Susana Carvalho

Susana Carvalho
University of Oxford | OX · School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography; Institute of Human Sciences

PhD Biological Anthropology
Professor at Oxford University. Director of Primatology & Paleoanthropology at Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique

About

104
Publications
22,780
Reads
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Introduction
I am a Primatologist and Paleoanthropologist interested in the evolution of behaviour and in using extant primates as models for our early hominin records. I have carried long term work with wild chimpanzees and baboons in Africa, and i have been pivotal in the broadening of archaeology to include non-human records AND earlier Pliocene records. I am one of the founders of the field of primate archaeology. I have projects in East Africa (Kenya) and West Africa (Guinea). In 2015 I started a fantastic endeavour as Director of Paleontology and Primatology in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique, leading the Paleo-Primate Project. In 2016 I founded the Primate Models for Behavioural Evolution Lab, at the Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, where we now host ca.17 researchers!
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
University of Oxford and Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique
Position
  • Managing Director
September 2015 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Associate Professor of Palaeoanthropology and Human Sciences
Description
  • Principles of Evolution and Behaviour
July 2015 - present
Gorongosa National Park
Position
  • Associate Director for Paleontology and Primatology

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Large video datasets of wild animal behavior are crucial to produce longitudinal research and accelerate conser-vation efforts; however, large-scale behavior analyses continue to be severely constrained by time and resources. We present a deep convolutional neural network approach and fully automated pipeline to detect and track two audiovisually d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Miocene is a key time in the evolution of African mammals and their ecosystems witnessing the origin of the African apes and the isolation of eastern coastal forests through an expanding biogeographic arid corridor. Until recently, however, Miocene sites from the southeastern regions of the continent were unknown. Here we report discovery of th...
Article
Full-text available
Discussions of how animal culture can aid the conservation crisis are burgeoning. As scientists and conservationists working to protect endangered species, we call for reflection on how the culture concept may be applied in practice. Here, we discuss both the potential benefits and potential shortcomings of applying the animal culture concept, and...
Article
Habituation is a common pre‐requisite for studying noncaptive primates. Details and quantitative reporting on this process are often overlooked but are useful for measuring human impact on animal behavior, especially when comparing studies across time or sites. During habituation, perceived risk of a stimulus—human observers—is assumed to decline w...
Article
Full-text available
Ecology is fundamental in the development, transmission, and perpetuity of primate technology. Previous studies on tool site selection have addressed the relevance of targeted resources and raw materials for tools, but few have considered the broader foraging landscape. In this landscape-scale study of the ecological contexts of wild chimpanzee ( P...
Chapter
The Koobi Fora Fm (Formation) east of Lake Turkana in north- ern Kenya is one of the most important paleoanthropologi- cal rock units in the world (Figure 26.1). Nearly 250 hominin specimens are documented from East Turkana, representing the species Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, Paranthropus boisei, Homo rudolfensis, H. habilis, and H....
Article
Full-text available
Background Gorongosa National Park in Mozambique hosts a large population of baboons, numbering over 200 troops. Gorongosa baboons have been tentatively identified as part of Papio ursinus on the basis of previous limited morphological analysis and a handful of mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, a recent morphological and morphometric analysis o...
Preprint
Discussions of how animal culture can aid the conservation crisis are burgeoning. As scientists and conservationists working to protect endangered species, we call for reflection on how the culture concept may be applied in practice. Here, we discuss both the potential benefits and potential shortcomings of applying the animal culture concept and p...
Preprint
Ecology is fundamental to the development, transmission, and perpetuity of primate technology. Previous studies on tool site selection have addressed the relevance of targeted resources and raw materials for tools, but few have considered the broader foraging landscape. In this first landscape-scale study of the ecological contexts of wild chimpanz...
Article
Full-text available
Background Paleoanthropological research focus still devotes most resources to areas generally known to be fossil rich instead of a strategy that first maps and identifies possible fossil sites in a given region. This leads to the paradoxical task of planning paleontological campaigns without knowing the true extent and likely potential of each fos...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial information is crucial to archaeological field research. From the plane-table to the total station, recent technological advances have enabled data collection to become fully digital and highly accurate. Nevertheless, the recent expansion of archaeological expeditions to novel environments often incompatible with modern mapping equipment, e...
Chapter
Conversations in Human Evolution is an ongoing science communication initiative seeking to explore the breadth and interdisciplinarity of human evolution studies. This volume reports twenty interviews (referred to as ‘conversations’ as they are informal in style) with scholars at the forefront of human evolution research, covering the broad scienti...
Article
Gorongosa National Park in central Mozambique offers an unparalleled setting for the study of primate adaptations to complex and highly dynamic environments. Located at the southern end of the East African Rift System, Gorongosa hosts a mosaic of forests, woodlands, grasslands, swamps, rivers, and a major lake, Lake Urema, which fluctuates extensiv...
Article
Australopithecus anamensis is a pivotal species in human evolution. It is likely to be the direct ancestor of Australopithecus afarensis and the species that may have given rise to the Homo and Paranthropus lineages. It had a suite of adaptations for habitual bipedalism and a diet that differed from that of earlier hominin species. Under what envir...
Poster
Full-text available
During the last decade new geospatial approaches aimed at increasing the likelihood of finding fossiliferous deposits have emerged [1]. Using satellite imagery and coordinates of previously known fossil localities, machine learning algorithms can be trained to mine spectral patterns associated with fossiliferous outcrops across a region [2]. Two ma...
Presentation
Speed talk given at EFP-PSGB 2019 examining the survivorship of a chacma baboon troop following Cyclone Idai, a cyclone that devastated Mozambique in March 2019
Article
Full-text available
Video recording is now ubiquitous in the study of animal behavior, but its analysis on a large scale is prohibited by the time and resources needed to manually process large volumes of data. We present a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) approach that provides a fully automated pipeline for face detection, tracking, and recognition of wild ch...
Data
Raw craniofacial landmark data comprising papio specimens from Gorongosa National Park and the comparative dataset from Dunn et al. 2013. 3D Mesh at: http://www.morphosource.org/Detail/MediaDetail/Show/media_id/40022
Article
For the past two centuries, non‐human primates have been reported to inspect, protect, retrieve, carry or drag the dead bodies of their conspecifics and, for nearly the same amount of time, sparse scientific attention has been paid to such behaviours. Given that there exists a considerable gap in the fossil and archaeological record concerning how...
Article
Most authors recognize six baboon species: hamadryas (Papio hamadryas), Guinea (Papio papio), olive (Papio anubis), yellow (Papio cynocephalus), chacma (Papio ursinus), and Kinda (Papio kindae). However, there is still debate regarding the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of gene flow occurring between species. Here, we...
Article
and Keywords The origin of technology is believed to have marked a major adaptive shift in human evolution. Understanding the evolutionary process(es) underlying the first human adaptation to tool use, and the subsequent process(es) that led Homo sapiens to become the only extant primate fully dependent on technology, is one of the most stimulating...
Presentation
Presentation outlining data collected on chacma baboon movement and habitat use on the floodplain in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique
Poster
Full-text available
Geospatial palaeontology is a new discipline that uses satellite images and statistical algorithms to predict the probability of sedimentary deposits containing fossils. This conceptual framework is currently being applied at the southernmost tip of the Rift Valley, in Gorongosa, Mozambique. LANDSAT8 satellite corrected data were cropped to an area...
Article
The habitual consumption of large-animal resources (e.g., similar sized or larger than the consumer) separates human and nonhuman primate behavior. Flaked stone tool use, another important hominin behavior, is often portrayed as being functionally related to this by the necessity of a sharp edge for cutting animal tissue. However, most research on...
Article
The newly described partial skeleton of Paranthropus boisei KNM-ER 47000 as well as the FwJj14E Ileret footprints provide new evidence on the paleobiology and diversity of hominins from the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation at East Turkana about 1.5 Ma. To better understand the ecological context of the Okote hominins, it is necessary to bro...
Poster
Full-text available
O conhecimento em Evolução Humana, se bem que determinante para a compreensão da origem humana, da sua biologia e cultura, assim como da sua estreita relação com outras espécies vivas, designadamente da Ordem dos Primatas, continua a ocupar um peso residual no ensino das Ciências Naturais e Humanas. Essa presença é ainda mais incipiente junto do gr...
Article
Property is a key feature of modern human society; however, identifying the origin of this multifaceted behavior poses a formidable challenge. Here, we explore the methodologies for researching the origin of property. We discuss how an interdisciplinary approach can shed light on how our human ancestors shifted behaviorally from possessing an objec...
Poster
Full-text available
First fossil sites from the Urema Rift, central Mozambique, and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological contexts
Poster
Full-text available
Modern geospatial technologies such as remotely sensed imagery, handheld devices to capture coordinates and geographic information systems, have been applied to different research questions in palaeoanthropology that share a spatial component [1]. Even fossil surveys aimed at discovering new fossil assemblages containing hominins have been guided b...
Article
The East African Rift System (EARS) has played a central role in our understanding of human origins and vertebrate evolution in the late Cenozoic of Africa. However, the distribution of fossil sites along the rift is highly biased towards its northern extent, and the types of paleoenvironments are primarily restricted to fluvial and lacustrine sett...
Presentation
Preliminary results of Chacma baboon decision making and ranging behaviour in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Event#50
Poster
The study of non-human primate tool use, particularly that of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes sp.) has provided a comparative framework for the study of human evolution and the contexts surrounding the emergence and development of technology in our lineage. As our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, like early hominins, use stone tools for percussi...
Article
Full-text available
Humans help others even without direct benefit for themselves. However, the nature of altruistic (i.e., only the other benefits) and prosocial (i.e., self and other both benefit) behaviors in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, remains controversial. To address this further, we developed a touch-screen-guided task that allowed us to increa...
Chapter
Primate Archaeology is a novel field of research that has had transformed our knowledge about the origins and evolution of technology. It expanded the focus of traditional archaeological studies from humans to all primates that are tool-users. Research in this area focuses on present and past processes of tool-making, use and site formation in exta...
Chapter
Full-text available
The project EcoPLis - Human Occupations in the Pleistocene Ecotones of the River Lis started in central Portugal in 2015. It aims to understand the behavioural ecology of hominins during the Pleistocene in a region where sub-rectilinear rivers link the coast to the inland mountains through open riverine and canyon environments. This project is root...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A major puzzle in human origins research is the question of where, when, and under what environmental conditions our lineage originated in Africa, but answers are hampered by the scarcity of Mio-Pliocene paleontological sites. To help fill these gaps, the Paleo-Primate Project Gorongosa, a multidisciplinary research initiative on human origins, was...
Presentation
Pedagogical game | Can you identify the bones of my skeleton? For Primary/ elementary school. In this game you will have to identify the different parts of the human skeleton. Game information This Power Point game will only function correctly on PowerPoint Version 2013 or similar for Windows.
Data
Pedagogical Game | The planet of primates For Secondary/ high school. In this game you will learn more about the geographic distribution, habitat, and diet of living non-human primates.
Presentation
Pedagogical game | Journey to the past For Middle/ secondary school. In this game you will learn more about human origins and evolution.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O Grupo de Estudos em Evolução Humana (GEEvH) é uma associação científica portuguesa, sem fins lucrativos, que tem como principal missão a promoção, o desenvolvimento e a divulgação da investigação no domínio da Evolução Humana. O GEEvH foi constituído por um grupo de alunos do antigo curso de Mestrado em Evolução Humana da Faculdade de Ciência e T...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract Details Presentation Type: Poster Title: Selectivity among Early Pleistocene hominins: New evidence from the Koobi Fora Formation Authors: Kristen Tuosto; Samantha Ascoli; David Braun; Susana Carvalho; Rene Bobe; Mark Sier; Jonathan Wynn; Jack Harris; Matthew Caruana; David Patterson Abstract: Current perspectives on technology of the Ea...
Article
Full-text available
This paper gives a short and concise historical account of how/when the field of primate archaeology emerged, and celebrates the career of Claudia Sousa, who mentored some of the initial research in this field. 'Cláudia Sousa was a founding member of the newly emerging and interdisciplinary field of primate archaeology. This discipline employs an...
Article
Full-text available
Cláudia Sousa was a founding member of the newly emerging and interdisciplinary field of primate archaeology. This discipline employs an archaeological approach to the study of nonhuman primates through the observation of their material culture - i. e. objects produced during tool use and manipulation - and has significant implications in the study...
Article
Full-text available
African apes and humans share a genetic mutation that enables them to effectively metabolize ethanol. However, voluntary ethanol consumption in this evolutionary radiation is documented only in modern humans. Here, we report evidence of the long-term and recurrent ingestion of ethanol from the raffia palm (Raphia hookeri, Arecaceae) by wild chimpan...
Data
Table S1. The % ABV of palm sap from 16 raffia palms, collected at 2-hr intervals (i.e. 08:00-18.00 h) throughout the day. Table S2. Palm wine drinking sessions and events by chimpanzees, including date, start time, chimpanzee name, age (yr) and sex of imbiber, palm wine drinking duration (min), quantity of palm wine consumed (l), leaf dip rate (di...
Article
Full-text available
We are in a new epoch, the Anthropocene, and research into our closest living relatives, the great apes, must keep pace with the rate that our species is driving change. While a goal of many studies is to understand how great apes behave in natural contexts, the impact of human activities must increasingly be taken into account. This is both a chal...
Article
Full-text available
We are in a new epoch, the Anthropocene, and research into our closest living relatives, the great apes, must keep pace with the rate that our species is driving change. While a goal of many studies is to understand how great apes behave in natural contexts, the impact of human activities must increasingly be taken into account. This is both a chal...
Article
Full-text available
Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of ston...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Um dos achados que marcou a história da paleoantropologia e que veio revolucionar a árvore filogenética humana foi a descoberta, no século XIX, dos fósseis de Neandertal. Muitas notas introdutórias apresentam os Neandertais como hominíneos genética e morfologicamente distintos do Homo sapiens sapiens. De facto, e durante muito tempo, os Neandertais...
Article
Full-text available
Percussive technology continues to play an increasingly important role in understanding the evolution of tool use. Comparing the archaeological record with extractive foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates has focused on percussive implements as a key to investigating the origins of lithic technology. Despite this, archaeological approaches toward...
Article
Full-text available
Most developmental processes, from the molecular to the cognitive level, have many similarities throughout the animal kingdom. The aim of the present study was to examine the evolution of human spatial cognition by contextualizing it in a developmental cognition framework. In order to achieve this, a thorough literature review on significant resear...