Sylvie Tordjman

Sylvie Tordjman
Université de Rennes 1 | UR1 · Child Psychiatry

Professor

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196
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (196)
Article
Résumé Les troubles du sommeil sont extrêmement fréquents (40–86 %) chez l’enfant et les adolescents, en particulier chez ceux avec un trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA). Ces anomalies sont, d’ailleurs, une des principales préoccupations parentales lorsque l’on a un enfant avec TSA. Les troubles du sommeil sont essentiellement des anomalies du r...
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Current research suggests that alterations in neurodevelopmental processes, involving gene X environment interactions during key stages of brain development (prenatal period and adolescence), are a major risk for schizophrenia. First, epidemiological studies supporting a genetic contribution to schizophrenia are presented in this article, including...
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Children of immigrants may have higher neurodevelopmental risks than those of non-immigrant populations. Yet, some evidence suggests that this group may receive late diagnosis, and therefore miss beneficial early interventions. Clinicians may misattribute symptoms of disorders to other social, behavioral or language problems. Likewise, there might...
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The role of melatonin has been extensively investigated in pathophysiological conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced melatonin secretion has been reported in ASD and led to many clinical trials using immediate-release and prolonged-release oral formulations of melatonin. However, melatonin’s effects in ASD and the choice of f...
Chapter
This chapter develops the perspective of giftedness in France implemented at the National Center for Assistance to children and adolescents with High Potential (CNAHP). First, we present the debate about the terminology used to describe gifted children in France which varies according to the underlying theoretical conceptions and representations (e...
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Background Several studies suggest significant relationships between migration and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but there are discrepant results. Given that no studies to date have included a pathological control group, the specificity of the results in ASD can be questioned. Aims To compare the migration experience (premigration, migratory trip...
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Background Several studies have reported anxiety disorders in children with high intellectual potential (HIP). However, there are discrepant results possibly as a result of methodological biases (different/absent definitions of HIP, small sample sizes, non-validated/adapted/specific tools for assessing anxiety and a single observational source). A...
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The case study of Michael Jackson illustrates the concepts of high potential, talent, and precocity in the musical domain. Studying this case of exceptional musical talent highlights the usefulness of a multidimensional approach to exploring human potential, which is not limited to academic abilities. It offers a better understanding of the process...
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Modeling in other organism species is one of the crucial stages in ascertaining the association between gene and psychiatric disorder. Testing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in mice is very popular but construct validity of the batteries is not available. We presented here the first factor analysis of a behavioral model of ASD-like in mice coupled...
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Abstract Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multiple malformations/intellectual disability (ID) syndrome caused by 7q11.23 microdeletion and clinically characterized by a typical neurocognitive profile including excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition, often defined as “overfriendliness” and “hyersociability”. WBS is generally considered...
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Le trauma vient faire effraction dans la vie psychique du sujet en y provoquant une rupture, et la perception du temps en est altérée. Le temps est arrêté, gelé sur l’événement traumatique. Les définitions du trauma seront dans un premier temps abordées en s’interrogeant, à partir de ces définitions, sur la contribution des médias au développement...
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A historical review of the concepts of self-consciousness is presented, highlighting the important role of the body (particularly, body perception but also body action), and the social other in the construction of self-consciousness. More precisely, body perception, especially intermodal sensory perception including kinesthetic perception, is invol...
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Résumé Médiatisé en France dans les suites des attentats, le psychotraumatisme comporte des formes simples et complexes. Les maltraitances intrafamiliales peuvent être à l’origine de psychotraumatismes complexes qui doivent être dépistés et traités. Parfois difficiles à repérer notamment en raison des phénomènes dissociatifs, ils peuvent avoir une...
Article
Résumé Les enfants à haut potentiel intellectuel (EHP) peuvent être en difficulté scolaire et/ou psychologique. Des études épidémiologiques sont nécessaires pour déterminer la réelle fréquence des EHP en difficulté. Les résultats du Centre national d’aide aux enfants et adolescents à haut potentiel (CNAHP) montrent que les EHP peuvent présenter des...
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Prior observations and studies suggest self-consciousness disorders in schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), two neurodevelopmental disorders sharing social communication impairments. First, the relationships between schizophrenia and autism are explored regarding social communication impairments. Then, self-consciousness disorders in s...
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Abstract Clinical observations suggest early self-consciousness disturbances in schizophrenia. A double mirror combining the images of two individuals sitting on each side of the mirror was used to study self–other differentiation in 12 individuals with early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 15 individuals with adult onset schizophrenia (AOS) compared...
Article
Résumé Les enfants à haut potentiel intellectuel (EHP) peuvent être en difficulté scolaire et/ou psychologique. Cependant, tous les EHP ne sont pas en difficulté, et les enfants en échec scolaire ou avec des troubles psychologiques ne sont pas tous des EHP. Des études épidémiologiques françaises sont nécessaires pour déterminer dans une population...
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Objective: Autism and certain associated behaviors including self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and atypical pain reactivity have been hypothesized to result from excessive opioid activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between SIB, pain reactivity, and β-endorphin levels in autism. Methods: Study participants were rec...
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Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The po...
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A family can be viewed as a system respecting the principle of homeostasis and therefore considered as a system in equilibrium or out of equilibrium, or even both simultaneously or consecutively. Within a family system, there are oscillatory phenomena and synchronization of the emotional, behavioral and relational rhythms of each member of the fami...
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This article focuses on stress vulnerability in schizophrenia through an integrated clinical and biological approach. The objective of this article is to better understand the relationships between vulnerability, stress and schizophrenia. First, the concept of vulnerability is defined and several models of vulnerability in schizophrenia are reviewe...
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We hypothesize that the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is the additive and interactive outcome of the triple copy of different regions of HSA21. Because of the small number of patients with partial trisomy 21, we addressed the question in the Mouse in which three chromosomal regions located on MMU10, MMU17 and MMU16 carries almost all the HSA21 homolog...
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In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have...
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Progress in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics with the development of new techniques has improved knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this article is to show the diversity of genetic disorders associated with ASD (based on an extensive review of single-gene disorders, copy n...
Article
Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environ...
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Background Psychic transparency is described as a psychic crisis occurring during pregnancy. The objective was to test if it was clinically detectable. Methods Seven primiparous and seven nulliparous subjects were recorded during 5 min of spontaneous speech about their dreams. 25 raters from five groups (psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, general pract...
Article
Résumé La famille est le lieu où s’exerce la grande majorité des violences envers les enfants. L’enfant peut être maltraité et il se retrouve alors victime d’une violence intentionnelle qui lui est destinée. L’enfant peut aussi être « exposé » indirectement à la violence intrafamiliale, violence dont il est témoin, comme c’est le cas des violences...
Article
Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia...
Article
This article presents the interest, functioning and specificities of a pluri-professional mobile team which operates in dyads, using a vehicle designed as a mobile office, going to meet the youth and his/her family in locations chosen by them (going most often from home to a care center). The movement of « going to » is of particular interest for b...
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It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys asses...
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Autism has been described first as a behavioral disorder with emphasis on language and communication difficulties. Modeling the disease in nonhuman species was limited to analogic models. Recent advances combining genetic and molecular approaches have offered new perspectives. It has revealed that a wide number of genes were associated with autism...
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Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articl...
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Résumé Les représentations du temps et ses mesures relèvent de constructions subjectives qui évoluent en fonction des conceptions, croyances, besoins sociétaux et progrès technologiques. De même, le passé, le futur et le présent sont des représentations subjectives dépendantes du temps psychique du sujet, mais aussi de son temps biologique. Il n’ex...
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Objectives: Based on clinical, phenomenological and neurobiological observations, psychiatrists often report a deficit in time estimation in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive models of time estimation in healthy subjects have been proposed and developed for approximately 30 years. The investigation of time perception is pertinent to the under...
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The interplay between creativity and intelligence has been extensively documented for decades. However, there is currently no consensus on how these constructs are related. The threshold hypothesis states that intelligence fosters creativity only below a 120 cut-off IQ. To clarify these issues, the relationships between intelligence and creativity...
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Metabolic disorders are not well recognized by psychiatrists as a possible source of secondary psychoses. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are not frequent. Although, their prompt diagnosis may lead to suitable treatments. IEMs are well known to paediatricians, in particular for their most serious forms, having an early expression most of the tim...
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There is a growing interest in the role of biological and behavioral rhythms in typical and atypical development. Recent studies in cognitive and developmental psychology have highlighted the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony of motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms in early development of social communication. The synchronization of rh...
Chapter
Persistent social communication impairment and restricted fields of interest are the core features that characterize autism according to the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM - 5) (2013). We present here an attempt to model clinical observations corresponding to these two dimensions in the mouse behavio...
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Several studies support currently the hypothesis that autism etiology is based on a polygenic and epistatic model. However, despite advances in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics, the genetic risk factors remain difficult to identify, with the exception of a few chromosomal disorders and several single gene disorders associated with a...
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Many studies have examined effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and fetal development, especially on prematurity and birthweight, and more recently long-term effects on child behavioral and emotional development. These studies are reviewed and their limitations are discussed with regard to definitions (including the concepts of stress and anxiet...
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It is important for psychiatrists to be aware of certain inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) as these rare disorders can present as psychosis, and because definitive treatments may be available for treating the underlying metabolic cause. A systematic review was conducted to examine IEMs that often present with schizophrenia-like symptoms. Published...
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Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by attention deficits in communication and social interactions and a lack of interest in people. Data are mostly based on clinical situations. However, recent studies have shown a more mixed situation where children with ASD (ASD children) displayed interest towards humans, in both experimental an...
Article
La douleur est avant tout une expérience. Cette expérience peut être fortement altérée chez les patients présentant des troubles psychiatriques. La douleur s’exprime, également, et l’expression comportementale peut être modifiée, voire rendue difficilement compréhensible, dans le cas de pathologies psychiatriques sévères. Nous proposons une revue c...
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy frequently occur together. Prevalence rates are variable, and have been attributed to age, gender, comorbidity, subtype of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and risk factors. Recent studies have suggested disparate clinical and genetic settings depending on simplex or multiplex autism. The aim of th...
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Abnormalities in melatonin physiology may be involved or closely linked to the pathophysiology and behavioral expression of autistic disorder, given its role in neurodevelopment and reports of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, decreased nocturnal melatonin production, and beneficial therapeutic effects of melatonin in individuals with autism. In addi...
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Deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region (WBSCR), at 7q11.23, causes a developmental disorder commonly characterized by hypersociability and excessive talkativeness and often considered the opposite behavioral phenotype to autism. Duplication of the WBSCR leads to severe delay in expressive language. Gene--dosage effects on la...
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Here, the quality of life (QoL) of adolescents living in residential group homes (RGHs), is compared to QoL of a general adolescent population, and links between QoL and the presence of mental disorders are examined. Adolescents living in RGHs reported a significantly lower perception of their overall QoL compared to the general adolescent populati...
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Plusieurs études ont rapporté l’existence de troubles du sommeil et d’altération des rythmes circadiens dans l’autisme suggérant des perturbations de la physiologie de la mélatonine, neurohormone de la glande pinéale sécrétée pendant la nuit. De plus, les résultats d’une étude que nous avons réalisée sur 49 enfants présentant un diagnostic d’autism...
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Exceptional cases such as Michael Jackson and Mozart illustrate the concepts of high potential, talent and precocity. If their musical worlds are distant, at least by a few centuries, their environment (notably the family environment), developmental path and personality show notable similarities. Studying these two cases of exceptional musical tale...
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Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors--an important aspect of development--is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have neve...