to ascertain whether or not women are likely to approach a man to initiate/signal romantic interest and to determine which opening lines used by women are perceived as most effective, and most direct by men and women. Based on societal changes in women’s roles and changes in women’s attitudes...
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Evolutionary theory based research has examined how sexual access and emotional access affect mate selection. However, evolutionary theory based research has not examined how deficits in sexual access and emotional access affect relationship termination decisions. The present research sought to fill this void with two studies examining the question...
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Two studies explored whether or not personal experiences of romantic jealousy relate to individual differences in personality by means of the Big Five model of personality. Study 1 examined how scores on the Interpersonal Jealousy Scale relate to the Big 5 dimensions of personality. Seventy-one participants were administered the Interpersonal Adjec...
Chapter
Research in the area of facial attractiveness has examined the role of race in the perception of beauty, revealing that regardless of our own skin color, we tend to prefer light skin to dark skin in most matters of choice. Subsequently, the current research, utilizing morphed faces combined in varying degrees Black, White, and Asian facial characte...
Chapter
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Since the early days of slavery a bias favoring fair skin has been a significant and discriminatory distinction made by both White and Black Americans. Recent research indicates that African Americans are considered more attractive by others if they have fair skin. Clearly, skin color exerts strong effects on many aspects of African Americans’ live...
Article
The question of whether or not personality and life success halo effects occur for weight for men was examined in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 used a 2 (weight of man) × 2 (sex of participant) design and personality social desirability measures. Experiment 2 used a 2 (weight of man) × 2 (sex of participant) design and the Big-5 dimensions of persona...
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To determine whether infant facial attractiveness is related to perceived adoptability, participants were asked to rate photographs of Asian, Black, and White babies on perceived: ad-optability, attractiveness, intelligence, health, proportional eye size, and facial shape. It was hypothesized that (a) Asian babies would be rated highest in adoptabi...
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The role of African American skin color in hiring decisions was investigated in a 2 × 2 × 2 (Participant Sex × Applicant Sex × Applicant Skin Color) design. College-age participants (N= 107) were presented with stimuli and asked to make 8 employment-related decisions. An interaction of applicant skin color and participant sex and a skin-color main...
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Evolutionary theory based research shows that women and men may differ in their responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. The present research sought to determine how the mate value characteristics of rivals affect the levels of emotional reaction men and women experience with these types of infidelity. Women were expected to report higher leve...
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Full-text available
Skin color in relation to perceived attractiveness, personality ratings, and perceived life success of African Americans was investigated in a 2 (sex of participant) 2 (skin color of stimulus person) 2 (sex of stimulus person) design. Based on prior research, Skin Color Sex of Stimulus Person and Sex of Participant Skin Color interactions were hypo...
Article
Females apparently are the choosier sex in courtship contexts, but there still is limited information about female selection criteria in real courtship settings. Given that a female knows little about a heretofore unacquainted male, upon what dimensions can (and do) females base their initial courtship decisions? Here, we report findings from obser...
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The entire gamut of facial shapes has not been included in prior research investigating the perception of African American men’s facial attractiveness. The 10 facial shapes identified for African American men (elliptic, oval, reversed oval, round, rectangular, quadratic, rhombic, trapezium, inverted trapezium, and pentagonal) were examined in this...
Article
This research examined the relationship between women’s digit ratios (2D:4D) and self-perceived attractiveness, self-esteem and body-esteem. Sixty women rated their physical and sexual attractiveness, self-esteem, and body-esteem. Digit ratios (2D:4D) were determined from tracings of their hands. Based on prior research, it was hypothesized that wo...
Article
Prior research investigating the perception of men's faces has not considered the hybrid nature of black and white racial characteristics. Fifteen faces ranging from “pure” black or white to “hybrid” black and white were rated in the present research. Main effects for race of face were hypothesized. Predominantly black faces were expected to receiv...
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Full-text available
The question of whether or not life success halo effects occur for weight for Black and White women was examined in an experiment using a 2 (race of woman) 2 (weight of woman) 2 (sex of participant) design and measures of perceived life success, attractiveness, and personality. The thinner White woman was expected to receive higher life success, at...
Article
Evolutionary biological theory has been shown to be relevant to an understanding of how individuals assess others' physical and sexual attractiveness. This research used the Body-Esteem Scale and multiple regression to determine if this theory is also relevant to an understanding of self-perceived physical and sexual attractiveness and self-esteem...
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Full-text available
The question of whether or not personality halo effects occur for weight for black and white women was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 used a 2 (race of woman) ×2 (weight of woman) design and personality social desirability measures. Experiment 2 used a 2 (race of woman) ×2 (weight of woman) ×2 (sex of participant) design and the Big-5 di...
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Full-text available
Responses to the body esteem scale (Franzoi & Shields, 1984) and multiple regression were used to determine if evolutionary biological theory is relevant to an understanding of self-perceived physical and sexual attractiveness and self-esteem and to determine if physical and sexual attractiveness an the same construct. It was hypothesized that regr...
Article
Two studies were conducted to determine: if the links between the body and self-perceived attractiveness and self-esteem for men and women differ. Following evolutionary and social learning theories, affective and cognitive links were hypothesized for women's attractiveness while no links were hypothesized for men's attractiveness. Additionally, af...
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In order to determine which of the three male perception foci, status, physical dominance, or looks, lead to contrast effects on men's self-rated physical and sexual attractiveness, and social ascendancy men were exposed to a high or low status and physically fit or unfit man (Experiment 1) or (0 3 physically fit or unfit and attractive or unattrac...
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Self-evaluations of body image were examined in a 2 (attractiveness of stimulus person) 2 (sex of stimulus person) design to determine if contrast effects consistent with evolutionary psychology occur for women's self-perceptions of their body image. Main effects for attractiveness were hypothesized. Higher self-ratings for figure-related aspects o...
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Skin color in relation to self-esteem and self-perceived physical, sexual, and global attractiveness was examinedfor a sample of9J African Americans. Based on marketplace theory and prior research, interactions of sex and skin tone were hypothesized. Fair-skinnedfemales were expected to have higherself-esteem and self-ratings of attractiveness than...
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Locus of control/fatalism was assessed for an adolescent sample during ages 11-17 and again from ages 13-19. It was hypothesized that blacks and girls would be more external than whites and boys both during early and late adolescence. Additionally, it was hypothesized that effect sizes would be greater during late adolescence. Results obtained part...
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The present research was conducted to examine individual differences in responses to overt and coven measures of sexism. First, 25 women and 16 men rated the negative content of sexist statements in order to create a covert and an overt measure of sexism. Next, an additional group of 35 men and-74 women responded to these measures in order to deter...
Article
Race and sex differences in self-perceptions of attractiveness and level of self-esteem were examined for an adolescent sample over a 2-yr period. Results showed race differences in self-perceptions of attractiveness during both early and late adolescence. Blacks rate themselves higher in attractiveness than whites rate themselves at both time peri...
Article
G. Elder's (1969) marketplace theory and Porterfield's (1978) concept of status incongruity were tested as possible explanations for the perceptions of and behavioral propensities toward a Black male-White female couple in a 2(Sex of Subject) x 2(Race of Male) x 2(Status of Male) x 2(Attractiveness of Female) design. Results obtained showed somewha...
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Research on stability and structure of self-esteem has led to some controversies in the last few years. Although self-esteem is shown to be stable in late adolescence, changes, often positive, have also been documented. The present research uses an attitudinal framework and a large longitudinal data set to explore these issues. As expected, results...
Article
Multiple regression techniques were used to examine stability of self-esteem and changes in the constellation of predictors of self-esteem in an adolescent sample over a 2 yr period. Self-esteem was found to be relatively stable for the four race by sex subgroups examined. However, the constellations of predictors of self-esteem for the four groups...
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An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the group-size effect in an Asch-type conformity experiment is a function of the concern with being right and the concern with being liked. In addition to a manipulation of group size, there were manipulations of manner of responding (public or private) and of the nature of the judgments (obje...
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Insko, Sedlak, and Lipsitz (European Journal of Social Psychology, 1982, 13, 143–167) have presented evidence that agreement effects in p−o−x triads, or semicycles, are at least partially a function of the consistency of positive self-evaluation with being liked and the consistency of positive self-evaluation with being right. Consistent with the I...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [116]-118). Microfiche of typescript. s

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Project
Encyclopedia entries, that T. Joel Wade, Kelsey Salerno, and myself, were asked to complete.