Svein Kleiven

Svein Kleiven
KTH Royal Institute of Technology | KTH · School of Technology and Health (STH)

About

149
Publications
49,113
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4,501
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Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
Head acceleration measurement sensors are now widely deployed in the field to monitor head kinematic exposure in contact sports. The wealth of impact kinematics data provides valuable, yet challenging, opportunities to study the biomechanical basis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and subconcussive kinematic exposure. Head impact kinematics ar...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Vulnerable Road Users (VRU), including pedestrians and cyclists, are generally the least protected road users and are frequently missed in the planning process of preventive measures. Rubberized asphalt mixtures were originally developed as a possible environmentally friendly solution to recycle the End-of-Life Tires while making the pa...
Article
Full-text available
Hippocampal injury is common in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, but the underlying pathogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we hypothesize that the presence of the adjacent fluid-containing temporal horn exacerbates the biomechanical vulnerability of the hippocampus. Two finite element models of the human head were used to investigate th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an alarming global public health issue with high morbidity and mortality rates. Although the causal link between external insults and consequent brain injury remains largely elusive, both strain and strain rate are generally recognized as crucial factors for brain injury development. With respect to the flourishment...
Article
Finite element head models are a tool to better understand brain injury mechanisms. Many of the models use strain as output but with different percentile values such as 100th, 95th, 90th, and 50th percentiles. Some use the element value, whereas other use the nodal average value for the element. Little is known how strain post-processing is affecti...
Preprint
Hippocampal injury is common in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, but the underlying pathogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we hypothesize that the presence of the adjacent fluid-containing temporal horn exacerbates the biomechanical vulnerability of the hippocampus. Two finite element models of the human head were used to investigate th...
Article
Full-text available
Finite element (FE) models of the human head are valuable instruments to explore the mechanobiological pathway from external loading, localized brain response, and resultant injury risks. The injury predictability of these models depends on the use of effective criteria as injury predictors. The FE-derived normal deformation along white matter (WM)...
Article
Repeated head impact exposure and concussions are common in American football. Identifying the factors associated with high magnitude impacts aids in informing sport policy changes, improvements to protective equipment, and better understanding of the brain’s response to mechanical loading. Recently, the Stanford Instrumented Mouthguard (MiG2.0) ha...
Article
Full-text available
Background Hyperosmotic therapy is a mainstay treatment for cerebral edema. Although often effective, its disadvantages include mainly acting on the normal brain region with limited effectiveness in eliminating excess fluid in the edema region. This study investigates how to configure our previously proposed novel electroosmosis based edema treatme...
Preprint
Full-text available
Concussion and repeated exposure to mild traumatic brain injury are risks for athletes in many sports. While direct head impacts are analyzed to improve the detection and awareness of head acceleration events so that an athlete's brain health can be appropriately monitored and treated. However, head accelerations can also be induced by impacts with...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment of cerebral edema remains a major challenge in clinical practice and new innovative therapies are needed. This study presents a novel approach for mitigating cerebral edema by inducing bulk fluid transport utilizing the brain's electroosmotic property using an anatomically detailed finite element head model incorporating anisotropy in the...
Preprint
Finite element head models are a tool to better understand brain injury mechanisms. Many of the models use strain as output but with different percentile values such as 100 th , 95 th , 90 th , and 50 th percentiles. Some use the element value, whereas other use the nodal average value for the element. Little is known how strain post-processing is...
Article
Full-text available
Around half of the traumatic brain injuries are thought to be axonal damage. Disruption of the cellular membranes, or alternatively cytoskeletal damage has been suggested as possible injury trigger. Here, we have used molecular models to have a better insight on the structural and mechanical properties of axon sub-cellular components. We modelled m...
Article
Full-text available
Sports concussion is a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by an impulsive force transmitted to the head. While concussion is recognized as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain at multiple scales, the causal link between external load and cellular, molecular level damage in mTBI remains elusive. The present study p...
Preprint
Finite element (FE) models of the human head are valuable instruments to explore the mechanobiological pathway from external loading, localized brain response, and resultant injury risks. The injury predictability of these models depends on the use of effective criteria as injury predictors. The FE-derived normal deformation along white matter (WM)...
Article
Full-text available
Finite element head (FE) models are important numerical tools to study head injuries and develop protection systems. The generation of anatomically accurate and subject-specific head models with conforming hexahedral meshes remains a significant challenge. The focus of this study is to present two developmental works: first, an anatomically detaile...
Article
Full-text available
Bicycle helmets are shown to offer protection against head injuries. Rating methods and test standards are used to evaluate different helmet designs and safety performance. Both strain-based injury criteria obtained from finite element brain injury models and metrics derived from global kinematic responses can be used to evaluate helmet safety perf...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a critical public health issue with its pathogenesis remaining largely elusive. Finite element (FE) head models are promising tools to bridge the gap between mechanical insult, localized brain response, and resultant injury. In particular, the FE-derived deformation along the direction of white matter (WM) tracts (i...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Cerebral edema characterized as an abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid has not been treated effectively. We propose a novel edema treatment approach to drive edematous fluid out of the brain by direct current utilizing brain tissue's electroosmotic property. Methods: A finite element (FE) head model is developed and employed t...
Preprint
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a critical public health issue with its pathogenesis remaining largely elusive. Finite element (FE) head models are promising tools to bridge the gap between mechanical insult and localized brain response and resultant injury. In particular, the FE-derived deformation along the direction of white matter (WM) tracts...
Preprint
Full-text available
Finite element head (FE) models are important numerical tools to study head injuries and develop protection systems. The generation of anatomically accurate and subject-specific head models with conforming hexahedral meshes remains a significant challenge. The focus of this study is to present two developmental work: First, an anatomically detailed...
Article
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) in the elderly is currently a matter of concern due to the growing number of the aging population and their higher incident rate compared to the younger adults. Computational head models that can replicate this age-related injury pattern are valuable tools to help addressing this concern. Although a biofidelic brain-s...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With almost 50% of traumatic brain injuries being related to axonal damage, understanding the nature of cellular level impairment is crucial. Experimental observations have so far led to the formulation of conflicting theories regarding the cellular primary injury me...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Brain strain secondary to head impact or inertial loading is closely associated with pathologic observations in the brain. The only experimental brain strain dataset under loadings close to traumatic levels was calculated by imposing the experimentally measured motion of markers embedded in the brain to an auxiliary model formed by triad elements (...
Article
Full-text available
Periventricular injury is frequently noted as one aspect of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the presence of ventricles has been hypothesized to be a primary pathogenesis associated with the prevalence of periventricular injury in TBI victims. Although substantial endeavors have been made to elucidate the potential mechanism, a thorough expl...
Article
Full-text available
Brain strain secondary to head impact or inertial loading is closely associated with pathologic observations in the brain. The only experimental brain strain dataset under loadings close to traumatic levels was calculated by imposing the experimentally measured motion of markers embedded in the brain to an auxiliary model formed by triad elements (...
Preprint
Traumatic brain injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With almost 50% of traumatic brain injuries being related to axonal damage, understanding the nature of cellular level impairment is crucial. Experimental observations have so far led to the formulation of conflicting theories regarding the cellular primary injury me...
Article
Diffuse axonal injury is the pathological consequence of traumatic brain injury that most of all requires a multiscale approach in order to be, first, understood and then possibly prevented. While in fact the mechanical insult usually happens at the head (or macro) level, the consequences affect structures at the cellular (or micro level). The ques...
Article
Joint 12th EBSA European Biophysics Congress / 10th IUPAP International Conference on Biological Physics (ICBP), JUL 20-24, 2019, Madrid, SPAIN
Article
Full-text available
To understand traumas to the nervous system, the relation between mechanical load and functional impairment needs to be explained. Cellular-level computational models are being used to capture the mechanism behind mechanically-induced injuries and possibly predict these events. However, uncertainties in the material properties used in computational...
Article
Full-text available
The integrity of cellular membranes is critical for the functionality of axons. Failure of the axonal membranes (plasma membrane and/or myelin sheath) can be the origin of neurological diseases. The two membranes differ in the content of sphingomyelin and galactosylceramide lipids. We investigate the relation between lipid content and bilayer struc...
Article
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is one of the most frequent traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) with high mortality rate. Bridging vein (BV) ruptures is a major cause of ASDH. The KTH finite element head model includes bridging veins to predict acute subdural hematoma due to BV rupture. In this model, BVs were positioned according to Oka et al. (1985)....
Article
Playgrounds surface test standards have been introduced to reduce the number of fatal and severe injuries. However, these test standards have several simplifications to make it practical, robust and cost-effective, such as the head is represented with a hemisphere, only the linear kinematics is evaluated and the body is excluded. Little is known ab...
Article
Full-text available
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) due to bridging vein (BV) rupture is a frequent and lethal head injury, especially in the elderly. Brain atrophy has been hypothesized to be a primary pathogenesis associated with the increased risk of ASDH in the elderly. Though decades of biomechanical endeavours have been made to elucidate the potential mechanisms,...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability and mortality. Finite element-based head models are promising tools for enhanced head injury prediction, mitigation and prevention. The reliability of such models depends heavily on adequate representation of the brain–skull interaction. Nevertheless, the brain–skull interface has been largely...
Article
Full-text available
Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is considered by some authors to be a leading cause of traumatic death in children less than two years of age and skull fractures are commonly seen in cases of suspected AHT. Today, diagnosing whether the observed fractures are caused by abuse or accidental fall is still a challenge within both the medical and the legal co...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Playground-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children remain a considerable problem world-wide and current safety standards are being questioned due to historical reasons where the injury thresholds had been perpetuated from automobile industry. Here we investigated head injury mechanisms due to falls on playgrounds using a previo...
Article
Full-text available
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) occurs as a result of the transmission of rapid dynamic loads from the head to the brain and specifically to its neurons. Despite being one of the most common and most deleterious types of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the inherent cell injury mechanism is yet to be understood. Experimental observations have led to the f...
Article
Nowadays crash helmets are tested by dropping a free or unrestrained headform in Europe but a guided or restrained headform in the United States. It remains unclear whether the free fall and the guided fall produce similar impact kinematics that cause head injury. A finite element helmet model is developed and compared with experimental tests. The r...
Article
Although concussion is one of the greatest health challenges today, our physical understanding of the cause of injury is limited. In this Letter, we simulated football head impacts in a finite element model and extracted the most dominant modal behavior of the brain’s deformation. We showed that the brain’s deformation is most sensitive in low freq...
Article
Finite element (FE) models are a powerful tool that can be used to understand injury mechanisms and develop better safety systems. This study aims to extend the understanding of pediatric spine biomechanics, where there is a paucity of studies available. A newly developed and continuously scalable FE model was validated and scaled to 1.5-, 3-, 6-,...
Article
Full-text available
Human body models (HBMs) have the potential to provide significant insights into the pediatric response to impact. This study describes a scalable/posable approach to perform child accident reconstructions using the Position and Personalize Advanced Human Body Models for Injury Prediction (PIPER) scalable child HBM of different ages and in differen...
Data
Material properties of the head components. (DOCX)
Data
Animations of HBM kinetics during the simulated entire impact for Case 2012. (MP4)
Data
In detail description of accident Case 2017 from the CASPER accident reconstruction database. The pdf file reports details about the accident circumstances, the vehicles and the child occupant analyzed in this paper. (PDF)
Data
In detail description of accident Case 2043 from the CASPER accident reconstruction database. The pdf file reports details about the accident circumstances, the vehicles and the child occupant analyzed in this paper. (PDF)
Data
Sensor and dummy readings for Case 2017 from the CASPER accident reconstruction database. This zip folder contains input accelerations for reproducibility of the accident reconstruction. Also, the readings from the dummy sensor are reported for reproducibility of the calculations. (ZIP)
Data
In detail description of accident Case 2012 from the CASPER accident reconstruction database. The pdf file reports details about the accident circumstances, the vehicles and the child occupant analyzed in this paper. (PDF)
Data
Compiled supplementary figures for Cases 2012, 2017 and 2043. (DOCX)
Data
Animations of HBM kinetics during the simulated entire impact for Case 2017. (MP4)
Data
Sensor and dummy readings for Case 2012 from the CASPER accident reconstruction database. This zip folder contains input accelerations for reproducibility of the accident reconstruction. Also, the readings from the dummy sensor are reported for reproducibility of the calculations. (ZIP)
Data
Animations of HBM kinetics during the simulated entire impact for Case 2043. (MP4)
Data
Sensor and dummy readings for Case 2043 from the CASPER accident reconstruction database. This zip folder contains input accelerations for reproducibility of the accident reconstruction. Also, the readings from the dummy sensor are reported for reproducibility of the calculations. (ZIP)
Article
Full-text available
Computational models incorporating anisotropic features of brain tissue have become a valuable tool for studying the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The tissue deformation in the direction of white matter tracts (axonal strain) was repeatedly shown to be an appropriate mechanical parameter to predict injury. However, when assessing the reliab...
Article
Full-text available
Despite recent efforts on the development of finite element (FE) head models of infants, a model capable of capturing head responses under various impact scenarios has not been reported. This is hypothesized partially attributed to the use of simplified linear elastic models for soft tissues of suture, scalp and dura. Orthotropic elastic constants...
Article
Objective To identify potentially-misleading terms and concepts in concussion biomechanics. Design Literature review. Setting N/A. Participants N/A. Intervention N/A. Outcome measures Media articles and scientific literature describing potentially-misleading terms and concepts in concussion biomechanics. Main results Potentially-misleading te...