Svetlana Kiritchenko

Svetlana Kiritchenko
National Research Council Canada | NRC · Institute for Information Technology (IIT)

Ph.D.

About

68
Publications
28,521
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6,153
Citations

Publications

Publications (68)
Preprint
Motivations for methods in explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) often include detecting, quantifying and mitigating bias, and contributing to making machine learning models fairer. However, exactly how an XAI method can help in combating biases is often left unspecified. In this paper, we briefly review trends in explainability and fairness in...
Preprint
In an effort to guarantee that machine learning model outputs conform with human moral values, recent work has begun exploring the possibility of explicitly training models to learn the difference between right and wrong. This is typically done in a bottom-up fashion, by exposing the model to different scenarios, annotated with human moral judgemen...
Preprint
We present a novel feature attribution method for explaining text classifiers, and analyze it in the context of hate speech detection. Although feature attribution models usually provide a single importance score for each token, we instead provide two complementary and theoretically-grounded scores -- necessity and sufficiency -- resulting in more...
Preprint
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Robustness of machine learning models on ever-changing real-world data is critical, especially for applications affecting human well-being such as content moderation. New kinds of abusive language continually emerge in online discussions in response to current events (e.g., COVID-19), and the deployed abuse detection systems should be updated regul...
Article
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Stereotypes are encountered every day, in interpersonal communication as well as in entertainment, news stories, and on social media. In this study, we present a computational method to mine large, naturally occurring datasets of text for sentences that express perceptions of a social group of interest, and then map these sentences to the two-dimen...
Article
The pervasiveness of abusive content on the internet can lead to severe psychological and physical harm. Significant effort in Natural Language Processing (NLP) research has been devoted to addressing this problem through abusive content detection and related sub-areas, such as the detection of hate speech, toxicity, cyberbullying, etc. Although cu...
Preprint
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Stereotypical language expresses widely-held beliefs about different social categories. Many stereotypes are overtly negative, while others may appear positive on the surface, but still lead to negative consequences. In this work, we present a computational approach to interpreting stereotypes in text through the Stereotype Content Model (SCM), a c...
Article
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People have widely different experiences of being alone. Sometimes being alone is relaxing and restorative other times it gives way to feelings of loneliness. Researchers conceptually distinguish between solitude, which tends to be viewed more positively, and loneliness, which is more negative. However, it is unclear whether these terms are used di...
Preprint
Full-text available
The pervasiveness of abusive content on the internet can lead to severe psychological and physical harm. Significant effort in Natural Language Processing (NLP) research has been devoted to addressing this problem through abusive content detection and related sub-areas, such as the detection of hate speech, toxicity, cyberbullying, etc. Although cu...
Preprint
Full-text available
To support safety and inclusion in online communications, significant efforts in NLP research have been put towards addressing the problem of abusive content detection, commonly defined as a supervised classification task. The research effort has spread out across several closely related sub-areas, such as detection of hate speech, toxicity, cyberb...
Preprint
NLP research has attained high performances in abusive language detection as a supervised classification task. While in research settings, training and test datasets are usually obtained from similar data samples, in practice systems are often applied on data that are different from the training set in topic and class distributions. Also, the ambig...
Preprint
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The state of being alone can have a substantial impact on our lives, though experiences with time alone diverge significantly among individuals. Psychologists distinguish between the concept of solitude, a positive state of voluntary aloneness, and the concept of loneliness, a negative state of dissatisfaction with the quality of one's social inter...
Preprint
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In this paper, we describe the 2015 iteration of the SemEval shared task on Sentiment Analysis in Twitter. This was the most popular sentiment analysis shared task to date with more than 40 teams participating in each of the last three years. This year's shared task competition consisted of five sentiment prediction subtasks. Two were reruns from p...
Conference Paper
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Bigrams (two-word sequences) hold a special place in semantic composition research since they are the smallest unit formed by composing words. A semantic relatedness dataset that includes bigrams will thus be useful in the development of automatic methods of semantic composition. However, existing relatedness datasets only include pairs of unigrams...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bigrams (two-word sequences) hold a special place in semantic composition research since they are the smallest unit formed by composing words. A semantic relatedness dataset that includes bigrams will thus be useful in the development of automatic methods of semantic composition. However, existing relatedness datasets only include pairs of unigrams...
Article
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Objective: We executed the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2017 shared tasks to enable the community-driven development and large-scale evaluation of automatic text processing methods for the classification and normalization of health-related text from social media. An additional objective was to publicly release manually annotated data. M...
Conference Paper
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Being able to predict whether people agree or disagree with an assertion (i.e. an explicit, self-contained statement) has several applications ranging from predicting how many people will like or dislike a social media post to classifying posts based on whether they are in accordance with a particular point of view. We formalize this as two NLP tas...
Preprint
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Automatic machine learning systems can inadvertently accentuate and perpetuate inappropriate human biases. Past work on examining inappropriate biases has largely focused on just individual systems. Further, there is no benchmark dataset for examining inappropriate biases in systems. Here for the first time, we present the Equity Evaluation Corpus...
Preprint
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Our team, NRC-Canada, participated in two shared tasks at the AMIA-2017 Workshop on Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H): Task 1 - classification of tweets mentioning adverse drug reactions, and Task 2 - classification of tweets describing personal medication intake. For both tasks, we trained Support Vector Machine classifiers using...
Preprint
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In this paper, we explore sentiment composition in phrases that have at least one positive and at least one negative word---phrases like 'happy accident' and 'best winter break'. We compiled a dataset of such opposing polarity phrases and manually annotated them with real-valued scores of sentiment association. Using this dataset, we analyze the li...
Conference Paper
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Understanding public opinion on complex controversial issues such as 'Legalization of Marijuana' and 'Gun Rights' is of considerable importance for a number of objectives such as identifying the most divisive facets of the issue, developing a consensus, and making informed policy decisions. However, an individual's position on a controversial issue...
Conference Paper
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Human emotions are complex and nuanced. Yet, an overwhelming majority of the work in automatically detecting emotions from text has focused only on classifying text into positive, negative, and neutral classes, and a much smaller amount on classifying text into basic emotion categories such as joy, sadness, and fear. Our goal is to create a single...
Conference Paper
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We present the SemEval-2018 Task 1: Affect in Tweets, which includes an array of subtasks on inferring the affectual state of a person from their tweet. For each task, we created labeled data from English, Arabic, and Spanish tweets. The individual tasks are: 1. emotion intensity regression, 2. emotion intensity ordinal classification, 3. valence (...
Article
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Access to word-sentiment associations is useful for many applications, including sentiment analysis, stance detection, and linguistic analysis. However, manually assigning fine-grained sentiment association scores to words has many challenges with respect to keeping annotations consistent. We apply the annotation technique of Best-Worst Scaling to...
Article
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Negators, modals, and degree adverbs can significantly affect the sentiment of the words they modify. Often, their impact is modeled with simple heuristics; although, recent work has shown that such heuristics do not capture the true sentiment of multi-word phrases. We created a dataset of phrases that include various negators, modals, and degree a...
Article
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Rating scales are a widely used method for data annotation; however, they present several challenges, such as difficulty in maintaining inter- and intra-annotator consistency. Best-worst scaling (BWS) is an alternative method of annotation that is claimed to produce high-quality annotations while keeping the required number of annotations similar t...
Article
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We can often detect from a person's utterances whether he/she is in favor of or against a given target entity -- their stance towards the target. However, a person may express the same stance towards a target by using negative or positive language. Here for the first time we present a dataset of tweet--target pairs annotated for both stance and sen...
Article
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We present the development and evaluation of a semantic analysis task that lies at the intersection of two very trendy lines of research in contemporary computational linguistics: (1) sentiment analysis, and (2) natural language processing of social media text. The task was part of SemEval, the International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation, a seman...
Article
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Sentiment analysis research has predominantly been on English texts. Thus there exist many sentiment resources for English, but less so for other languages. Approaches to improve sentiment analysis in a resource-poor focus language include: (a) translate the focus language text into a resource-rich language such as English, and apply a powerful Eng...
Article
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Existing Arabic sentiment lexicons have low coverage—only a few thousand entries. In this paper, we present several large sentiment lexicons that were automatically generated using two different methods: (1) by using distant supervision techniques on Arabic tweets, and (2) by translating English sentiment lexicons into Arabic using a freely availab...
Conference Paper
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One may express favor (or disfavor) towards a target by using positive or negative language. Here for the first time we present a dataset of tweets annotated for whether the tweeter is in favor of or against pre-chosen targets, as well as for sentiment. These targets may or may not be referred to in the tweets, and they may or may not be the target...
Article
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Social media is playing a growing role in elections world-wide. Thus, automatically analyzing electoral tweets has applications in understanding how public sentiment is shaped, tracking public sentiment and polarization with respect to candidates and issues, understanding the impact of tweets from various entities, etc. Here, for the first time, we...
Article
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We describe a state-of-the-art sentiment analysis system that detects (a) the sentiment of short informal textual messages such as tweets and SMS (message-level task) and (b) the sentiment of a word or a phrase within a message (term-level task). The system is based on a supervised statistical text classification approach leveraging a variety of su...
Conference Paper
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Negation words, such as no and not, play a fundamental role in modifying sentiment of textual expressions. We will refer to a negation word as the negator and the text span within the scope of the negator as the argument. Commonly used heuristics to estimate the sentiment of negated expressions rely simply on the sentiment of argument (and not on t...
Article
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Detecting emotions in microblogs and social media posts has applications for industry, health, and security. Statistical, supervised automatic methods for emotion detection rely on text that is labeled for emotions, but such data are rare and available for only a handful of basic emotions. In this article, we show that emotion-word hashtags are goo...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes state-of-the-art statistical systems for automatic sentiment analysis of tweets. In a Semeval-2014 shared task (Task 9), our submissions obtained highest scores in the term-level sentiment classification subtask on both the 2013 and 2014 tweets test sets. In the message-level sentiment classification task, our submissions obtai...
Conference Paper
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Reviews depict sentiments of customers towards various aspects of a product or service. Some of these aspects can be grouped into coarser aspect categories. SemEval-2014 had a shared task (Task 4) on aspect-level sentiment analysis, with over 30 teams participated. In this paper, we describe our submissions, which stood first in detecting aspect ca...
Article
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Tweets pertaining to a single event, such as a national election, can number in the hundreds of millions. Automatically analyzing them is beneficial in many downstream natural language applications such as question answering and summarization. In this paper, we propose a new task: identifying the purpose behind electoral tweets--why do people post...
Article
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In this paper, we describe how we created two state-of-the-art SVM classifiers, one to detect the sentiment of messages such as tweets and SMS (message-level task) and one to detect the sentiment of a term within a submissions stood first in both tasks on tweets, obtaining an F-score of 69.02 in the message-level task and 88.93 in the term-level ta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tweets pertaining to a single event, such as a national elec-tion, can number in the hundreds of millions. Automatically analyzing them is beneficial in many downstream natural language applications such as question answering and sum-marization. In this paper, we propose a new task: identi-fying purpose behind electoral tweets—why do people post el...
Article
This paper addresses an information-extraction problem that aims to identify semantic relations among medical concepts (problems, tests, and treatments) in clinical text. The objectives of the paper are two-fold. First, we extend an earlier one-page description (appearing as a part of [5]) of a top-ranked model in the 2010 I2B2 NLP Challenge to a n...
Conference Paper
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Past work on personality detection has shown that frequency of lexical categories such as first person pronouns, past tense verbs, and sentiment words have significant correlations with personality traits. In this paper, for the first time, we show that fine affect (emotion) categories such as that of excite-ment, guilt, yearning, and admiration ar...
Article
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As clinical text mining continues to mature, its potential as an enabling technology for innovations in patient care and clinical research is becoming a reality. A critical part of that process is rigid benchmark testing of natural language processing methods on realistic clinical narrative. In this paper, the authors describe the design and perfor...
Data
Demonstration of the features of the interactive user interface in ExaCT (ExaCTDemo.mp4). A 5-minute video in MPEG-4 (MP4) format demonstrating the main features of ExaCT's user interface. The file can be viewed with any modern media player capable of playing MP4 files (e.g. QuickTime Player, RealPlayer). Dimensions: 640 × 480.
Article
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Clinical trials are one of the most important sources of evidence for guiding evidence-based practice and the design of new trials. However, most of this information is available only in free text - e.g., in journal publications - which is labour intensive to process for systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and other evidence synthesis studies. This...
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Clinical trials are one of the most valuable sources of scientific evidence for improving the practice of medicine. The Trial Bank project aims to improve structured access to trial findings by including formalized trial information into a knowledge base. Manually extracting trial information from published articles is costly, but automated informa...
Article
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Sponsored search is a new application domain for the feature selection area of research. When a user searches for products or services using the Internet, most of the major search engines would return two sets of results: regular web pages and paid advertisements. An advertising company provides a set of keywords associated with an ad. If one of th...
Conference Paper
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This paper deals with categorization tasks where categories are partially ordered to form a hierarchy. First, it introduces the notion of consistent classification which takes into account the semantics of a class hierarchy. Then, it presents a novel global hierarchical approach that produces consistent classification. This algorithm with AdaBoost...
Article
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This paper addresses the task of functional annotation of genes from biomedical literature. We view this task as a hierarchical text categorization problem with Gene Ontology as a class hierarchy. We present a novel global hierarchical learning approach that takes into account the semantics of a class hierarchy. This algorithm with AdaBoost as the...
Conference Paper
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We propose a novel solution to the email classiflcation problem: the integration of temporal information with the traditional content-based classiflcation approaches. We discover temporal relations in an email sequence in the form of temporal sequential patterns and embed the discovered information into content- based learning methods. The new hete...
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A great deal of genomics information accumulated through years is available nowadays in on-line text repositories such as Medline. These resources are essential for biomedical researchers in their everyday activities on planning and performing experiments and verifying the results. However, these resources do not still provide adequate mechanisms f...
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The main problems in text classification are lack of labeled data, as well as the cost of labeling the unlabeled data. We address these problems by exploring co-training - an algorithm that uses unlabeled data along with a few labeled examples to boost the performance of a classifier. We experiment with co-training on the email domain. Our results...
Conference Paper
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The Yard Allocation Problem (YAP) is a real-life resource allocation problem faced by the Port of Singapore Authority (PSA). We first show that YAP is NP-Hard. As the problem is NP-Hard, we propose several heuristics, including Tabu Search methods with ...
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Ottawa, 2006. Includes bibliographies.

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