Sven Wunder

Sven Wunder
European Forest Institute | EFI · EFIMED

PhD, DSc

About

229
Publications
100,815
Reads
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23,487
Citations
Citations since 2017
45 Research Items
11158 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
European Forest Institute
Position
  • Principal Investigator
January 2000 - present
Center for International Forestry Research
Position
  • Principal Economist
January 2000 - March 2016
Center for International Forestry Research
Position
  • Principal Economist
Education
August 2001 - September 2001
University of Copenhagen
Field of study
  • Forest Economics
July 1988 - July 1991
University of Copenhagen
Field of study
  • Macroeconomics

Publications

Publications (229)
Preprint
Full-text available
Carbon offsets from voluntarily avoided deforestation projects are generated based on performance vis-\`a-vis ex-ante deforestation baselines. We examined the impacts of 27 forest conservation projects in six countries on three continents using synthetic control methods for causal inference. We compare the project baselines with ex-post counterfact...
Research
https://efi.int/publications-bank/mediterranean-forest-research-agenda-2030 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The first Mediterranean Forest Research Agenda 2010-2020 (MFRA 2020) (Palahi et al., 2009) was written over a decade ago now. Since then, accelerating climate, ecological, socioeconomic and political changes have been transforming the compl...
Article
Rigorous impact evaluations of local REDD+ (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) initiatives have shown some positive outcomes for forests, while well-being impacts have been mixed. However, will REDD+ outcomes persist over time after interventions have ended? Using quasi-experimental methods, we investigated the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
Europe's forest provide multiple ecosystem services for societies, ranging from provisioning (e.g. wood) and regulating (e.g. climate mitigation and biodiversity) to cultural (e.g. recreation) services. In this paper, we assess the state and prospects of forest ecosystem services provision in Europe, introducing new data from the European collabora...
Article
Full-text available
Subnational initiatives to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance carbon stocks (REDD+) have been implemented across the tropics over the last decade. Such initiatives are often embedded within pre-existing conservation policies, such as forest law enforcement, making it challenging to disentangle attributable impact...
Article
Full-text available
Conditional incentives are a promising complementary approach to conserve tropical forests, for example, in multiple-use protected areas. In this paper we analyze the environmental impacts of Bolsa Floresta, a forest conservation program that combines direct conditional payments with livelihood-focused investments in 15 multiple-use reserves in the...
Article
Much uncertainty persists about how the coronavirus (COVID-19) and its derived crisis effects will impact both the economy and forests. Here we conceptualize a recursive model where an initial COVID-19 supply-side shock hits first the Global North that, mediated by country-specific epidemic management strategies and other (fiscal, monetary, trade)...
Article
One reason for recent opposition to REDD+ stems from concerns about possible welfare impacts on forest-dependent, especially indigenous peoples. We assess how two projects with community payments (PES / REDD+) impacted indigenous peoples (Baka) relative to the locally dominant ethnic group (Bantu) in south-eastern Cameroon, trying to understand to...
Article
Full-text available
Incentive-based conservation has gained ample notoriety over recent decades, particularly across Latin America where targeted incentives feature prominently in environmental services initiatives, such as for carbon storage or watershed regulation. Here we first develop an analytical framework for assessing the Peruvian initiatives of conservation i...
Article
Deforestation and forest degradation remain huge global environmental challenges. Over the last decades, various forest governance initiatives and institutions have evolved in global response to interlinked topics such as climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, indigenous rights, and trade impacts – accompanied by various levels of ac...
Article
Extreme wildfires are a major environmental and socioeconomic threat across many regions worldwide. The limits of fire suppression-centred strategies have become evident even in technologically well-equipped countries, due to high-cost and a legacy of landscape transformations, yet with ultimately low-efficient solutions vis-à-vis extreme fires. Ma...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have evolved over the past decade. Early REDD+ programs and local/subnational projects used various interventions (i.e. enabling measures, disincentives and incentives), implemented by government, the commercial and non-commercial privat...
Article
Full-text available
The world's forests provide valuable contributions to people but continue to be threatened by agricultural expansion and other land uses. Counterfactual-based methods are increasingly used to evaluate forest conservation initiatives. This review synthesizes recent studies quantifying the impacts of such policies and programs. Extending past reviews...
Article
We develop a theory of change for payments for environmental services (PES) to review their imminent strengths and weaknesses in light of a growing body of impact evaluation studies. We show that PES are probably at least as environmentally additional as other conservation tools, based on the limited evidence. The original vision of PES as being di...
Article
Full-text available
Governing land use to achieve sustainable outcomes is challenging, because land systems manifest complex land use spillovers-i.e. processes by which land use changes or direct interventions in land use (e.g. policy, program, new technologies) in one place have impacts on land use in another place. The ERL issue 'Focus on Leakage: Informing Land-Use...
Article
Biodiversity Offsets (BO) and Payments for Environmental Services (PES) are sometimes used interchangeably to characterize innovative economic tools to conserve or restore biodiversity, ecosystems, or their services. We assume that a confusion between PES and BO can have negative implications for biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we argue t...
Article
Full-text available
Local projects for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) were frequently designed as pilot actions to inform future upscaled initiatives. Drawing lessons from these project experiences may thus help improve the design of jurisdictional programs, which is the focus of REDD+ implementation in the Paris Agreement. Here w...
Article
Full-text available
We estimate the effects of Peru's oldest watershed payments for environmental services (PES) initiative in Moyobamba (Andes-Amazon transition zone) and disentangle the complex intervention into its two main forest conservation treatments. First, a state-managed protected area (PA) was established, allowing sustainable use but drastically limiting d...
Article
Payments for watershed services (PWS) are an increasingly popular tool for watershed management, also in the Southern Hemisphere. However, the degree of PWS adoption varies across these countries: while frequently represented in Latin America, water-related payment schemes do not exist in large parts of Africa and Asia. The causes for these adoptio...
Article
Full-text available
Payments for ecosystem services are becoming popular components in strategies to conserve ecosystems and biodiversity, but their effectiveness remains poorly documented. Here we present counterfactual-based evidence on the conservation outcomes of the pilot stage of Peru’s National Forest Conservation Program (NFCP). The NFCP provides direct paymen...
Article
Full-text available
In a forest-scarce country like Iran, the open semi-arid Zagros forests are the single-most important forest region, yet their contribution to rural livelihoods remains inadequately understood. Here our primary focus is on analyzing the quantitative contributions of these oak-pistachio tree savannas to rural household incomes in Malekshahi County,...
Preprint
Full-text available
12 Payments for ecosystem services are becoming popular components in strategies to conserve ecosystems 13 and biodiversity, but their effectiveness remains poorly documented. Here we present counterfactual-based 14 evidence on the conservation outcomes of the pilot stage of Peru's National Forest Conservation Program 15 (NFCP). The NFCP provides d...
Article
Full-text available
Command-and-control policies are often criticized as insufficient to tackle tropical deforestation. Over the past two decades, both academics and policy-makers have promoted incentive-based policies, notably REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), as attractive alternatives to curb forest loss, while also potentially co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Green growth strategies and bioeconomic technological innovation affect global demand and supply of agricultural and forestry-based commodities. What trade-mediated impacts has this fledging transformation on land-use change at ecologically sensitive tropical forest margins? Standard global trade models only provide impact assessments at aggregate...
Article
The Paris Climate Agreement recognizes the importance of the mechanism to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, and enhance carbon stocks (REDD+). We reviewed 45 articles from the recent scientific literature to understand the outcomes of REDD+ interventions on the ground, in terms of local participation in REDD+, and its carb...
Book
Full-text available
Los bosques y los árboles contribuyen de muchas formas a reducir la inseguridad alimentaria, apoyando medios de vida sostenibles y mitigando la pobreza. En el informe de la FAO sobre el Estado de los bosques del mundo 2014 (SOFO 2014; FAO, 2014a) se subraya que, para casi un tercio de la población mundial, la madera es la principal fuente de energí...
Article
Rural households in developing countries depend on crops, forest extraction and other income sources for their livelihoods, but these livelihood contributions are sensitive to climate change. Combining socioeconomic data from about 8,000 smallholder households across the tropics with gridded precipitation and temperature data, we find that househol...
Article
Full-text available
Payments for Environmental Services (PES) constitute an innovative economic intervention to counteract the global loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. In theory, some appealing features should enable PES to perform well in achieving conservation and welfare goals. In practice, outcomes depend on the interplay between context, design and im...
Article
Full-text available
Slowing the reduction, or increasing the accumulation, of organic carbon stored in biomass and soils has been suggested as a potentially rapid and cost-effective method to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon increase¹. The costs of mitigating climate change by increasing ecosystem carbon relative to the baseline or business-as-usual scenario has...
Article
Full-text available
Published full-text version available (open access) via: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7032 The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds...
Article
We adopt a theory-based approach to synthesize research on the effectiveness of payments for environmental services in achieving environmental objectives and socio-economic co-benefits in varying contexts. Our theory of change builds on established conceptual models of impact pathways and highlights the role of (1) contextual dimensions (e.g., poli...
Article
The number of payments for environmental service schemes (PES) in low-income countries has grown more rapidly than in high-income countries. Yet, scarce funding among potential service buyers in low-income countries arguably makes it even more important to design PES cost-effectively. Tendering conservation contracts is one possible way to improve...
Article
PES could become an important tool for forest-based climate change mitigation under REDD+. But proper design of such incentive instruments requires prior knowledge about the variation of conservation opportunity costs among landowners and users. It is thus recommendable to compare and improve methods for assessing opportunity cost. We investigated...
Technical Report
Peran kunci hutan dalam mitigasi perubahan iklim, sebagaimana diakui perjanjian Paris, meningkatkan kebutuhan untuk mengembangkan dan menguji metode pemantauan dan evaluasi efektivitas karbon REDD+. Dalam satu dekade terakhir ini, ratusan inisiatif REDD+ subnasional muncul, dan memberi peluang untuk menguji coba dan membandingkan berbagai pendekata...
Article
Full-text available
Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socioeconomic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driv...
Article
Full-text available
The PLOS ONE Collection “Measuring forest conservation effectiveness” brings together a series of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of tropical forest conservation policies and programs with the goal of measuring conservation success and associated co-benefits. This overview piece describes the geographic and methodological scope of these stu...
Article
Tropical forest conservation is considered a low-cost option for climate change mitigation. But mitigation cost assessments have featured opportunity costs, neglecting policy implementation costs. Here we use official data to identify the Brazilian federal government’s operational and institutional budgets related to forest conservation policies im...
Article
Systematic comparisons of human dependence on forests and environmental resources have been challenging, as a result of heterogeneous methodologies. Specialized Forestry Modules have been developed, with the goal of filling current information gaps concerning the economic importance of forest and wild products in household welfare and rural livelih...
Article
SUMMARY Deforestation and forest degradation in the Peruvian Amazon represent a major threat to biodiversity-related ecosystem services and the global climate. In 2010, the Peruvian Ministry of Environment launched the National Forest Conservation Program for Climate Change Mitigation, an innovative approach to maintaining forest cover of over 54 m...
Article
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) has emerged as a promising climate change mitigation mechanism in developing countries. This paper examines the national political context in 13 REDD+ countries in order to identify the enabling conditions for achieving progress with the implementation of countries? REDD+ policies...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES) programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering pattern...
Data
Fitness to a canonical PES scheme composite indicator. (DOCX)
Data
Rotated component loadings from a two-dimensional CatPCA on 26 PES variables, with all variables analysed nominally excepted market composition and FitCanPES level. (DOCX)
Data
Pearson correlation levels and significance between the predictor variables of the bivariate additionality model. (DOCX)
Data
References used for the description of PES selected schemes. (DOCX)
Data
ANOVA and t-test means differences for payments amounts and size of PES programs, by sector and targeted ES. (DOCX)
Data
Collinearity analysis for the predictor variables of the bivariate additionality model. (DOCX)
Data
Logistic regression models with cut-off level set at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75. (DOCX)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the methods used, key results, and recommendations coming from the first of three rounds of field-based pilot-testing of a prototype forestry module and sourcebook. This first pilot was conducted in Indonesia; the others were carried out in Tanzania and Nepal. The forestry module and sourcebook were designed by a steering group...
Book
Full-text available
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has emerged as a promising climate change mitigation mechanism in tropical forest countries. A number of countries are now at different phases in the process of realizing REDD+, from policy design and technical readiness...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative research on household participation in the Payments for Environmental Services (PES) programme remains scarce. This paper aims to determine the key factors influencing household participation in a PES programme in Mozambique. Questionnaire-based quarterly surveys were conducted with 290 randomly selected households. We used the instrum...