Sylvestre Maurice

Sylvestre Maurice
Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III | UPS Toulouse · Institut de Recherches en Astrophysique et Planétologie - UMR 5277 - IRAP

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52
Publications
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737
Citations

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
The SuperCam instrument, aboard NASA's Perseverance rover, provides for the first time the hardware capability for time-resolved spectroscopy on Mars. As a consequence, in addition to the atomic and molecular emissions routinely recorded by SuperCam LIBS, plasma-induced luminescence (PIL) features could theoretically also be observed, within the sa...
Article
Despite the importance of sand and dust to Mars geomorphology, weather, and exploration, the processes that move sand and that raise dust to maintain Mars' ubiquitous dust haze and to produce dust storms have not been well quantified in situ, with missions lacking either the necessary sensors or a sufficiently active aeolian environment. Perseveran...
Article
The SuperCam remote sensing instrument on NASA's Perseverance rover is capable of four spectroscopic techniques, remote micro-imaging, and audio recording. These analytical techniques provide details of the chemistry and mineralogy of the rocks and soils probed in the Jezero Crater on Mars. Here we present the methods used for optical calibration o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perseverance’s microphones provide the first characterization of Mars’ acoustic environment and pressure fluctuations in the audible range and beyond, from 20 Hz to 50 kHz. Prior to this mission, modeling predicted that: (i) atmospheric turbulence must change at centimeter scales or smaller at the point where molecular viscosity converts kinetic en...
Article
Full-text available
The Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has collected a very large and unique data set of in‐situ spectra and images of Mars since landing in August 2012. More than 800,000 single shot laser‐induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra measured on more than 2,500 individual targets w...
Article
Full-text available
The SuperCam instrument on the Perseverance Mars 2020 rover uses a pulsed 1064 nm laser to ablate targets at a distance and conduct laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) by analyzing the light from the resulting plasma. SuperCam LIBS spectra are preprocessed to remove ambient light, noise, and the continuum signal present in LIBS observations...
Article
We present the Infrared spectrometer of SuperCam Instrument Suite that enables the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover to study remotely the Martian mineralogy within the Jezero crater. The SuperCam IR spectrometer is designed to acquire spectra in the 1.3–2.6μm domain at a spectral resolution ranging from 5 to 20 nm. The field-of-view of 1.15 mrad, is co...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the Infrared spectrometer of SuperCam Instrument Suite that enables the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover to study remotely the Martian mineralogy within the Jezero crater. The SuperCam IR spectrometer is designed to acquire spectra in the 1.3-2.6 $\mu$m domain at a spectral resolution ranging from 5 to 20~nm. The field-of-view of 1.15 mrad,...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity landed in Gale crater (Mars) in August 2012. It has since been studying the lower part of the 5 km-high sedimentary pile that composes Gale’s central mound, Aeolis Mons. To assess the sedimentary record, the MSL team mainly uses a suite of imagers onboard the rover, providing various pixel sizes and field...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On-board the Perseverance rover, the SuperCam instrument is being used as a remote-sensing facility to analyze rocks and soils targets. SuperCam is a suite of five coaligned techniques: just like ChemCam (onboard MSL/Curiosity rover on Mars since 2012), it uses the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to determine the elementary co...
Article
The ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity rover provides chemical compositions of Martian rocks and soils using remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The elemental calibration is stable as a function of distance for Ti, Fe, Mg, and Ca. The calibration shows small, systematically increasing abundance trends as a function of distance for...
Article
We report a new calibration model for manganese using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument that is part of the ChemCam instrument suite onboard the NASA Curiosity rover. The model has been trained using an expanded set of 523 manganese-bearing rock, mineral, metal ore, and synthetic standards. The optimal calibration model uses the P...
Article
OrganiCam is a laser-induced luminescence imager and spectrometer designed for standoff organic and biosignature detection on planetary bodies. OrganiCam uses a diffused laser beam (12° cone) to cover a large area at several meters distance and records luminescence on half of its intensified detector. The diffuser can be removed to record Raman and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since January 2019, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has been exploring the Glen Torridon (GT) region of Gale crater, which corresponds to the topographic trough between the Vera Rubin ridge and the Greenheugh pediment (Fig. 1). From orbit, this region stands out due to the rela-tively strong near-infrared signatures of clay minera...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Curiosity rover reached the Glen Torridon (GT) area around sol 2300 (January 2019). GT is known to display relatively strong and extensive smectite signatures from orbit [1]. During the last two years of exploring this area, Curiosity has revealed variations in chemical compositions correlated with bedrock facies [2- 4]. The spatially dominant...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gale crater preserves a 5-km-thick sequence of stratified rocks, the lower-most section of which exhibits orbital spectra signatures of clay miner-als transitioning up to sulfates over several hundred me-ters of stratigraphy [1,2]. Understanding the reason for this wet-to-dry change recorded in the mineralogical signature is one of the primary obje...
Article
Full-text available
The SuperCam instrument suite provides the Mars 2020 rover, Perseverance, with a number of versatile remote-sensing techniques that can be used at long distance as well as within the robotic-arm workspace. These include laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), remote time-resolved Raman and luminescence spectroscopies, and visible and infrared...
Article
In the context of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), plasma-induced luminescence (PIL) may be observed by tuning the temporal acquisition parameters (delay and gate). This approach provides useful information about minor elements in a sample. The broad range of excitation resulting from the laser-induced plasma enables the simultaneous ob...
Article
The SuperCam instrument suite onboard the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover includes a microphone used to complement Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy investigations of the surface of Mars. The potential of the SuperCam microphone has already been demonstrated for laser ablation under Earth atmosphere in our preliminary study with a small set of samp...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars 2020 mission will seek the signs of ancient life on Mars and will identify, prepare, document, and cache a set of samples for possible return to Earth by a follow-on mission. Mars 2020 and its Perseverance rover thus link and further two long-held goals in planetary science: a deep search for evidence of life in a habitable extraterrestria...
Article
Located on top of the mast of the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover, the SuperCam instrument suite includes a microphone to record audible sounds from 100 Hz to 10 kHz on the surface of Mars. It will support SuperCam’s Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy investigation by recording laser-induced shock-waves but it will also record aeroacoustic noise gen...
Article
Full-text available
Heterolithic, boulder-containing, pebble-strewn surfaces occur along the lower slopes of Aeolis Mons (“Mt. Sharp”) in Gale crater, Mars. They were observed in HiRISE images acquired from orbit prior to the landing of the Curiosity rover. The rover was used to investigate three of these units named Blackfoot, Brandberg, and Bimbe between sols 1099 a...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary. The lowest exposed rocks of the Murray formation in Gale crater, Mars are interpreted as ancient lake deposits based on Curiosity rover data. However, the duration and temporal variability of this ancient lake is still an open question. Here we characterize the vertical distribution of deposits within the entire Murray forma...
Chapter
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising technique that provides elemental compositions for planetary exploration. The first extraterrestrial LIBS instrument, ChemCam, has been exploring Mars since 2012 as part of NASA’s Curiosity rover. It has returned over 700,000 spectra, yielding major insights into the geochemistry and past h...
Article
The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the three Pasteur Payload instruments located within the rover analytical laboratory drawer (ALD), for ESA's Aurora exploration programme, ExoMars 2020 mission. The instrument will analyse the crushed surface and subsurface samples that are positioned below the Raman optical head by the ALD carousel. The...
Article
In preparation for the SuperCam/Mars Microphone scientific investigation, the acoustic signal associated with the plasma formation during Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment is studied with regard to the shot-to-shot evolution of the laser induced crater morphology and plasma emission lines. A set of geological targets are depth...
Article
Copper quantification with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using a univariate calibration model enables the ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover to measure unusually elevated Cu concentrations in potassic sandstones and Mn-oxide-bearing fracture fills in the Kimberley region of Gale crater, Mars. Mostly, the copper phases occu...
Article
Grain size in martian sedimentary rocks can be constrained using point-to-point chemical variabilities in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) data from the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The diameter of each point ablated by the ChemCam laser is in the range of medium to coarse sand in size. Thus, r...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the Phase 2 Bagnold Dune campaign at Gale Crater, Mars, constraints on the geochemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state of pristine and disturbed linear sand ripples were made using visible/near‐infrared spectral observations for comparison to Phase 1 spectra of the barchan dunes to the north. Spectra acquired by the ChemCam and Mastcam...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the last decade, the vision of a ‘mostly basaltic’ martian crust has been largely dis- rupted with the unexpected discovery of evolved igne- ous rocks in Gale crater from Noachian time (> 3.8 Gyr) [1,2], felsic igneous clasts dated at 4.43 Gyr within the regolith martian breccia NWA 7533 and its paired stones [3-7], and orbital observations o...
Article
The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, re...
Conference Paper
Recently, LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) has been proposed as a new method for planetary exploration with Mars specifically targeted. There are many reasons for this including the ability for rapid analysis, stand-off analysis (e.g. up to 20 meters), and the ability to readily combine LIBS with other spectroscopic methods that provide...
Article
We have solved a stationary Boltzmann transport equation to describe the ionosphere of Titan in two simple cases. The first one deals with the satellite being outside the Kronian magnetosphere on the dayside of Saturn, which happens under strong solar wind conditions. In that case, the main energy source of ionization is the solar photons. We show...

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