Susanne M Krug

Susanne M Krug
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin | Charité · Clinical Physiology / Nutritional Medicine

PD Dr. rer. nat.

About

115
Publications
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Introduction
Susanne M Krug currently works at the Institute of Clinical Physiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Susanne does research in Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry.

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Although functional and structural models for paracellular channels formed by claudins have been reported, mechanisms regulating charge and size selectivity of these channels are unknown in detail. Here, claudin-15 and claudin-10b cation channels showing high-sequence similarity but differing channel properties were analyzed. Mutants of pore-lining...
Article
Full-text available
Usually, duodenal barriers are investigated using intestinal cell lines like Caco‐2, which in contrast to native tissue are limited in cell‐type representation. Organoids can consist of all intestinal cell types and are supposed to better reflect the in vivo situation. Growing three‐dimensionally, with the apical side facing the lumen, application...
Article
Both nerve injury and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can result in chronic pain. In traumatic neuropathy, the blood nerve barrier (BNB) shielding the nerve is impaired—partly due to dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs). Upregulation of microRNA‐21‐5p (miR‐21) has previously been documented in neuropathic pain, predominantly due to its proinflamma...
Article
Full-text available
In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the impaired intestinal barrier is mainly characterized by changes in tight junction protein expression. The functional role of the tight junction-associated MARVEL protein MARVELD3 (MD3) in IBD is yet unknown. (i) In colon biopsies from IBD patients we analyzed MD3 expression and (ii) in human colon HT-29/B6 ce...
Preprint
Colorectal cancer progression is intrinsically linked to stepwise deregulation of the intestinal differentiation trajectory. In this process, sequential mutations of APC/Wnt, KRAS, TP53 and SMAD4 stepwisely enable an oncogenic signalling network. Here, we developed a novel mass cytometry antibody panel to analyse colorectal cancer cell differentiat...
Article
In the expanding field of intestinal organoid research, various protocols for three- and two-dimensional organoid-derived cell cultures exist. Two-dimensional organoid-derived monolayers are used to overcome some limitations of three-dimensional organoid cultures. They are increasingly used also in infection research, to study physiological process...
Article
Background The tight junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-10a form paracellular cation and anion channels, respectively, and are expressed in the proximal tubule. However, the physiological role of claudin-10a in the kidney has been unclear. Methods To investigate the physiologic role of claudin-10a, we generated claudin-10a-deficient mice; conf...
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Full-text available
Editorial on the Research Topic Loss of Epithelial Barrier Integrity in Inflammatory Diseases: Cellular Mediators and Therapeutic Targets
Article
Background & Aims The protozoa Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness worldwide, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain obscure, partly due to the absence of adequate cellular models. We aimed at overcoming these limitations and recapitulating the authentic series of pathogenic events in the primary human duode...
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The blood–nerve barrier and myelin barrier normally shield peripheral nerves from potentially harmful insults. They are broken down during nerve injury, which contributes to neuronal damage. Netrin-1 is a neuronal guidance protein with various established functions in the peripheral and central nervous systems; however, its role in regulating barri...
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Inflammatory bowel disease describes chronic inflammatory disorders. The incidence of the disease is rising. A major step in disease development is the breakdown of the epithelial cell barrier. Numerous blood vessels are directly located underneath this barrier. Diseased tissues are heavily vascularized and blood vessels significantly contribute to...
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Water transport in epithelia occurs transcellularly (aquaporins) and paracellularly (claudin-2, claudin-15). Recently, we showed that downregulated tricellulin, a protein of the tricellular tight junction (tTJ, the site where three epithelial cells meet), increased transepithelial water flux. We now check the hypothesis that another tTJ-associated...
Article
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Background: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) impacts the integrity of intestinal epithelia and has been associated with the development of colitis-associated cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previous data suggest that IL-22 protects the mucosal barrier and promotes wound healing and barrier defect. We hypothesized, that IL-22 modulates cell pola...
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Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) has a relapsing and remitting pattern, wherein the underlying mechanisms of the relapse might involve an enhanced uptake of luminal antigens which stimulate the immune response. The tricellular tight junction protein, tricellulin, takes charge of preventing paracellular passage of macromolecules. It is characteriz...
Preprint
Background and aims The protozoa Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness worldwide, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain obscure, partly due to the absence of adequate cellular models. We aimed to overcome these limitations and to recapitulate the authentic series of events in the primary human duodenal tissue...
Article
Full-text available
Crohn’s disease (CD) has an altered intestinal barrier function, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be disclosed. The tricellular tight junction protein tricellulin is involved in the maintenance of the paracellular macromolecule barrier and features an unchanged expression level in CD but a shifted localization. As angulins are known to regul...
Article
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For a long time, the tight junction (TJ) was known to form and regulate the paracellular barrier between epithelia and endothelial cell sheets. Starting shortly after the discovery of the proteins forming the TJ—mainly, the two families of claudins and TAMPs—several other functions have been discovered, a striking one being the surprising finding t...
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Mucosal healing determined by endoscopy is currently the remission standard for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, new criteria for remission are emerging, such as histologic normalization, which appears to correlate better to the risk of relapse. Here, we study mucosal healing on a molecular and functional level in quiescent UC. We obtained endosco...
Article
The functional and structural concept of tight junctions has developed after discovery of claudin and TAMP proteins. Many of these proteins contribute to epi- and endothelial barrier but some, in contrast, form paracellular channels. Claudins form the backbone of tight junction (TJ) strands whereas other proteins regulate TJ dynamics. The current j...
Article
Background In Inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal homeostasis cannot be sustained due to an overreaction of the immune system and a disturbed epithelial barrier due to an impaired tight junction (TJ). At tricellular TJs (tTJs), which are formed where three cells meet, the TJ network is basolaterally expanded and forms a central tube which would...
Article
Full-text available
In epithelia, large amounts of water pass by transcellular and paracellular pathways, driven by the osmotic gradient built up by the movement of solutes. The transcellular pathway has been molecularly characterized by the discovery of aquaporin membrane channels. Unlike this, the existence of a paracellular pathway for water through the tight junct...
Article
Full-text available
The tight junction (TJ) is an intercellular sealing component found in epithelial and endothelial tissues that regulates the passage of solutes across the paracellular space. Research examining the biology of TJs has revealed that they are complex biochemical structures constructed from a range of proteins including claudins, occludin, tricellulin,...
Article
Calcium influx via store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has an important role for regulation of vast majority of cellular physiological events. MAPK signalling is also another pivotal modulator of many cellular functions. However, the relationship between SOCE and MAPK is not well understood. In this study, we elucidated the involvement of SOCE in G...
Article
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) consisting of the perineurium and endoneurial vessels is sealed by tight junction proteins. BNB alterations are a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies. However, barrier opening, e.g. by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), can also facilitate topical application of analgesics. Here, we examined...
Article
Aim Claudin‐15 is mainly expressed in the small intestine and indirectly involved in glucose absorption. Similar to claudin‐2 and ‐10b, claudin‐15 is known to form a paracellular channel for small cations. Claudin‐2, but not claudin‐10b, also forms water channels. Here we experimentally tested whether claudin‐15 also mediates water transport and if...
Article
Background The standard for assessing disease activity, clinical remission and response to therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC) includes evaluation of symptoms (eg, stool frequency and rectal bleeding) and endoscopic mucosal status. The ultimate goal is reversal of inflammation and normalisation of the gut including mucosal function (ie, barrier inte...
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Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disorder. Mechanisms driving the formation of aberrant MMD vessels remain elusive. We collected serum and vessel specimens from MMD and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) patients serving as controls due to the same hypoxic stimulus but substantial differences in terms of...
Article
Background The standard for assessing disease activity, clinical remission and response to therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC) includes evaluation of patient symptoms and signs as well as endoscopic mucosal status. The ultimate goal is reversal of inflammation and its control, including a normalisation of mucosal function (i.e., ion transport and ba...
Article
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The renal proximal tubule achieves the majority of renal water and solute reabsorption with the help of paracellular channels which lead through the tight junction. The proteins forming such channels in the proximal tubule are claudin-2, claudin-10a, and possibly claudin-17. Claudin-2 forms paracellular channels selective for small cations like Na(...
Article
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and t...
Article
Infections by Campylobacter species are the most common foodborne zoonotic disease worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are isolated most frequently from human stool samples, but severe infections by C. fetus (Cf), which can cause gastroenteritis, septicemia, and abortion, are also found. This study aims at the characterization of pathologic...
Article
Tricellulin is a tight junction protein localized to tricellular contacts in many epithelial tissues, where it is required for full barrier control. Here, we present crystal structures of the tricellulin C-terminal coiled-coil domain, revealing a potential dimeric arrangement. By combining structural, biochemical, functional, and mutation analyses,...
Article
The majority of tight junction (TJ) proteins restrict the paracellular permeation of solutes via their extracellular loops (ECLs). Tricellulin tightens tricellular TJs (tTJs) and regulates bicellular TJ (bTJ) proteins. We demonstrate that the addition of recombinantly produced extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) of tricellulin opens cellular barriers. The...
Article
In the two inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins leads to an impaired epithelial barrier including increased uptake of luminal antigens supporting the inflammation. Here, we focused on regulation of tricellulin (Tric), a protein of the tricellular TJ essenti...
Article
The iron-binding glycoprotein lactoferrin (LF) is naturally present in human breast milk. Several studies suggest that LF contributes to infant health and development owing to a variety of protective effects, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory features. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate its protective properties on intestinal epithelial b...
Data
Supplemental Figures Fig. S1 Effect of other cytokines on tricellulin and claudin-2 expression in HT-29/B6. Densitometric analysis reveals that all other cytokines tested do not influence expression of tricellulin, and that INFγ decreases claudin-2 expression, while all others increase claudin-2 (n=3-12). Fig. S2 A. Permeability for the macromolecu...
Article
The tricellular tight junction (tTJ) is a potential weak point of the paracellular barrier. For solving the proportional contribution of the tTJ, ion conductances and macromolecule permeabilities were analyzed in cell lines of different leakiness. MDCK II, Caco-2, and HT-29/B6 cells were subjected to two-path impedance spectroscopy and morphologica...
Article
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PurposeMyrrh, the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora molmol, is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. In different animal models, it protected against DSS-, TNBS- and oxazolone-induced colitis. To date, no information concerning the effect of myrrh on barrier properties are available. Thus, this study investigates the effect of myrrh on parace...
Article
A limiting barrier for mucosal absorption of drugs is the tight junction (TJ). TJs exist between two adjacent cells (bicellular TJ, bTJ) and at the sites where three cells meet (tricellular TJ, tTJ). We present a novel approach which employs a physiologically regulated pathway for the passage of large molecules through the tTJ. Main barrier-relevan...
Article
Intestinal epithelial cells form a tight barrier to act as selective physical barriers, repelling hostile substances. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a well characterized pro-inflammatory cytokine which can compromise intestinal barrier function and the suppression of TNF-α function is important for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)....
Article
Full-text available
The intestinal epithelium can be easily disrupted during gut inflammation as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) like ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn´s disease (CD). For a long time, research into the pathophysiology of IBD has been focused on immune cell-mediated mechanisms. Recent evidence however suggests that the intestinal epithelium mi...
Article
Classical Whipple’s disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 C...
Article
Scope: Anti-inflammatory properties of the ginger-derived pungent component 6-shogaol (6-SG) have been studied intensively in recent years. Purpose of this study was to characterize the influence of 6-SG on inflammation-related intestinal barrier dysfunction, especially its paracellular component. Methods and results: The effect of 6-SG was stud...
Article
Full-text available
Moyamoya disease is a rare steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disorder often resulting in hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Although sharing the same ischemic stimulus with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease, Moyamoya disease is characterized by a highly instable cerebrovascular system which is prone to rupture due to pathological neovascularizat...
Article
Aim: Claudin-2 is a tight junction protein typically located in "leaky" epithelia exhibiting large paracellular permeabilities like small intestine and proximal kidney tubule. Former studies revealed that claudin-2 forms paracellular channels for small cations like sodium and potassium and also paracellular channels for water. This study analyzes...
Article
Full-text available
Background Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a necessary treatment for patients who cannot receive enteral nutrition, is associated with infectious complications due in part to a loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function (EBF). Using a mouse model of TPN, with enteral nutrient deprivation, we previously demonstrated an increase in mucosal inte...
Article
The peripheral nerve contains three barriers which include the blood-nerve barrier consisting of endoneurial vessels and the perineurium as well as autotypic junctions in Schwann cells. The perineurium prevents diffusion of perineurally injected drugs that can be used for selective regional pain control. It is composed of a basal membrane and layer...
Article
Understanding the dynamics of intestinal barrier function is key to elucidating oral delivery routes of therapeutics as well as to understanding various diseases that involve the mucosal immune system. Passage of macromolecules across barrier-forming epithelia is classically analyzed by means of various tracer flux measurements. This approach avera...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired intestinal barrier function is one of the critical issues in inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate muscarinic cholinoceptor (mAChR)-mediated signaling for the amelioration of cytokine-induced barrier dysfunction in intestinal epithelium. Rat colon challenged with TNF-α and interferon γ reduced transepithelial...
Article
Key points: Interleukin-13 (IL-13) causes intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Th2-driven intestinal inflammation (e.g. ulcerative colitis). However, it is unclear whether the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) - the main limiting factor for sodium absorption in the distal colon - is also influenced by...
Article
Claudin-17 is a paracellular channel-forming tight junction protein. Unlike the cation channels claudin-2 and -15, claudin-17 forms a distinct anion-selective channel. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular basis of channel formation and charge selectivity of this protein. To achieve this, residues located in the extracellular loops (ECL)...
Article
The tight junction forms a barrier against unlimited paracellular passage but some of the tight junction proteins just do the opposite, they form extracellular channels zigzagging between lateral membranes of neighboring cells. All of these channel-forming proteins and even some of the barrier formers exhibit selectivity, which means that they pref...
Article
Full-text available
Tight Junctions (TJs) are dynamic, mutiprotein intercellular adhesive contacts that provide a vital barrier function in epithelial tissues. TJs are remodeled during physiologic development and pathological mucosal inflammation, and differential expression of the claudin family of TJ proteins determines epithelial barrier properties. However, the mo...
Article
The blood-nerve barrier consists of the perineurium and endoneurial vessels. The perineurial barrier is composed of a basal membrane and a layer of perineurial cells sealed by tight junction proteins preventing e.g. application of analgesics for selective regional pain control. One of the barrier-sealing proteins in the blood-nerve barrier is claud...
Article
Full-text available
To mechanistically analyze effects of the medium-chain fatty acid laurate on transepithelial permeability in confluent monolayers of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29/B6, in context with an application as an absorption enhancer improving transepithelial drug permeation. Transepithelial resistance and apparent permeability for paracellular f...
Article
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Cell lines matching the source epithelium are indispensable for investigating porcine intestinal transport and barrier properties on a subcellular or molecular level and furthermore help to reduce animal usage. The porcine jejunal cell line IPEC-J2 is established as an in vitro model for porcine infection studies but exhibits atypically high transe...
Article
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Background Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed Ser/Thr kinase with multiple functions in the regulation of cell proliferation and transformation. In targeting adherens and tight junctions (TJs), CK2 modulates the strength and dynamics of epithelial cell-cell contacts. Occludin previously was identified as a substrate of CK2, however t...
Article
Full-text available
Selective targeting of sensory or nociceptive neurons in peripheral nerves remains a clinically desirable goal. Delivery of promising analgesic drugs is often impeded by the perineurium, which functions as a diffusion barrier attributable to tight junctions. We used perineurial injection of hypertonic saline as a tool to open the perineurial barrie...