Susannah C R Maidment

Susannah C R Maidment
Natural History Museum, London · Department of Earth Sciences

PhD (Cantab)

About

86
Publications
33,178
Reads
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1,511
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - present
University of Brighton
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2012 - September 2016
Imperial College London
Position
  • Researcher
August 2009 - July 2012
Natural History Museum, London
Position
  • Research Co-Investigator
Education
October 2003 - May 2007
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Vertebrate Palaeontology
October 1999 - July 2003
Imperial College London
Field of study
  • Geological Sciences

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
Body size and shape play fundamental roles in organismal function and it is expected that animals may possess body proportions that are well-suited to their ecological niche. Tetrapods exhibit a diverse array of body shapes, but to date this diversity in body proportions and its relationship to ecology have not been systematically quantified. Using...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the large‐scale evolutionary patterns of skull size relative to body size, and the possible drivers behind these patterns, in Archosauromorpha. For example, the large skulls of erythrosuchids, a group of non‐archosaurian archosauromorphs from the Early and Middle Triassic, and of theropod dinosaurs are regarded as convergent a...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence of Late Triassic large tetrapods from the UK is rare. Here, we describe a track-bearing surface located on the shoreline near Penarth, south Wales, United Kingdom. The total exposed surface is c. 50 m long and c. 2 m wide, and is split into northern and southern sections by a small fault. We interpret these impressions as tracks, rather th...
Article
Full-text available
Ankylosauria is a diverse clade of armoured dinosaurs whose members were important constituents of many Cretaceous faunas. Phylogenetic analyses imply that the clade diverged from its sister taxon, Stegosauria, during the late Early Jurassic, but the fossil records of both clades are sparse until the Late Jurassic (~150 million years ago). Moreover...
Article
Full-text available
A new genus and species of non-hadrosaurid hadrosauriform dinosaur, Brighstoneus simmondsi gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight. The new taxon has two autapomorphies, a nasal having a modest nasal bulla with convex sides, and primary and accessory ridges on the lingual aspect of the maxillar...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a new small-bodied coelophysoid theropod dinosaur, Pendraig milnerae gen. et sp. nov, from the Late Triassic fissure fill deposits of Pant-y-ffynnon in southern Wales. The species is represented by the holotype, consisting of an articulated pelvic girdle, sacrum and posterior dorsal vertebrae, and an associated left femur, and by two re...
Article
Full-text available
The armoured dinosaurs, Thyreophora, were a diverse clade of ornithischians known from the Early Jurassic to the end of the Cretaceous. During the Middle and Late Jurassic, the thyreophorans radiated to evolve large body size, quadrupedality, and complex chewing mechanisms, and members of the group include some of the most iconic dinosaurs, includi...
Article
The ability of palaeontologists to correctly diagnose and classify new fossil species from incomplete morphological data is fundamental to our understanding of evolution. Different parts of the vertebrate skeleton have different likelihoods of fossil preservation and varying amounts of taxonomic information, which could bias our interpretations of...
Article
In order for palaeontological data to be informative to ecologists seeking to understand the causes of today's diversity patterns, palaeontologists must demonstrate that actual biodiversity patterns are preserved in our reconstructions of past ecosystems. During the Late Cretaceous, North America was divided into two landmasses, Laramidia and Appal...
Article
Full-text available
Erythrosuchidae were large-bodied, quadrupedal, predatory archosauriforms that dominated the hypercarnivorous niche in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Garjainia , one of the oldest members of the clade, is known from the late Olenekian of European Russia. The holotype of Garjainia prima comprises a well-preserved skull, but hig...
Article
Ankylosaurs, dinosaurs possessing extensive body armor, were significant components of terrestrial ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic–latest Cretaceous. They diversified during the Early Cretaceous, becoming globally widespread. The Lower Cretaceous Wealden Supergroup (Berriasian–Aptian) of Britain has produced abundant ankylosaur material, with t...
Article
Dinosaur body fossilmaterial is rare in Scotland, previously known almost exclusively from the Great Estuarine Group on the Isle of Skye. We report the first unequivocal dinosaur fossil from the Isle of Eigg, belonging to a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) taxon of uncertain affinity. The limb bone NMS G.2020.10.1 is incomplete, but through a combinatio...
Chapter
We continue our trip back in time through the Mesozoic, visiting several different ecosystems across the planet. Each of these was strongly influenced by the continental breakup from a single landmass into several tectonic plates and associated landmasses during this period. We will visit localities on several continents, observe how their vertebra...
Chapter
If we imagine walking through Mesozoic lands, we would be able to observe vertebrates with peculiar combinations of morphological traits, some of which would seem to be intermediary to animals seen today. We would witness a terrestrial vertebrate fauna dominated by dinosaurs of various sizes and diversity, accompanied by many other animal groups th...
Article
Neotheropoda represents the main evolutionary radiation of predatory dinosaurs and its oldest records come from Upper Triassic rocks (c. 219 Mya). The Early Jurassic record of Neotheropoda is taxonomically richer and geographically more widespread than that of the Late Triassic. The Lower Jurassic (upper Hettangian–lower Sinemurian) rocks of centra...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of palaeontological occurrence databases has allowed for detailed reconstruction and analyses of species richness through deep time. While a substantial literature has evolved ensuring that taxa are fairly counted within and between different time periods, how time itself is divided has received less attention. Stage‐level or equal‐inter...
Article
Full-text available
Erythrosuchidae are a globally distributed and important group of apex predators that occupied Early and Middle Triassic terrestrial ecosystems following the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. The stratigraphically oldest known genus of Erythrosuchidae is Garjainia Ochev, 1958, which is known from the late Early Triassic (late Olenekian) of European R...
Article
The fluvial, overbank, and lacustrine deposits of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A. have been intensively studied due to their diverse and well-preserved dinosaurian fauna, and the presence of economic quantities of uranium and vanadium ores. The formation crops out over 12 degrees of latitude and 1.2 million km2...
Article
Full-text available
Two partial skeletons from Montana represent the northernmost occurrences of Stegosauria within North America. One of these specimens represents the northernmost dinosaur fossil ever recovered from the Morrison Formation. Consisting of fragmentary cranial and postcranial remains, these specimens are contributing to our knowledge of the record and d...
Article
Eurypoda, the major radiation of armoured dinosaurs, comprises the ankylosaurs and their sister group, the stegosaurs. As the earliest-branching major clade of ornithischian dinosaurs, the evolutionary history of Eurypoda is significant for understanding both the palaeobiology of bird-hipped dinosaurs and the composition of middle Mesozoic ecosyste...
Article
Full-text available
The earliest definitive ornithischian dinosaurs are from the Early Jurassic and are rare components of early dinosaur faunas. The Lower Lufeng Formation (Hettangian–Sinemurian) of Yunnan Province, China, has yielded a diverse Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate fauna. This includes several incomplete specimens have been referred to Ornithischia,...
Article
We report a case of a specific osteopathy in the stegosaurian dinosaur Gigantspinosaurus sichuanensis from the Late Jurassic of Zigong City, China. The G. sichuanensis skeleton is very complete. The left femur has obvious pathological characteristics based on morphological observations. CT scans and energy spectrum data indicate the presence of mul...
Preprint
The first African dinosaur to be discovered, Paranthodon africanus was found in 1845 in the Lower Cretaceous of South Africa. Taxonomically assigned to numerous groups since discovery, in 1981 it was described as a stegosaur, a group of armoured ornithischian dinosaurs characterised by bizarre plates and spines extending from the neck to the tail....
Preprint
The stegosaurs are some of the most easily recognizable dinosaurs, but are surprisingly rare as fossils. Consequently much remains unknown about their palaeobiology, and every new stegosaurian find contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the clade. Since the last attempt to examine the evolutionary relationships of Stegosauria, new spe...
Article
Full-text available
The first African dinosaur to be discovered, Paranthodon africanus was found in 1845 in the Lower Cretaceous of South Africa. Taxonomically assigned to numerous groups since discovery, in 1981 it was described as a stegosaur, a group of armoured ornithischian dinosaurs characterised by bizarre plates and spines extending from the neck to the tail....
Data
Boyd (2015) character taxon matrix
Data
Baron, Norman & Barrett (2017) character taxon matrix
Data
Arbour & Currie (2016) character taxon matrix
Data
Raven & Maidment (2017) character taxon matrix
Data
Thompson et al. (2012) character taxon matrix
Data
Online Supplementary Material Includes results of all analyses, the character list for the updated Raven & Maidment (2017) analyses and the characters from Boyd (2015) that unite either Eurypoda, Eurypoda + Alcovasaurus or Stegosauria in Raven & Maidment (2017).
Data
Arbour, Zanno & Gates (2016) character taxon matrix
Article
Stegosauria is a clade of ornithischian dinosaurs characterized by a bizarre array of dermal armor that extends from the neck to the end of the tail. Two genera of stegosaur are currently recognised from North America: the well-known Stegosaurus stenops and the much rarer Hesperosaurus mjosi. A new specimen of Hesperosaurus mjosi was discovered in...
Chapter
The terrestrial deposits of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, western USA, have been intensively studied since the discovery of their well-preserved and diverse dinosaurian fauna. The broad geographic area and large time interval represented by the formation makes it an ideal candidate for the study of biodiversity patterns, population ecology...
Article
Full-text available
The moment arm of a muscle defines its leverage around a given joint. In a clinical setting, the quantification of muscle moment arms is an important means of establishing the ‘healthy’ functioning of a muscle and in identifying and treating musculoskeletal abnormalities. Elsewhere in modern animal taxa, moment arm studies aim to illuminate adaptio...
Article
Full-text available
Ornithischian dinosaurs were primitively bipedal, but reverted to quadrupedality on at least three (and potentially several more) occasions: in Ceratopsia, Thyreophora and Hadrosauriformes. Each of these reversals was accompanied by anatomical changes to the whole skeleton that enabled the forelimb to function in weight bearing and that also result...
Article
The stegosaurs are some of the most easily recognizable dinosaurs, but are surprisingly rare as fossils. Consequently much remains unknown about their palaeobiology, and every new stegosaurian find contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the clade. Since the last attempt to examine the evolutionary relationships of Stegosauria, new spe...
Article
The Wealden Supergroup of south-east England has long been of interest to palaeontologists because of its diverse flora and fauna. The Supergroup is Early Cretaceous in age, occupying the time period immediately after the enigmatic end-Jurassic extinction. Wealden faunas therefore have the potential to be informative about the tempo and mode of pos...
Article
Full-text available
Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stego-saurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional compa...
Article
Full-text available
In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms) and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs). These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bi...
Article
Full-text available
Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which bio-mechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the...
Article
Full-text available
Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms) and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs). These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bi...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms) and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs). These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bi...
Article
Full-text available
Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetri...
Chapter
A bs t r ac t A computational model is used to estimate three-dimensional pelvic muscle moment arms for the saurolophine had-rosaur Edmontosaurus. The results are compared to models of the ornithischians Lesothosaurus and Kentrosaurus, the crocodilian Alligator, and the theropod Allosaurus in order to examine changes related to the evolution of qua...
Article
Full-text available
The exceptionally rare transition to quadrupedalism from bipedal ancestors occurred on three independent occasions in ornithischian dinosaurs. The possible driving forces behind these transitions remain elusive, but several hypotheses-including the development of dermal armour and the expansion of head size and cranial ornamentation-have been propo...
Article
Ornithischian dinosaurs were primitively bipedal with forelimbs modified for grasping, but quadrupedalism evolved in the clade on at least three occasions independently. Outside of Ornithischia, quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors has only evolved on two other occasions, making this one of the rarest locomotory transitions in tetrapod evolutionar...
Article
Full-text available
Convergent morphologies are thought to indicate functional similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent morphologies are used as analogues to assess function in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, functional studies of extant taxa have shown that functio...
Article
Full-text available
Ankylosauria is a diverse clade of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaurs whose remains are known from Middle Jurassic to latest Cretaceous sediments worldwide. Despite a long history of research, ankylosaur interrelationships remain poorly resolved and existing cladistic analyses suffer from limited character and taxon sampling. Here, we present the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by thei...
Data
Raw data used in statistical analyses; stratigraphic data used to calculate branch lengths; the results of K-means cluster analysis. (DOC)
Article
Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of ot...
Article
The evolution of quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is an exceptionally rare transition in tetrapod evolution, but it has occurred several times within the herbivorous dinosaur clade Ornithischia. Stegosauria, Ankylosauria, and Ceratopsidae are all uncontroversially quadrupedal, while basal ornithischians and basal ornithopods are uncontroversia...
Article
The earliest ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds that possessed the derived, retroverted pubis that is synapomorphic for the clade. Their forelimbs were modified for grasping. Subsequently, ornithischians radiated into numerous body shapes and sizes. Three lineages independently evolved large size and quadrupedality, requiring profound change...
Article
Full-text available
A previously undescribed chasmosaurine specimen excavated in 1919-1920 by William Cutler from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada is referable to Chasmosaurus belli. The specimen comprises an almost complete skull in which, uniquely among Chasmosaurus, the cranial elements are disarticulated, allowing detailed examination of their morpho...
Article
The first partial skeleton of a stegosaurian dinosaur was discovered in a brick pit in Swindon, UK in 1874. Since then, numerous stegosaurian remains have been discovered from Europe, North America, Africa and Asia, and continue to be discovered regularly. Stegosaurs are known from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous; no definitive evidence...
Article
Sexual dimorphism, the condition whereby males and females differ from one another physically, is one of the most fundamental aspects of the biology of any animal. However, sexually dimorphic characters can be subtle and are mainly related to soft tissue anatomy. They are, therefore, difficult to identify reliably in the fossil record particularly...