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  • Sybert H. Stroeve
Sybert H. Stroeve

Sybert H. Stroeve
Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre · Safety and Human Performance

Ph.D.

About

76
Publications
13,698
Reads
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1,191
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
386 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
Netherlands Aerospace Centre
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Research on human performance modelling, organizational modelling and dynamic risk modelling for multi-agent environments. Application of these research lines in a range of safety assessment studies for air traffic management.
January 1998 - December 1999
Radboud University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Research on the integration of neural network techniques and symbolic artificial intelligence methods, applied to the automatic recognition of emotions. Research on synchronous firing in biological neural networks.
October 1992 - December 1997
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • PhD research on modelling of neuromuscular control of human arm movements.
Education
September 1985 - October 1991
University of Twente
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (76)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a scarcity of suitable human factors data derived from investigation of safety occurrences in support of effective safety management and feedback to design. In the aviation and maritime domains, details about human contributors are not always systematically analysed and reported in a way that makes extraction of trends and comparisons poss...
Article
Full-text available
A safety management system (SMS) is the overall set of procedures, documentation, and knowledge systems as well as the processes using them, which are employed within an organisation to control and improve its safety performance. Safety management systems are often observed as being bureaucratic, distinct from actual operations, and being too much...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For quantitative assessment of close proximity and collision risks of drones and urban air mobility there is a need for simulation approaches that can represent a variety of operations and types of uncertainty and hazards that can affect them. This paper shows that agent-based modelling in combination with Interacting Particle System (IPS) Monte Ca...
Article
Airborne collision avoidance systems (ACASs) form a key safety barrier by providing last-moment resolution advisories (RAs) to pilots for avoiding midair collisions. Intrinsic uncertainties, such as noise in ACAS input signals and variability in pilot performance, imply that the generation of RAs and the effectuated aircraft trajectories are nondet...
Article
Full-text available
Controlling and improving safety in organisations is achieved using a Safety Management System (SMS). Notwithstanding the variety of components considered in SMS standards, including human factors and safety culture, safety management systems are sometimes observed by those at the ‘sharp end’ as being bureaucratic, distinct from actual operations,...
Conference Paper
The objective of this paper is to present a new adaptive automation concept which offers an innovative ‘team’ centred approach to solving human factors/workload management problems. The A-PiMod concept/approach is defined by the concept of partnership – specifically, the “Third Pilot” and the crew and automation are in charge together. We are propo...
Conference Paper
Under the premise that a more resilient operation is better able to be safe and efficient, this paper presents a pragmatic approach for analysing the resilience of future air traffic management (ATM) operational concepts and improving their design. The approach uses a workshop with operational experts as a central element and follows 5 steps. The l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is an approach for modelling complex systems by describing the behaviour and interactions of a collection of autonomous decision-making entities, called agents. The overall system behaviour emerges as a result of the individual agent processes and their interactions. ABMS provides a highly modular and tra...
Article
Following a discussion of recent reviews, we argue that in resilience engineering (RE) there is a need for more structured modelling approaches for analysis of resilience in sociotechnical systems that can support both qualitative and quantitative studies. In this paper we present agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) as an approach towards t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a straightforward approach for safety impact quantification of innovative aviation concepts in early development stages. The safety impact quantification approach provides a high-level and broad overview of the accident risk reduction that may be obtained by the novel concept. The approach uses a systematic assessment of change...
Article
Current safety management of aerodrome operations uses judgements of severity categories to evaluate runway incursions. Incident data show a small minority of severe incursions and a large majority of less severe incursions. We show that these severity judgements are mainly based upon the outcomes of runway incursions, in particular on the closest...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current safety management of aerodrome operations uses a severity-based categorization of runway incursion events. This severity assessment is mainly based upon the outcome of a runway incursion event, in particular on the closest distance attained. As such the severity depends to a considerable extent on uncontrolled random circumstances and we ar...
Article
The objective of this paper is to show how qualitative resilience analysis approaches can be effectively structured for large sets of disturbances and strategies for work-as-done at the sharp end of a complex sociotechnical system. This is pursued by studying the roles of air traffic controllers and airline pilots in dealing with a wide set of dist...
Chapter
Safety culture is broadly recognized as important for operational safety in various fields, including air traffic management and power plant control. We use the term ‘safety culture’ as those aspects of organizational culture that may have an effect on safety. It is well accepted that the type of national culture has a significant impact on organiz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Air Traffic Management (ATM) forms a large and complex socio-technical system which includes a variety of interacting human and technical agents. These interactions may emerge into various types of nominal and off-nominal behaviours. Agent-based modelling and simulation can provide a systematic analysis of such emergent behaviours in ATM. In order...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the key steps in safety risk assessment of an Air Traffic Management (ATM) operation is to identify as many potential hazards as is possible. All these potential hazards have to be analysed upon their possible contribution to safety risk of the operation considered. In an agent-based safety risk assessment of ATM operations there are two app...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the context of ATM, resilience has been defined as the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. Resilience is important for the complex socio-technical ATM system, where large numbers o...
Article
In the safety literature it has been argued, that in a complex socio-technical system safety cannot be well analysed by event sequence based approaches, but requires to capture the complex interactions and performance variability of the socio-technical system. In order to evaluate the quantitative and practical consequences of these arguments, this...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability of the sociotechnical ATM system to adjust its functioning to changes and disturbances, and thereby sustain required operations is a key asset, in which human operators play crucial roles. Previously, we have shown that agent-based modelling can effectively support analysis of the safety implications of the behaviour of interacting huma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper studies agent-based modelling of hazards in Air Traffic Management (ATM). The study adopts a previously established large database of hazards in current and future ATM as point of departure, and explores to what extent agent-based model constructs are able to model these hazards. The agent based modelling study is organized in three phas...
Conference Paper
Multi-agent dynamic risk modelling is used to assess accident probabilities of air traffic scenarios involving multiple entities, disturbances and their interactions. In this context human performance models should be able to capture a wide variety of hazards. This paper provides an analysis of the coverage of a broad set of hazards that can be att...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Existing approach towards agent-based safety risk analysis in Air Traffic Management (ATM) covers hazards that may potentially occur within air traffic operations along two ways. One way is to cover hazards through agent-based model constructs. The second way is to cover hazards through bias and uncertainty analysis in combination with sensitivity...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper extends a safety analysis based on a multi-agent dynamic risk model (DRM) of a future mix mode taxiing into position and hold (TIPH) operation. The TIPH operation aims at placing an aircraft on the mixed mode runway, ready for immediate takeoff as soon as takeoff clearance has been issued by the air traffic controller. In the previous sa...
Article
Full-text available
Agent-based dynamic risk modelling supports the design of future air traffic operations by risk analysis methods that account for the performance variability of the interacting operators and systems, and the resulting emergence of safety occurrences. The paper shows the application of this modelling approach in a risk assessment cycle of a future A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a project that is part of SESAR WP-E, which is addressing long-term and innovative research.Resilience engineering purports to improve the safety in complex socio-technical systems, such as in air traffic management (ATM). The MAREA project aims to support a more systematic analysis of resilience in ATM by developing a mathemat...
Conference Paper
There is an abundance of literature on the subject of emergence. One mainstream uses the term to describe the way complex patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions, for example the literature on emergent behaviour in socio-technical systems. Another mainstream, in philosophy, aims at properly defining and characterising...
Article
Assessment of safety culture is done predominantly by questionnaire-based studies, which tend to reveal attitudes on immaterial characteristics (values, beliefs, norms). There is a need for a better understanding of the implications of the material aspects of an organization (structures, processes, etc.) for safety culture and their interactions wi...
Article
Full-text available
Safety culture is broadly recognized as important for operational safety in various fields, including air traffic management, power plant control and health care. Previous studies addressed characterization and assessment of safety culture extensively. Nevertheless, relations between safety culture and formal and informal organizational structures...
Article
Full-text available
Recently we compared safety analyses for a runway incursion scenario based on an event sequence analysis, as a key exponent of a traditional risk assessment technique, versus one based on an multi-agent dynamic risk model (DRM), as an exponent of new techniques based on system complexity and variability-based accident models. We found that lower ac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Agent-based dynamic risk modelling supports the design of future air traffic operations by risk analysis methods that account for the performance variability of the interacting operators and systems and the resulting emergence of safety occurrences. This paper shows the application of this modelling approach for a future A-SMGCS level 3 supported t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Safety culture is broadly recognized as important for Air Traffic Management and various studies have addressed its characterization and assessment. Nevertheless, relations between safety culture and formal and informal organizational structures and processes are yet not well understood. We aim to improve the understanding of these relations by age...
Article
A systemic accident model considers accidents as emergent phenomena from variability and interactions in a complex system. Air traffic risk assessments have predominantly been done by sequential and epidemiological accident models. In this paper we demonstrate that Monte Carlo simulation of safety relevant air traffic scenarios is a viable approach...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document is one of the outputs of Work Package 6.5.3 (Real-time Safety Simulation Trials) of the EMMA2 project and describes the real-time simulation results.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Safety culture is currently recognized as important in many domains and various studies have addressed its characterization and assessment. However, relations between safety culture and formal and informal organizational structures and processes are yet not well understood. This impedes structured improvement of safety culture. We aim to improve th...
Article
Safety culture is currently recognized as important in many domains and various studies have addressed its characterization and assessment. However, relations between safety culture and formal and informal organizational structures and processes are yet not well understood. This impedes structured improvement of safety culture. We aim to improve th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fault and event trees are the dominantly used safety risk models in air traffic. Systemic accident risk assessment by Monte Carlo simulation is a more recent, less explored technique. In this paper we compare the two approaches for a concrete accident risk assessment of an active runway crossing operation. For this example we show and explain remar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
formal organization modeling, analysis, agents, air traffic control, safety An Air Traffic Organization (ATO) is a complex organization that involves many parties with diverse goals performing a wide range of tasks. Due to this high complexity, inconsistencies and performance bottlenecks may occur in ATOs. By analysis, such safety- and performance-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the first year research in the EUROCONTROL CARE Innovative Research III project on safety modelling and analysis of organizational processes in air traffic. It is the objective of this research project to enhance safety analysis of organizational processes in air traffic by development of formal approaches for mod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is good practice as well as a requirement of safety regulations that foreseen changes to air traffic operations are assessed regarding safety, and only introduced when the changed operation is sufficiently safe. Hazard identification is a crucial step in such assessments: hazards that are left unidentified may lead to a too optimistic perspectiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
situation awareness updating processes and the dynamic interactions between agents are contributors to the performance variability in the systemic accident model. Results and conclusions Accident risk results are provided for the effectiveness of alert systems in the tower and cockpit in good and reduced visibility conditions, and for two cases of...
Conference Paper
This paper studies a novel approach in pushing the boundary between imaginable and unimaginable hazards. How much this boundary can be pushed depends on the experience, knowledge and imagination of the person(s) involved in hazard identification and how the hazard identification process is organized. The relativity of whether a hazard is imaginable...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Air traffic controllers and pilots are crucial in achieving high levels of safety in air traffic operations. Their performance is consequently an essential subject of safety risk analyses, which need to be executed when advanced air traffic operations are developed. The paper describes a systematic and stepwise approach to safety risk analysis, whi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Monte Carlo simulation of an accident risk model of a complex safety critical operation provides valuable feedback to the decision makers that are responsible for the safety of such operation. By definition, such a Monte Carlo simulation model differs from reality at various points and levels. Hence, the feedback to the decision makers should inclu...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper gives an overview of performing safety risk assessment of a safety critical operation with support of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The approach is outlined for an air traffic example involving aircraft departing from a runway, which is occasionally crossed by taxiing aircraft. At the airport considered, a Runway Incursion Alert System (R...
Conference Paper
The integration of a human performance model (Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System, Air MIDAS) and an accident risk assessment methodology (Traffic Organization and Perturbation AnalyZer, TOPAZ) was investigated in order to learn about the similarities and differences of their models,to demonstrate the feasibility of such integrat...
Conference Paper
A computational model of human performance (Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System, Air MIDAS) and an accident risk assessment methodology (Traffic Organization and Perturbation AnalyZer, TOPAZ) were integrated in order to learn about the similarities and differences of their models, to demonstrate the feasibility of such integratio...
Conference Paper
This paper extends the situation awareness (SA) model for a human agent of Endsley [1] to a multi-agent situation awareness error evolution model and outlines its application to an example of accident risk modelling for an active runway crossing operation at an airport.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A mathematical model is presented for the evolution of situation awareness within the context of human performance modelling in accident risk assessment for ATM. Various aspects of situation awareness are defined within a group of agents, such as human operators and technical systems. Application of the model is illustrated for an accident risk ass...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This paper develops a mathematical,model,for cognitive performance,of a tactical air traffic controller in an,en-route air traffic context. The aim of this model-based approach,is to enable the evaluation of both accident risk and aspects like cognitive workload,and effectiveness in managing air traffic safely. Use is made of human error m...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the firing characteristics of conductance-based integrate-and-fire neurons and the correlation of firing for uncoupled pairs of neurons as a result of common input and synchronous firing of multiple synaptic inputs. Analytical approximations are derived for the moments of the steady state potential and the effective time constant. We...
Article
Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Standard errors, confidence and prediction intervals 2 3 Bootstrap estimates of standard errors and confidence intervals 3 4 Standard error estimation for parametric inference 4 5 Bootstrapping in ensembles of neural networks 5 6 Parametric inference for neural network regressors 6 6.1 The MLP in a Bayesian context : : :...
Article
Full-text available
Automatic recognition of a speaker's emotions is a natural objective for research, but is difficult to gauge the level of performance that is currently attainable. We describe a study that offers a rough benchmark. Speech data came from five passages of about 100 syllables each. They had been selected following pilot studies because they were effec...
Chapter
Over the years, the neurophysiology and biomechanics of muscle systems have been investigated quite extensively in order to characterize the relations between muscle activity (EMG) and various dynamical and/or kinematic aspects of the ensuing movement behavior. There have been numerous efforts to correlate the duration, magnitude and timing of phas...
Article
Full-text available
Exact inference in large and complex graphical models (e.g. Bayesian networks) is computationally intractable. Approximate schemes are therefore of great importance for real world computation. In this paper we consider a general scheme in which the original intractable graphical model is approximated by a model with a tractable structure. The appro...
Article
The mechanical impedance of neuromusculoskeletal models of the human arm is studied in this paper. The model analysis provides a better understanding of the contributions of possible intrinsic and reflexive components of arm impedance, makes clear the limitations of second-order mass-viscosity-stiffness models and reveals possible task effects on t...
Article
The modulation of neuromusculoskeletal impedance during movements is analysed using a motor control model of the human arm. The motor control system combines feedback and feedforward control and both control modes are determined in one optimization process. In the model, the stiffness varies at the double movement frequency for 2-Hz oscillatory elb...
Article
Using a model for the neuromuscular control of human arm movements, the possible roles of different proprioceptive signals are analyzed. The control model is represented by a neural network and includes both feedback and feedforward control modes. After a learning process, the controller regulates a wide range of arm movements. Evaluation of the ro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Segmentation by synchrony of firing is investigated in stochastic neural networks with binary neurons. The network is trained by presenting sparsely coded patterns with a Hebbian-type learning rule. Retrieval of these patterns and synchrony of firing is investigated by presenting one or multiple patterns simultaneously to the network. For stimuli c...
Article
A neuromusculoskeletal model of the human arm was developed which contains both feedforward and feedback control, and thereby accounts for motor control of fast movements as well as interaction with external forces. The feedforward control component forms an approximate representation of the inverse dynamics of the arm and its interaction with the...
Article
The main objective of this paper is to indicate how the learning process of a neural control system by backpropagation through time (BTT) is influenced by the structure of the control system, the dynamics of the plant and the parameters of the learning process. Since the analysis of a linear system is far more tractable than the analysis of a nonli...
Article
Development of the understanding of human movement control requires models of neuromuscular control systems. Such models should be nonlinear, include feedforward and feedback control modes, account for delays in the control loop and be able to control musculoskeletal models with redundant actuators and multiple degrees of freedom (dofs). A model of...
Article
The influence of changes in electrical conductivity, due to the muscle boundary, layers and compartments of intramuscular connective tissue and blood vessels, on computed single-muscle fibre action potentials (SFAPs) in rat hindleg muscle is calculated. The position of the active fibre is varied throughout the muscle. For fibres close to the muscle...
Article
The goal of this paper is the learning of neuromuscular control, given the following necessary conditions: (1) time delays in the control loop, (2) non-linear muscle characteristics, (3) learning of feedforward and feedback control, (4) possibility of feedback gain modulation during a task. A control system and learning methodology that satisfy tho...