Sven G. Bilén

Sven G. Bilén
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · School of Engineering Design, Technology, and Professional Programs

Ph.D., P.E.

About

269
Publications
64,957
Reads
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1,940
Citations
Citations since 2016
105 Research Items
1302 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
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Introduction
Sven G. Bilén is Prof. of Engineering Design, Electrical Engineering, and Aerospace Engineering at Penn State. He is a member of the EE Department’s Communications and Space Sciences Laboratory and also a member of the Center for Combustion, Power and Propulsion. He is the founding director of the Certificate in Space Systems Engineering and the Student Space Programs Lab. He directs the Systems Design Lab, which is focused on researching, designing, building, and fielding systems.
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - present
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Professor
August 2009 - March 2021
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Head of Department
July 2005 - June 2015
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
May 1993 - December 1998
University of Michigan
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering
August 1991 - May 1993
University of Michigan
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering
August 1987 - May 1991
Pennsylvania State University
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (269)
Conference Paper
Space presents an extreme environment for spacecraft materials and systems. For example, in the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) space environment, materials and structures are exposed to high vacuum (10^−4-10^−5 Pa), thermal cycling (−150 to 150 °C), ultraviolet light (100-200 nm), space radiation, potential surface impact from micrometeorites and orbital de...
Conference Paper
Geopolymer concrete has emerged as a promising material for constructing habitats, roads, landing pads, and other necessary infrastructure on the lunar surface. Proper in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) is an important aspect of any candidate lunar construction material. Geopolymer concrete is effective at ISRU, as the lunar regolith can be used i...
Article
Non-thermal plasma can provide an alternative to CO_2 utilization under mild conditions. Understanding the effect of plasma on catalysis is highly desired. Herein, a comparative study was performed on CO_2 hydrogenation under thermal-catalytic and plasma-catalytic conditions using an alumina-supported cobalt catalyst. Significant plasma-catalyst sy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effectively converting CO2 into valuable chemicals and fuels at low temperature and pressure is a challenge in catalysis due to high thermodynamic stability of CO2. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) enhanced catalysis may play an important role in addressing this challenge as recent studies have demonstrated its effectiveness, but studies of plasma-catalyst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on experiments conducted on a 30-GHz microwave electrothermal thruster, leveraging the design of a earlier thruster that did not achieve plasma ignition. With our current test setup, helium plasma was ignited at 30 GHz. Following this "first light", the objective was to minimize the input power required to initiate plasma via two interrel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Direct thrust measurements of a 17.8-GHz microwave electrothermal thruster along with optical emission spectroscopy of the exhaust plume and throat orifice diameter parameterization were investigated. Computational simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics were made to find the maximum field near the nozzle for optimum performance of the MET thruster....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ignition of a gaseous plasma in the diverging portion of a converging-diverging nozzle using a beam of continuous-wave microwave power is investigated as a means of producing thrust. The design of the supersonic nozzle capable of focusing microwaves in the diverging section is verified with cold flow tests. Preliminary vacuum tests at 30 GHz with t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The microwave electrothermal thruster is an electric propulsion device that heats its propellant by generating a microwave plasma within a cavity and then exhausting it through a converging-diverging nozzle. Understanding the properties of the plasma inside and ejected by the thruster will help to understand the mechanism of energy transfer in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Due to its significant contribution to the global climate, the high level of atmospheric CO_2 concentration is of global concern. To curb anthropogenic carbon emissions and sustainably utilize fossil fuels, converting CO_2 into more valuable chemicals and fuels is a promising approach. However, thermal catalytic conversion remains a ch...
Patent
Full-text available
Various aspects of the invention relate to methods and devices for treating diseases and conditions including atherosclerosis and endocarditis using low-temperature, non-equilibrium plasmas. A device may be, for example, a catheter that carries electrodes and a dielectric material for generating a localized, non-equilibrium plasma in a bodily fluid...
Conference Paper
Disruptive robotic construction technologies such as additive deposition of cementitious materials like concrete (or “3D concrete printing”) require the synchronous operation of multiple pieces of equipment in the production setup. In such an environment, it is crucial to simulate the robotic motions (for toolpath clashes) and the cementitious mate...
Article
Full-text available
This work explores additive manufacturing (AM) of concrete by using a six-axis robotic arm and its use in large-scale, autonomous concrete construction. Concrete AM uses an extrusion method to deposit concrete beads in layers to create a three-dimensional (3D) shape. This method has been found to have many uses and advantages in construction applic...
Article
Full-text available
The geoPebble system is a network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with geophysical sensing capabilities for the study of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as mountain glaciers. We describe our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of-the art units using commercial-off-the-shelf hardw...
Article
No âmbito da Indústria 4.0, é proposto um sistema para potenciar a articulação da Realidade Aumentada com a Manufatura Robotizada na indústria da construção. O objetivo deste sistema é permitir que robôs aprendam a realizar tarefas através da interação direta com operadores humanos. Num primeiro passo, estabeleceu-se uma conexão entre um robô e seu...
Conference Paper
Ever-increasing emission of CO2, which is a main contributor to global climate change, has aroused great concerns worldwide. Effectively converting CO2 into fuels and value-added chemicals represents an important approach for mitigating carbon emissions, yet remains a challenge in catalysis due to the high thermal stabliity of the CO2 molecule. Non...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining hand hygiene has been an essential preventive measure for reducing disease transmission in public facilities, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The large number of sanitizer stations deployed within public facilities, such as on university campuses, brings challenges for effective facility management. This paper proposes an IoT...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
NASA's Deep Space Network supports the communications to and from spacecraft, rovers, and landers across our solar system and beyond. The weekly tracking requirements for these spacecraft are scheduled by mission representatives at least eight weeks before the start of the track through a combination of automated algorithms and peer-to-peer negotia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autonomous construction, assembly, and 3D printing of concrete are promising technologies for building structures in the near-term on Earth and longer-term in extra-terrestrial environments like Mars. However, such technologies require design professionals to optimize the building design for constructability constraints imposed by the 3D printing s...
Article
Full-text available
Many sensor systems, such as distributed wireless sensor arrays, require high-accuracy timing while maintaining low power consumption. Although the capabilities of chip-scale atomic clocks have advanced significantly, their cost continues to be prohibitive for many applications. GPS signals are commonly used to discipline local oscillators in order...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter illustrates a novel framework combining building information model (BIM) and various artificial intelligence techniques developed as part of The Pennsylvania State University’s participation in NASA’s 3D-Printed Mars Habitat Centennial Challenge. It encompasses a parametric algorithm for generating design alternatives and a common BIM-...
Article
Full-text available
Construction workers executing manual-intensive tasks are susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to overexposure to awkward postures. Automated posture recognition and assessment based on wearable sensor output can help reduce MSDs risks through early risk-factor detection. However, extant studies mainly focus on optimizing recognition...
Article
Effectively converting CO2 into fuels and value-added chemicals remains a major challenge in catalysis, especially under mild conditions. In this study, we report a one-step non-thermal plasma-enabled catalytic process for CO2 hydrogenation to C2+ hydrocarbons at low temperature and atmospheric pressure in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) packe...
Article
An introduction to development efforts for cementitious materials that are compatible with 3D printing, including cement-based and geopolymer-based binders, as well as functionally graded materials.
Article
Complex processes take place when coupling nonthermal plasma with heterogenous catalysis, obscuring mechanistic understanding of the plasma–catalysis synergy. Simultaneous homogenous plasma-phase reactions and heterogenous surface catalytic reactions occur in the system, which makes distinguishing the plasma’s contributions very challenging. In thi...
Article
This Special Section of Acta Astronautica contains peer-reviewed papers selected from the contributions of the participants at the Sixth International Conference on Tethers in Space (TiS 2019), held June 12–14, 2019 at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Spain. TiS 2019 provided continuity to TiS 2016, which was held at The University of Michi...
Conference Paper
In the scope of Industry 4.0, a framework is proposed to leverage the potential of articulating Augmented Reality and Robotic Manufacturing in the construction industry. The objective of such framework is to enable robots to learn how to perform tasks using direct interaction with human operators. As a first step, we established a connection betwee...
Article
Herein, we report low-temperature sulfur dioxide (SO2) reduction to elemental sulfur via coupling nonthermal plasma (NTP) with supported transition metal sulfide catalysts in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The transition metals include Mo, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Combining NTP with supported metal sulfide catalysts significantly prom...
Conference Paper
EDSGN 100 is the cornerstone engineering design course at The Pennsylvania State University. During the second half of the spring 2020 semester, students across 19 sections of the course were presented with the same design prompt: how can you improve sustainability at Penn State and in the local communities? Throughout the course of the project, s...
Article
Coal mine wire rope detection is related to personnel and production safety. With the Chinese coal mining trend tending towards deep mining, a considerable amount of data is critical for the online detection of deep well lifting wire rope. To improve the sampling rate, decrease the analysis processing time and realise real-time online detection, th...
Article
Full-text available
Printed circuit boards, chemical etching, and computer numerical control milling currently dominate industrial processes for manufacturing microwave components. However, these manufacturing methods do not provide the flexibility for customization possible with additive manufacturing. Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to fabricate microw...
Article
Plasma medicine is a rapidly expanding field that utilizes non-equilibrium plasma discharges at atmospheric conditions or in liquids for clinical applications. There is significant interest in the production of plasma in the liquid phase for wastewater treatment, agricultural applications, and medical purposes. However, little investigation has bee...
Chapter
In the past few years, the adaptation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for the building industry has reached new levels of sophistication, triggering design and development of novel 3D-printable materials and material interfaces; inspiring innovative architectural details; rethinking of material-specific printing systems; and enabling si...
Article
Space seems empty and therefore the perfect environment for radio communications. Don't let that fool you: There's still plenty that can disrupt radio communications. Earth's fluctuating ionosphere can impair a link between a satellite and a ground station. The materials of the antenna can be distorted as it heats and cools. And the near-vacuum of...
Article
Full-text available
3D-printing of cementitious materials is an innovative construction approach where building elements can be constructed without the use of formwork. Despite potential benefits in the construction industry, it introduces various engineering challenges from the material point of view. This paper reviews the properties of extrusion-based 3D-printed ce...
Article
In many sonar applications, there is a need to detect boundaries, such as sea bottom, sea surface, or ice sheets. The maximum operating range for those applications can be limited by the minimum required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at which the detection algorithms can operate with high enough fidelity. We propose two bottom detection methods that...
Article
The low-temperature conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to elemental sulfur in a single catalytic step remains elusive. Here we report a one-step, low-temperature, plasma-enhanced catalytic process for direct SO2 reduction to elemental sulfur in a die-lectric barrier discharge (DBD) packed bed reactor. Coupling non-thermal plasma with supported iron...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of buildings to be additively constructed using robots requires a paradigm shift during the design process. Using industrial robots to 3D print concrete structures imposes constraints on geometries that can be feasibly 3D printed. It is essential to consider the feasibility of 3D printing any geometrical structure during early stages of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since 3D printing of structures is expected to reduce construction time, material, cost, and energy, the building industry has come to realize the relevance and importance of digital design and additive construction, signaling a foothold in that regard and paving the way for much-needed advancement in the construction industry. Furthermore, the aut...
Article
Full-text available
Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance calls for development of non-chemical treatment options for bacterial infections. Plasma medicine applies low-temperature plasma (LTP) physics to address biomedical problems such as wound healing and tumor suppression. LTP has also been used for surface disinfection. However, there is still much to be l...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the working condition of low-voltage cabling from the mining flameproof movable substation to the loads of the mining face being poor, it is easy to cause various external mechanical damages to the cable sheaths. Furthermore, a single-phase earth leakage fault or short-circuit fault can occur when the low-voltage cable sheaths are damaged, a...
Article
Ignition and combustion of ~20 μm diameter aluminum powder was achieved with a helium–steam-based 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch as a proof of concept due to interest in utilizing aluminum powder as a fuel source for power generation given the material’s high energy density. Optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma in air, with steam-entrainmen...
Presentation
Full-text available
Layer-by-layer construction of concrete through additive manufacturing allows for greater design freedom and safety in concrete construction compared to conventional casting methods. This has led researchers to pursue a variety of potential system solutions and materials that enable the creation of architectural-scale additively-manufactured concre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The feasibility of using ammonia as a propellant in a 17.8-GHz microwave electrothermal thruster is investigated. Microwave electrothermal thrusters are a type of electric propulsion that use microwave energy to heat a gaseous propellant to plasma temperatures followed by a nozzle expansion, thus generating thrust. Microwave electrothermal thruster...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a novel design and implementation of a software-defined high-frequency ionospheric radar, the Penn State Ionospheric Radar Imager (PIRI), is described. Furthermore, preliminary results produced by the system (located at 40.71 N, 77.97 W) are presented. PIRI is designed to be a modest and low-cost radar system, which is composed mostl...
Article
The testing of wire rope is vital in ensuring personnel safety during coal mine production. At present, it has proven difficult to successfully pre-treat wire rope detection signals, leading to recognition errors and other issues. To this end, this paper details a proposed application of the morphological non-sampling wavelet method to the online d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Layer-by-layer construction of concrete through additive manufacturing allows for greater design freedom in concrete construction compared to conventional casting methods. This has led researchers to pursue a variety of potential system solutions to the enable the creation of architectural-scale additively-manufactured concrete structures. One of t...
Article
We developed a variable-output-aperture, laboratory plasma source to enable real-time plasma density control with minimal effect on other plasma properties. The source is capable of producing a low-Earth-orbit-type plasma with electron energies of approximately 0.1-0.7 eV and streaming ion energies of approximately 2-4 eV. The plasma density can be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction to Engineering Design (EDSGN 100) is a first-year “cornerstone” engineering design course taught to over 3600 students annually across 20 Penn State campuses. EDSGN 100 is a hands-on, project-based course in which students work in teams to apply an engineering design process to a variety of instructor-led and client-sponsored design pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The G-CHASER Student Rocket provided an opportunity for engineering and science students to participate in an international research campaign to study the cusp of Earth's magnetic field. The broader campaign, dubbed Grand Challenge Initiative-CUSP Project (GCI), consists of twelve scientific rockets from Norway, USA, and Japan that are being launch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a concept for a CubeSat-scale payload to demonstrate electrodynamic-tether (EDT) energy harvesting. Although power generation has occurred on flown EDT systems, this power has not been stored for later use nor for immediate use in spacecraft systems external to the EDT system itself. The proposed Energy Harvesting Demonstration Module (E...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Miniature Tether Electrodynamic Experiment (MiTEE-1) is the first of two student CubeSat missions at the University of Michigan focused on demonstrating electrodynamic tether (EDT) propulsion for ultra-small satellites in the picosatellite (100 g-1 kg) and femtosatellite (<100 g) classes [1]. MiTEE-1 is scheduled to fly in 2019 on NASA's ELaNA-...
Preprint
Existing methods for detecting magnetic leakage signals from damaged wire ropes require axial saturation magnetisation, and the accuracy of the detection equipment depends on the saturation degree of magnetisation. Moreover, the expected magnetisation effect is usually difficult to achieve owing to the special characteristics of the rope structure,...
Conference Paper
Creation of the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) plasma environment in ground-based vacuum facilities is important for studies that attempt to determine spacecraft material and hardware interactions with the constituents of the ionosphere at the relative velocities that spacecraft encounter this environment. A particularly effective technique for creating LEO...
Article
The analysis and optimization of satellite coverage statistics have been ongoing for several decades. Designing an orbit or a constellation of orbits to meet specific coverage statistics (such as the mean pass duration, mean passes per day, and maximum gap time) can help maximize coverage time and meet mission goals for ground-based assets. In the...
Article
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of defining and developing the future space and ground architecture for the coming decades to return science and exploration discovery data back to investigators on Earth. Optimizing the data return from these missions requires planning, design, standards, and operations coord...
Conference Paper
This study demonstrates the merits of coupling non-thermal plasma (NTP) with supported metal sulfide catalysts for SO2 reduction using CH4 and H2 in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Similarly, SO2 reaction with CO2 was examined. Different metal sulfides (Cr, Mo, Fe, Co, Ni) supported on Al2O3 were investigated. Catalysts showed no acti...
Article
Polar research using ice-penetrating radars will benefit from the development of smaller and more flexible systems. In this paper, we present the development progression for a series of compact and frequency-reconfigurable ice-penetrating radars based on software-defined radio (SDR) technology and platforms. The Ice Radar series we developed consis...
Article
The safety inspection of wire ropes is vital to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. The detection of magnetic flux leakage is one of the most practical methods for evaluating the safety of wire ropes. However, compressing the data for this method has to date proven to be difficult. In this study, the lossless compression approach is adopt...
Article
The liquid-phase behavior induced by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging onto water-based solutions was experimentally investigated. An increase in cavity size and circulation size resulting from an increase in impact force of the plasma jet with respect to a helium gas jet were observed through particle image velocimetry and cavity measur...
Article
Cognitive algorithms for communications systems have been presented in literature, but very few have been integrated into a fielded system, especially space communications systems. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a multi-objective reinforcement-learning algorithm using deep artificial neural networks acting as a radio-resource-allo...
Article
Based on intuitive reasoning and a simple mathematical model, it is shown that the radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in 1-2-MHz range is generated during the propagation of a directed strong shock wave in air. It is due to the radiation from free electrons (which are produced by the shock wave) in the magnetic field of the earth. The possib...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital fabrication of cementitious materials presents great potential to the future of modern construction and the research on this topic has been growing exponentially. This new technology has several benefits over the conventional method of concrete placement, including quick construction of any free-form and customized components, with lower la...
Conference Paper
Full-text available