Syed H. Imam

Syed H. Imam
United States Department of Agriculture | USDA · Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

Ph.D.

About

128
Publications
39,660
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6,222
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
2530 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Introduction
Syed H. Imam, Ph.D. VP Research & Development Flozyme Corporation, Inc./Bontera BioAg Plano, Texas, USA Phone: (925) 550-0245 Email: syed@bontera.com www.bontera.com Dr. Syed Imam is currently serving as a VP of Research & Development at Flozyme Corporation Inc. /Bontera BioAg headquartered in Plano, Texas. He is currently developing several innovative and novel products for use in crop production that are non-chemical, non-GMO, and are 100% organic based. These products harness the bio-catalytic power of beneficial soil microbes to serve as a substitute for farm chemicals and promote sustainability. Beside R&D and product development, Dr. Imam is tasked for international business development creating new markets and finding new partners. Dr. Imam has over 35 years of experience in
Additional affiliations
September 1983 - December 1988
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Position
  • Robert Welch fellow/Instructor
Description
  • Plant cell-wall asembly and degradation

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Films were cast using sodium alginate (NaAlg), high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan, and low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan as film forming biopolymers. Fludioxonil (Fl) at 1% concentration was used as fungicide. Thermal stability, mechanical, and water sorption properties of the films were examined. The effects of films on the Fusarium solani col...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorus is one of the three macronutrients that are essential for plant growth and development. Inorganic phosphorus (P), which can make up to 70% of the total P content in soils, can exist in calcium-, aluminum-, or iron-complexed forms that are unavailable for plant use. As a result, mineral phosphorus, P2O5, is often used as a fertilizer to s...
Article
The present study reports on the development of hybrid poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibres loaded with highly crystalline bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers (BCNW) by the novel solution blow spinning method. Furthermore, fibres with antimicrobial properties were generated by incorporating carvacrol and THC as antimicrobial agents and the biocide effect ag...
Chapter
Nanocrystalline cellulose derived from various botanical sources offers unique and potentially useful characteristics. In principle, any cellulosic material can be considered as a potential source of a nanocrystalline material, including crops, crop residues, and agroindustrial wastes. Because of the variability in cellulose source and methods of p...
Patent
Full-text available
Bioactive formulations and methods of use comprising a gypsum biopolymer matrix and soil beneficial microorganisms are described herein.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayotextle starch to prepare films for the casting method. The films were stored at different temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and were analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and biodegradation rate. The results of the mechan...
Article
Wheat gluten was reacted with citric acid to produce natural superabsorbent materials able to absorb up to 78 times its weight in water. The properties of the modified gluten samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and water uptake. The reaction between gluten and citric acid was...
Article
Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) was grafted onto bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers (BCNW) by means of a redox-initiated free radical copolymerization reaction. The incorporation of PGMA chains decreased the thermal stability and crystallinity of BCNW. The neat and the PGMA-grafted BCNW were subsequently incorporated as fillers into the PLA matrix...
Article
Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were examined for the electrospun samples. The electrospun P...
Article
Extruded/injection-molded composites of excellent mechanical property were produced from plantain flour (PF) blended with ethylene–vinyl alcohol (EVA) and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that composites had a smooth surface, indicative of an excellent compatibility between PF, EVA, and glycerol. Generally, tensile strength (TS...
Article
The incorporation of fibers as reinforcements in polymer composites has increased due to their renewability, low cost and biodegradability. In this study, sisal fibers were added to a polymer matrix of thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone, both biodegradable polymers. Sisal fibers (5% and 10%) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder with thermo...
Article
Full-text available
Sisal fibers bleached with sodium-hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide treatment were incorporated in a thermoplastic starch/ε-polycaprolactone (TPS/PCL) blend via extrusion processing. These samples with smooth and homogenous surfaces were examined for their property, biodegradability and water absorption. Scanning electron microscopy revealed...
Article
This chapter reviews alternatives to conventional synthetic food packaging materials. It discusses the environmental impact of synthetic plastic packaging. It then goes on to review biobased food packaging materials such as starch-based PHB and PLA polymers as well as PHAs and PVA. It outlines production methods for these materials together with hy...
Article
Biopolymers derived from renewable resources are an emerging class of advanced materials that offer many useful properties for a wide range of food and nonfood applications. Current state of the art in research and development of renewable polymers as adhesives, gums, binders, and emulsions is the subject of this review. Much of the focus will be o...
Article
Starch is an abundant, biodegradable, renewable, and low-cost commodity that has been explored as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics. By itself, starch is a poor replacement for plastics because of its moisture sensitivity and brittle properties. Using starch as a fermentation feedstock, various promising biodegradable plastic products have...
Article
The room temperature mineralization of thermoplastic starch (TPS) with a high glycerol content and its blends with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) are examined under controlled degradation conditions. These results are correlated with the morphologies and continuity behavior of the various blend systems. It is found that t...
Article
Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and poly-(ε-caprolactone). Compression-molded films were...
Article
Wheat gluten films of various thicknesses formed at 30–70°C were treated with cold sulfuric acid to produce sulfated gluten films. Chemical, thermal, thermal stability, and water uptake properties were characterized for neat and sulfated films. The sulfated gluten films were able to absorb up to 30 times their weight in deionized water. However, th...
Article
Full-text available
Mid-infrared (mid-IR) analysis of solid biomaterials by the familiar KBr disc technique is all too often frustrated by water interference in the very important protein (amide) and carbohydrate (hydroxyl) regions of their spectra. A method was therefore devised that overcomes the difficulty and corrects IR spectra of solid biomaterials in KBr discs...
Article
Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly(ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days during the summer months followed by their incubation...
Article
Full-text available
Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker suspensions were characterized by Fourier transform i...
Article
Natural plant products such as essential oils have gained interest for use in pest control in place of synthetic pesticides because of their low environmental impact. Essential oils can be effective in controlling parasitic mites that infest honeybee colonies, but effective encapsulants are needed to provide a sustained and targeted delivery that m...
Article
Fish gelatin films made from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were dried at 4°C, 23°C, 40°C, and 60°C. The tensile, thermal, thermal stability, water sorption, and water vapor permeability properties were examined for cold-cast gelatin films (dried below gelation temperature at 4°C) and hot-cast...
Article
Coir fibers received three treatments, namely washing with water, alkali treatment (mercerization) and bleaching. Treated fibers were incorporated in starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH) blends. Mechanical and thermal properties of starch/EVOH/coir biocomposites were evaluated. Fiber morphology and the fiber/matrix interface were further...
Article
Full-text available
Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce...
Article
Coconut, sisal and jute fibers were added as reinforcement materials in a biodegradable polymer matrix comprised of starch/gluten/glycerol. The content of fibers used in the composites varied from 5% to 30% by weight of the total polymers (starch and gluten). Materials were processed in a Haake torque rheometer (120°C, 50rpm) for 6min. The mixtures...
Article
Full-text available
Potato starch foam trays based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) and corn fibers (CFs), co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process, are prepared by baking the blended mixtures in a preheated mold. Materials are evaluated for processing parameters, foam strength, flexibility, and water resistance as a function of fibers content. Addition of CF...
Article
Gelatin was extracted from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) skins and cast into films. The fish gelatin films' tensile, thermal, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, and biodegradation properties were compared to those of bovine and porcine gelatin films. In addition, fish gelatin film...
Article
The effect of processing temperature on structural changes in wheat, corn, and high amylose corn starch granules was investigated and related to the mechanical properties of gels and microcellular foam (MCF). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed that wheat starch granules form ghosts with thicker walls than dent corn granules. The granule wal...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils were produced by electrospinning. The effects of applied voltage, polymer concentration and injection rate, tip-to-collector distance, rotation speed of the collector, and relative humidity on morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The reinf...
Article
Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Corn starch was introduced as a biodegradation promot...
Article
of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2008 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, August 3 – August 7, 2008
Article
of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2008 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, August 3 – August 7, 2008
Article
of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2008 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, August 3 – August 7, 2008
Article
Full-text available
Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the f...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, oxidative stability, and heating value. T...
Chapter
Full-text available
SummaryA study was conducted to determine the microbial potential of Guayanilla Bay surface water to use polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) e.g. naphthalene and phenanthrene as a sole carbon source. The capacity of surface water for utilization of these compounds was correlated with the population density of naphthalene and phenanthrene degrading bac...
Article
Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal, and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ductile behavior of the matrix by making the comp...
Article
Wheat starch-Cloisite Na+ nanoclay composites containing different glycerol and nanoclay concentrations were extruded using a twin-screw extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the extent of nanoclay dispersion and thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterize thermal stability of composites. Al...
Article
Full-text available
Montmorillonite clay treated with neopentyl (diallyl)oxy tri(dioctyl) pyrophosphato titanate was used as a reinforcement for toughened bacterial bioplastic, Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in order to develop novel biodegradable nanocomposites. The modified clay, PHB, toughening partner and specific compatibilizer were processed by extrusion followed by...
Article
A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling c...
Article
Full-text available
Three relatively new applications for controlling wind and water erosion using polyacrylamide copolymers arc described that take advantage of their ability to stabilize and add structure to soil. In the first application, low concentrations of anionic, high purity polyacrylamide (PAM) eliminates sediment in runoff water by more than 90% when added...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted on the industrial area waters of Guayanilla Bay to determine the potential for microbial utilization of toxic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, phenol and pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a sole carbon source. Utilization of toxic substrates was determined by using Biolog MT Microplates inoculated with environme...
Article
Granular cornstarch was treated with microbial glucoamylase (50mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 5.5 at 30°C, 150rpm) for up to 8h. Treated starch was recovered and evaluated for changes in granular morphology, chemical properties, thermal properties, crystallinity and impact on its biodegradability. As the enzyme treatment progressed, reducing sugars...
Article
Starch is an inexpensive commodity that has been used for non-food purposes for many years. Some of these uses include cross-linked starches that are synthesized with a variety of multifunctional reagents. One unexplored possibility is the use of azides for cross-linking. To this end, azide derivatives of different starches have been synthesized, i...
Article
Gelatin was extracted from the skins of Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Amino acid analysis and gel electrophoresis were used to determine their amino acid composition and molecular weight profiles, respectively. Dynamic rheology was also used to characterize the fish gelatins’ gelation and me...
Article
Petroleum-based synthetic plastics used for making consumer articles constitute the largest non-renewable source of municipal solid waste in the United States. Containers and packaging products represent the largest group within plastic waste in municipal landfills. Efforts are being made worldwide to search for renewable and biodegradable substitu...
Article
Volatile agrochemicals such as 2-heptanone have potential in safely and effectively controlling important agricultural pests provided that they are properly delivered. The present study reports the permeability of starch gel matrices and various coatings, some of which are agricultural-based, that could be used in controlled release devices. Low-de...
Article
Single-use packaging materials made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) have been identified as suitable items to be replaced by biodegradable materials. Plates made with EPS represent a source of non-degradable waste that is difficult to collect and to recycle. Potato starch based foamed plates have been prepared by a baking process. Presently, foam pla...
Article
Full-text available
Composites based on natural polymers alone are extremely sensitive to moisture and their mechanical properties deteriorate upon the absorption of water, limiting their usefulness in practical applications. Ongoing research cooperation between USDA and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) a...
Article
Full-text available
Cellulose microfibrils obtained by the acid hydrolysis of cellulose fibers were added at low concentrations (2-10% w/w) to polymer gels and films as reinforcing agents. Significant changes in mechanical properties, especially maximum load and tensile strength, were obtained for fibrils derived from several cellulosic sources, including cotton, soft...
Article
Biodegradable cast films of about 50m thickness were fabricated by blending oppositely charged biopolymers such as anionic starch–chitosan, and cationic starch–pectin. The tensile strength and elongation at break (%) of films were evaluated as well as their capacity to degrade in compost. Films recovered from soil every 48h showed consistent degrad...
Article
Full-text available
Several composite blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and lignocellulosic fibers were prepared and characterized. Cohesive and flexible cast films were obtained by blending lignocellulosic fibers derived from orange waste and PVA with or without cornstarch. Films were evaluated for their thermal stability, water permeability and biodegradation prop...
Book
Produce Degradation is the first book to focus on the processes that result in produce quality deterioration and their prevention. It addresses the mechanism of reactions that affect produce quality under conditions from the farm to the table. It also reviews the degradative changes and conditions that favor these processes, such as the biochemistr...
Article
Starch aquagel-based lightweight concrete has properties similar to those of other lightweight concrete products. However, starch aquagels are unstable in the strongly alkaline conditions typical of Portland Cement-based concrete and may interfere with the setting process. The effect of alkali treatments on the physical, mechanical, and functional...
Article
Blends and composites based on environmentally degradable-ecocompatible synthetic and natural polymeric materials and fillers of natural origin have been prepared and processed under different conditions. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used as the synthetic polymer of choice by virtue of its capability to be processed from water solution or suspensi...
Article
Cereal or tuber starches have been utilized in making low-density foam using a baking process. Foams made only of starch tend to embrittle and have poor mechanical properties. Fiber reinforced foams were made that had flexural properties similar to foam materials used in commercial food containers. Pulped fiber from wheat and rice straw was as effe...
Article
Cellulose microfibrils obtained by the acid hydrolysis of cellulose fibers obtained from different sources were added at low concentrations (2-10% w/w) to polymer gels and films as reinforcing agents. Significant changes in mechanical properties, especially maximum load and tensile strength, were obtained for fibrils derived from several cellulosic...
Article
The renewable polymers are environmentally friendly and naturally biodegradable, and could serve as an inexpensive source of raw material for single-use engineered products. Efforts are underway to develop ecocompatible consumer plastics by incorporating renewable polymers as an alternative to petroleum-derived chemicals. Therefore, gaining fundame...
Article
Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of...
Article
A research cooperation between USDA and the University of Pisa led to the development of several composite blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and lignocellulosic fibers. The cast films were prepared by blending orange fibers (OR-fibers) and PVA with and without cornstarch to yield flexible and cohesive films. To improve properties, films were also...
Article
Ongoing research cooperation between USDA and the University of Pisa, Italy has yielded several composite blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and corn fibers (CF). The USA is the largest producer of ethanol from cereal grains. Composites based on natural fibers alone are extremely sensitive to water. Their mechanical properties deteriorated upon th...
Article
Full-text available
Studies were conducted to assess the factors that may influence the rate and extent of biodegradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and p-nitrophenol in water samples collected from the Guayanilla Bay (18 degrees N; 67.45 degrees W), southwest of Puerto Rico. In vitro studies mediated slow degradation of biphenyl,...
Article
Full-text available
Information pertaining to biodegradability of renewable polymeric material is critical for the design and development of single-use biodegradable consumer products. The rate and extent of biodegradation of corn fiber, corn zein, cornstarch, distillers grain, and corn gluten meal were evaluated in compost environments under variable temperature, pH,...
Article
A wood adhesive was prepared from a natural renewable resource. The characteristics and optimization of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)-based crosslinked adhesive suitable for wood-to-wood bonding in interior applications are described. The crosslinker, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (Cymel 323) produced effective crosslinking through a transetherif...
Article
As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byprod...
Chapter
The present contribution reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA. Starch and fibers, derived from sugarcane, apple and orange waste, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and resulted effective in obtaining flexible films. Addit...
Article
A new chemometric method based on Beer's law was derived that uses peak ratios from Fourier transform infrared spectra of neat polymers and their composite plastics to quantify degradation of the individual polymers after biodegradation. The method affords direct measurement of polymer concentrations and weight losses without prior calibration agai...