Sven Bacher

Sven Bacher
Université de Fribourg · Department Biology

Prof. (titular) Dr.

About

207
Publications
124,677
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
I am an applied ecologist with a strong interest in invasion biology, biological control, and nature conservation. The central questions of my research are "When are populations regulated?" and "What are the conditions under which populations escape such regulation?". These questions are not only relevant for advancing our understanding of many ecological processes, but also have a huge application potential.
Additional affiliations
September 2007 - present
Université de Fribourg
Position
  • Research group leader, titular professor
Description
  • I am an applied ecologist with a strong interest in biological control, invasion biology and nature conservation.
June 1996 - August 2007
Universität Bern
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 1991 - May 1993
Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International
Position
  • Research Entomologist

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are ex...
Article
For an efficient allocation of the limited resources to alien species management, the most damaging species should be prioritized. Comparing alien species based on their impacts is not straightforward, as the same species can cause different types and magnitudes of impacts when introduced to different contexts, making it difficult to summarize its...
Book
Full-text available
This document presents the IUCN Standard for classifying alien species in terms of their environmental impact; the IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) Categories and Criteria: First edition (the same as Version 3.3 adopted by IUCN Council). To ensure full understanding of the application of EICAT, it is very important to...
Article
Full-text available
Cover crops in vineyards do provide many important ecosystem functions, however wine growers are often reluctant to incorporate cover crops into their vineyard management as they are concerned about competition regarding water and nutrient availability. The objective of this study was to define the effects of three standard inter-row vegetation man...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic environmental modifications such as climate or land‐use change are causing species to move on their own beyond their native ranges. As this phenomenon will increase in the near future, it is crucial to determine whether range‐expanding species, or neonatives, are more or less likely than native and alien species to impact their recipi...
Article
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Healthy soils form the basis of sustainable viticulture, where soil characteristics have a direct impact on wine quantity and quality. Soil not only provides water and nutrients to vines, but is also a living medium containing micro- and macroorganisms that perform many ecological functions and provide ecosystem services. These organisms are involv...
Article
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Management of agricultural soil quality requires fast and cost-efficient methods to identify multiple stressors that can affect soil organisms and associated ecological processes. Here, we propose to use soil protists which have a great yet poorly explored potential for bioindication. They are ubiquitous, highly diverse, and respond to various stre...
Article
Approaches, values and perceptions in invasion science are highly dynamic, and like in other disciplines, views among different people can be somewhat divergent. This has led to debate in the field specifically surrounding the core themes relating to values, management, impacts, and terminology. Considering these debates, we surveyed the views of 6...
Article
Full-text available
The prioritization of alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts has become increasingly important for the management of invasive alien species. In this study, we applied the Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT) to classify alien taxa from three different taxonomic groups to facilitate the prioritis...
Article
Full-text available
Wireworms, the larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), can cause substantial losses in marketable yield of potatoes, yet control options are limited. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales) isolate ART2825 is highly virulent against two of the most detrimental wireworm species, Agriotes obscurus L. and A...
Article
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Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, currently existing global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. Here, we use a novel participatory process to develop a diverse...
Book
Full-text available
Fit for the Future. In the last two years, the Department of Biology continued its path of consolidation, removing the last administrative remains of the former “units”. We now have a uniform hierarchy, established minimally structured working groups that deal with diverse organizational tasks, and streamlined administration that gives us more fle...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The successful implementation of a plant protection product depends on its effectiveness against a target species and its safety for the environment. Risk assessment schemes have therefore been devised to facilitate classification and regulation. These guidelines, however, are directed towards chemical substances and are in many cases less...
Article
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1. Interactions between plants can be beneficial, detrimental or neutral. In agricultural systems competition between crop and spontaneous vegetation is a major concern. We evaluated the relative support for three non-exclusive ecological hypotheses about interactions between crop and spontaneous plants based on competition, complementarity or faci...
Article
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One key hypothesis explaining the fate of exotic species introductions posits that the establishment of a self-sustaining population in the invaded range can only succeed within conditions matching the native climatic niche. Yet, this hypothesis remains untested for individual release events. Using a dataset of 979 introductions of 173 mammal speci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, current global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. We used a novel participatory process to develop a diverse set of global b...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien species (IAS) are known to be a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function and there is increasing evidence of their impacts on human health and economies globally. We undertook horizon scanning using expert-elicitation to predict arrivals of IAS that could have adverse human health or economic impacts on the island of Cypru...
Article
Full-text available
The Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) and the Socio-Economic Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (SEICAT) have been proposed to provide unified methods for classifying alien species according to their magnitude of impacts. EICAT and SEICAT (herein “ICAT” when refered together) were designed to facilitate the comparison betw...
Article
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Macroecology is the study of patterns, and the processes that determine those patterns, in the distribution and abundance of organisms at large scales, whether they be spatial (from hundreds of kilometres to global), temporal (from decades to centuries), and organismal (numbers of species or higher taxa). In the context of invasion ecology, macroec...
Article
Full-text available
The Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) classifies the impacts caused by alien species in their introduced range in standardised terms across taxa and recipient environments. Impacts are classified into one of five levels of severity, from Minimal Concern to Massive, via one of 12 impact mechanisms. Here, we explain revisions...
Article
Full-text available
The Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) can be used to classify alien taxa according to the magnitude and type of their environmental impacts. The EICAT protocol, classifications of alien taxa using the protocol (EICAT classification) and the data underpinning classifications (EICAT data) are increasingly used by scientists a...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding and management of biological invasions relies on our ability to classify and conceptualise the phenomenon. This need has stimulated the development of a plethora of frameworks, ranging in nature from conceptual to applied. However, most of these frameworks have not been widely tested and their general applicability is unknown. In...
Article
Full-text available
We use a recently proposed framework, the SocioEconomic Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (SEI-CAT) to undertake the first global assessment of the impacts of alien birds on human well-being. A review of the published literature and online resources was undertaken to collate information on the reported socioeconomic impacts of 415 bird species w...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive literature is available on the diversity and magnitude of impacts that alien species cause on recipient systems. Alien species may decrease or increase attributes of ecosystems (e.g. total biomass or species diversity), thus causing negative and positive environmental impacts. Alien species may also negatively or positively impact attribu...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions have steadily increased over recent centuries. However, we still lack a clear expectation about future trends in alien species numbers. In particular, we do not know whether alien species will continue to accumulate in regional floras and faunas, or whether the pace of accumulation will decrease due to the depletion of native s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Why do some alien species introductions fail while others are successful? One key hypothesis is that in order for a species to invade a new range, it must initially establish successfully in conditions within its native climatic niche (NCN). Yet, this hypothesis has largely remained untested at the level of individual release events. Using a datase...
Article
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In an era of profound biodiversity crisis, invasion costs, invader impacts, and human agency should not be dismissed.
Article
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Understanding the likely future impacts of biological invasions is crucial yet highly challenging given the multiple relevant environmental, socio‐economic and societal contexts and drivers. In the absence of quantitative models, methods based on expert knowledge are the best option for assessing future invasion trajectories. Here, we present an ex...
Article
Full-text available
Two contradictory hypotheses have been put forth to forecast alien invasiveness: being either functionally similar, or dissimilar, to resident natives along environmental gradients. The 'try-harder' hypothesis predicts that alien plants will be functionally dissimilar to natives and should thus exhibit exaggerated trait values when compared to nati...
Article
Full-text available
Our ability to predict invasions has been hindered by the seemingly idiosyncratic context-dependency of individual invasions. However, we argue that robust and useful generalisations in invasion science can be made by considering “invasion syndromes” which we define as “a combination of pathways, alien species traits, and characteristics of the rec...
Article
Two contradictory hypotheses have been put forth to forecast alien invasiveness: being either functionally similar, or dissimilar, to resident natives along environmental gradients. The ‘try-harder’ hypothesis predicts that alien plants will be functionally dissimilar to natives and should thus exhibit exaggerated trait values when compared to nati...
Article
According to the most recent (2005) compendium on the history of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in New Zealand, this small insectivorous mammal was first brought from Europe to the South Island in the 19th century. This introduction has been presumed to be the source of hedgehogs that subsequently spread to the North Island. This view...
Article
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Distributed environmental research infrastructures are important to support assessments of the effects of global change on landscapes, ecosystems and society. These infrastructures need to provide continuity to address long-term change, yet be flexible enough to respond to rapid societal and technological developments that modify research prioritie...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive Alien Species (IAS) are amongst the most significant drivers of species extinction and ecosystem degradation, causing negative impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. InvasiBES, a project funded by BiodivERsA-Belmont Forum for 2019–2021, will use data and models across scales, habitats and species to understand and anticipate t...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen beetles (Brassicogethes spp.) are a major pest in colza (Brassica napus L., also known as oilseed rape) and show increasing resistance to commonly used insecticides. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) such as Beauveria bassiana have potential as a sustainable alternative means of control. However, field applications of fungal spores targeting the...
Article
For many species, human-induced environmental changes are important indirect drivers of range expansion into new regions. We argue that it is important to distinguish the range dynamics of such species from those that occur without, or with less clear, involvement of human-induced environmental changes. We elucidate the salient features of the rapi...
Poster
Full-text available
Invasive alien vertebrates represent ongoing threats to global biodiversity through a variety of impact mechanisms. Measures to counteract invasive alien species (IAS) such as trade restrictions, border controls, rapid response or control rely heavily on listings of high impact IAS. To provide a sound evidence base to such listings is key to effect...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Anticipating future challenges. The Department of Biology has changed greatly during these last years, notably in the disappearance of the former “units” to form a more flexible and hierarchically uniform structure, the reorganization of the administrative and technical staff, the establishment of platforms in bioinformatics, bioimaging, and proteo...
Article
Full-text available
Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89...
Article
Full-text available
Bt cotton was genetically modified to produce insecticidal proteins targeting Lepidopteran pests and is therefore only minimally affected by caterpillar damage. This could lead to reduced levels of inherent, systemically inducible defensive compounds in Bt cotton which might benefit other important cotton herbivores such as plant bugs. We studied t...
Article
Full-text available
The European Union (EU) has recently published its first list of invasive alien species (IAS) of EU concern to which current legislation must apply. The list comprises species known to pose great threats to biodiversity and needs to be maintained and updated. Horizon scanning is seen as critical to identify the most threatening potential IAS that d...
Article
Full-text available
There is no sign of saturation in accumulation of alien species (AS) introductions worldwide, additionally the rate of spread for some species has also been shown to be increasing. However, the challenges of gathering information on AS are recognized. Recent developments in citizen science (CS) provide an opportunity to improve data flow and knowle...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Solar radiation is assumed to be a major factor limiting the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi used as biocontrol agents in open field applications. We evaluated 12 natural UV‐protective co‐formulants for their effect on the survival of UV exposed Beauveria bassiana spores on agar plates, colza leaf discs, and in the field. RESULTS CFU...
Article
Human activities such as the transport of species to new regions and modifications of the environment are increasingly reshaping the distribution of biota. Accordingly, developing robust, repeatable, and consistent definitions of alien species that serve scientific and policy purposes has become of prime importance. We provide a set of classificati...
Article
Full-text available
“One hundred worst” lists of alien species of the greatest concern proved useful for raising awareness of the risks and impacts of biological invasions amongst the general public, politicians and stakeholders. All lists so far have been based on expert opinion and primarily aimed at representativeness of the taxonomic and habitat diversity rather t...
Article
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Abstarct Unfortunately, the following names of plant species in Table 1 were spelled incorrectly.
Article
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The assessment of impacts of alien species is one of the most critical steps for the prioritisation of policy and management actions and this requires assessment schemes that can compare impacts across different taxa, ecosystems and socio-economic contexts. The Environmental and Socio-Economic Impact Classification of Alien Species (EICAT and SEICA...
Article
Invasive Australian acacias can alter soil chemistry and microbial communities in areas they invade. After clearing invasive acacias, these changes can persist, and previously invaded areas can become dominated by nitrophilic weedy species. Restoration of viable native plant communities in cleared sites often fails due to a lack of native species r...
Article
Full-text available
Our ability to predict the identity of future invasive alien species is largely based upon knowledge of prior invasion history. Emerging alien species-those never encountered as aliens before-therefore pose a significant challenge to biosecurity interventions worldwide. Understanding their temporal trends, origins, and the drivers of their spread i...
Article
1. Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis fo...
Article
Full-text available
The Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is one of the most dangerous xylophagous pests affecting broadleaf trees in the world. Eradication programmes are undertaken in non-native regions, requiring extensive resources and involving high costs. An adapted strategy must be set up to optimize the r...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are a threat to biodiversity, society and the economy. There is an urgent need to provide evidence-based assessments of the risks posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to prioritise action. Risk assessments underpin IAS policies in many ways: informing legislation; providing justification of restrictions in trade or consumer ac...
Chapter
Klassifikationsversuche für Großlebensräume der Erde verbinden in der Regel Klimaparameter mit der Struktur der natürlichen Vegetation, die durch die vorherrschenden Lebensformen definiert wird (S. 184). Als Klimakenngrößen gelten der mittlere Jahresniederschlag und die mittlere Jahrestemperatur. In Abbildung 6.1 sind beispielsweise Tundren durch d...
Chapter
Unter einer Lebensgemeinschaft (Biozönose, community) versteht man alle Organismen (von Bakterien bis hin zu Säugetieren), die in einem abgegrenzten Gebiet (Biotop) gemeinsam vorkommen und dort in Wechselwirkung treten können. Der Begriff Biotop beinhaltet alle abiotischen Umweltfaktoren, die auf eine Lebensgemeinschaft einwirken. In der Geobotanik...
Chapter
An vielen Stellen der Welt wurden vor über 10 000 Jahren unabhängig voneinander in günstigen Lagen landwirtschaftliche Systeme entwickelt. Gute Böden in Tallagen von Flusssystemen erlaubten den Anbau von Pflanzen, aus denen im Laufe der Generationen Kulturpflanzen gezüchtet wurden. Gleichzeitig entwickelten sich durch diese erzwungene Sesshaftigkei...