Sylvie Girard

Sylvie Girard
Université de Montréal | UdeM · Sainte-Justine University Hospital Center Research Center

PhD

About

52
Publications
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1,761
Citations

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
Blockade of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway has been used therapeutically in several inflammatory diseases including arthritis and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). These conditions frequently affect women of childbearing age and continued usage of IL-1 specific treatments throughout pregnancy has been reported. IL-1 is involved in pr...
Article
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Prenatal inflammation negatively affects placental function, subsequently altering fetal development. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are used to mimics infections in preclinical models but rarely detected during pregnancy. Our group previously developed an animal model of prenatal exposure to uric acid (endogenous mediator), leading...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Preeclampsia develops due to placental insufficiency and systemic proinflammatory and antiangiogenic mediator release, with ensuing systemic endothelial dysfunction. Nephrotic-range proteinuria appears to be associated with worse pregnancy outcomes. The relationship between differing degrees of proteinuria and the severity of placental...
Article
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Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth are associated with placental dysfunction and inflammation and hypoxia, oxidative and nitrative stress are implicated in placental damage. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are elevated in pregnancies at increased risk of FGR and stillbirth and are associated with increase in pro-inflammatory...
Article
Problem Preeclampsia (PE), preterm birth (PTB) and intra‐uterine growth restriction (IUGR) affect 5‐12% of pregnancies. They have been associated with placental inflammation, although the detection of inflammatory mediators in the maternal circulation is still controversial. Our goal was to determine the inflammatory changes occurring in the second...
Article
Inflammation is known to be associated with placental dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Infections are well known to be a cause of inflammation but they are frequently undetectable in pregnancy complications. More recently, the focus has been extended to inflammation of non-infectious origin, namely caused by endogenous mediators known as "d...
Article
Introduction: Inflammation is an important cause of placental dysfunction often associated with pregnancy complications. One well-known cause of inflammation is infection, through conserved "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs). Endogenous inducers of inflammation, known as "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs), have also been...
Article
Full-text available
Preeclampsia (PE) is a poorly understood pregnancy complication. It has been suggested that changes in the maternal immune system may contribute to PE, but evidence of this remains scarce. Whilst PE is commonly experienced pre-partum, it can also occur in the postpartum period (postpartum PE-PPPE), and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Our goal...
Article
Background Preterm deliveries remain the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Current therapies target only myometrial contractions and are largely ineffective. As labor involves multiple coordinated events across maternal and fetal tissues, identifying fundamental regulatory pathways of normal term labor is vital to understanding suc...
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Preterm birth (PTB) is commonly accompanied by in utero fetal inflammation, and existing tocolytic drugs do not target fetal inflammatory injury. Of the candidate proinflammatory mediators, IL-1 appears central and is sufficient to trigger fetal loss. Therefore, we elucidated the effects of antenatal IL-1 exposure on postnatal development and inves...
Article
Excessive placental inflammation is associated with several pathological conditions, including stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Although infection is a known cause of inflammation, a significant proportion of pregnancies have evidence of inflammation without any detectable infection. Inflammation can also be triggered by endogenous mediator...
Article
Inflammation is central to successful reproduction. In the last decade, important advances have been made in regards to endogenous, and therefore non-infectious, initiators of inflammation which can act through the same receptors as pathogens. These molecules are referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and their involvement in r...
Article
Uterine labor requires the conversion of a quiescent (pro-pregnancy) uterus into an activated (pro-labor) uterus, with increased sensitivity to endogenous uterotonic molecules. This activation is induced by stressors, particularly inflammation in term and preterm labor. Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide known for its utero-contractile effects in...
Article
Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and represents a heavy economic and social burden. Despite its broad etiology, PTB has been firmly linked to inflammatory processes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced in gestational tissues in response to stressors and can prematurely induce uterine activati...
Article
Problem: Prenatal exposure to inflammation increases the incidence of neonatal brain injury. This raise the question whether maternally produced cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-1 elevated in pathological pregnancies and known to alter fetal development, can cross the placental barrier and affect the fetus directly. Method of study: We add...
Article
Full-text available
Preterm birth (PTB) is firmly linked to inflammation regardless of the presence of infection. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, are produced in gestational tissues and can locally upregulate uterine activation proteins. Premature activation of the uterus by inflammation may lead to PTB, and IL-1 has been identified as a key inducer of thi...
Article
There is growing interest in the role of viral infections and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While the trophoblast is permissive to viruses, little is still known about their impact on the placenta. We previously established that viral single stranded RNA (ssRNA), a Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist, induces a restricted pro-i...
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Background and Purpose—Systemic inflammation contributes to diverse acute and chronic brain pathologies, and extensive evidence implicates inflammation in stroke susceptibility and poor outcome. Here we investigate whether systemic inflammation alters cerebral blood flow during reperfusion after experimental cerebral ischemia. Methods—Serial diffu...
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Problem Inflammation during pregnancy has devastating consequences for the placenta and fetus. These events are incompletely understood, thereby hampering screening and treatment. Method of studyThe inflammatory profile of villous tissue was studied in pregnancies at high-risk of placental dysfunction and compared to uncomplicated pregnancies. The...
Data
Levels of IL-1α, TNF-α and in high-risk pregnancies. Protein levels of IL-1α (A), TNF-α (B), and IL-6 (C), were unchanged in placentas from high-risk pregnancies associated with RFM, FGR or PE as compared with normal term control placenta. Results presented as median.
Data
mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators in placentas from pregnancies with RFM. mRNA levels of IL-1R2 (A), NLRP3 (B), and caspase-1 (C) were unchanged in placenta from high-risk pregnancies associated with RFM as compared to normal term tissue. Results presented as median.
Article
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Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability...
Data
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a b s t r a c t Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At IFPA meeting 2013 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of placental function, ce...
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Macrophage can adopt several phenotypes, process call polarization, which is crucial for shaping inflammatory responses to injury. It is not known if microglia, a resident brain macrophage population, polarizes in a similar way, and whether specific microglial phenotypes modulate cell death in response to brain injury. In this study, we show that b...
Article
New therapeutic strategies are needed to protect neonates, especially premature newborns, against brain injury and associated neurobehavioral deficits. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, in the pathophysiological pathway leading to neonatal brain damage is increasingly recognized and represents an attractive therapeutic targe...
Article
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Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a major contributor to the burden of stroke on society. Treatment options are limited and animal models of SAH do not always mimic key pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering development of new therapeutics. Inflammation is strongly associated with brain injury after SAH in animals and patients,...
Article
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Preterm and term newborns are at high risk of brain damage as well as subsequent cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. Indeed, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), pathogen exposures, and associated intracerebral increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines have all been linked to perinatal brain damage. However, the developmental effects of potential variations o...
Article
A preclinical model showed a direct role of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) system in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage, but evidence linking these findings to human white matter damage (WMD) requires confirmation in human cases. We analyzed the IL-1β system using immunohistochemistry to characterize the expression of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R1 and I...
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The precise role of maternal bacterial infection and inflammation occurring at the end of gestation is a controversial matter. Although it is recognized as an independent risk factor for neurodevelopmental diseases such as cerebral palsy, mental deficiency, and autism, it remains unclear whether it is causal or simply associated with the diseases....
Article
The aim of this study was to determine, with the use of a rat model, the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, its receptors, and TNF-alpha-converting enzyme in perinatal brain lesions of early premature neonates. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected intraperitoneally in pregnant rats at the end of gestation. At postnatal day 1, the rig...
Article
Inflammatory molecules are promptly upregulated in the fetal environment and postnatally in brain-damaged subjects. Intrauterine infections and inflammation are often associated with asphyxia. This double-hit effect by combined infection or inflammation and hypoxia is therefore a frequent concomitant in neonatal brain damage. Animal models combinin...
Article
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A critical issue in animal models of perinatal brain injury is to adapt the pertinent pathophysiological scenarios to their corresponding developmental window in order to induce neuropathological and behavioral characteristics reminiscent to perinatal cerebral palsy (CP). A major problem in most of these animal models designed up to now is that the...
Article
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a group of environmental contaminants increasing in North America. Few data are available on neurobehavioral effects at low-dose exposure. Our goal in the present study was to evaluate whether low-dose BDE-47, which is the most abundant PBDE in human samples, affects the neurobehavioral development of rats....
Article
Using a model of perinatal brain lesions induced by lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia/ischemia, we hypothesized that interleukin-2 (IL-2), a neurotoxic cytokine, was enhanced within injured brains. We showed that lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia/ischemia enhanced both intracerebral IL-2 mRNA and protein levels, with a maximum increase upon lipopolysacch...
Article
Bacterial infections and hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) are implicated in human neonatal brain damage leading to cerebral palsy (CP). We developed an animal model presenting similar perinatal brain damage by combining bacterial endotoxin and H/I insults. Interleukin (IL)-1beta is a mediator of brain damage and its action(s) is counteracted by its cognate a...

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