Susana Bernal

Susana Bernal
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Centre de Estudis Avanc,ats de Blanes

Ramon y Cajal researcher

About

104
Publications
23,239
Reads
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2,377
Citations
Citations since 2016
67 Research Items
1504 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
March 2007 - April 2009
Princeton University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Pulses of microbial nitrogen (N) supply often occur during storms in Mediterranean regions, but their contribution to soil N availability and catchment N exports is still unknown. We investigated patterns and controls of pulses of net N mineralization (NNM) and nitrification (NN) at three forest sites (riparian, evergreen oak and beech) that coexis...
Article
Full-text available
In-stream nutrient retention results from the interaction between hydrological and biogeochemical processes involved in downstream transport. While hydrological processes set the opportunity for nutrient retention to occur, metabolic activity and abiotic processes determine the potential biogeochemical reactivity of streams. Yet, a comprehensive as...
Article
Full-text available
Streams are important sources of carbon to the atmosphere, though knowing whether they merely outgas terrestrially derived carbon dioxide or mineralize terrestrial inputs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still a big challenge in ecology. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of riparian groundwater (GW) and in-stream proc...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities have more than doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen circulating on Earth, creating excess nutrients across the terrestrial-aquatic gradient. These excess nutrients have caused worldwide eutrophication, fundamentally altering the functioning of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Riparian zones have been recognized to buffe...
Article
Full-text available
River networks modify material transfer from land to ocean. Understanding the factors regulating this function for different gaseous, dissolved, and particulate constituents is critical to quantify the local and global effects of climate and land use change. We propose the River Network Saturation (RNS) concept as a generalization of how river netw...
Article
Stream dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics are an outcome of metabolic activity and subsequently regulate ecosystem functions such as in‐stream solute and sediment reactions. The synchronization of DO signals in and across stream networks is both a cause and effect of the mode and timing of these functions, but there is limited empirical evidence for ne...
Article
Research in limnology is nurtured by the work of many fascinating and passionate women, who have contributed enormously to our understanding of inland waters. Female limnologists have promoted and established the bases of our knowledge about inland waters and fostered the need of protecting the values of those ecosystems. However, on numerous occas...
Data
Data presented in the manuscript "Women in Limnology: from a historical perspective to a present-day evaluation", authored by the Gender and Science Group of the Iberian Association of Limnology and published in the journal WIREs Water in 2022. There is two datasets: Annex1: Table containing the name, bibliography and relevant contributions of 7...
Article
Headwater streams are control points for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere, with relative contributions to CO2 emission fluxes from lateral groundwater inputs widely assumed to overwhelm those from in‐stream metabolic processes. We analyzed continuous measurements of stream dissolved CO2 and oxygen (O2) concentrations during spring a...
Article
Full-text available
In forest headwater streams, metabolic processes are predominately heterotrophic and depend on both the availability of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and a favourable C:N stoichiometry. In this context, hydrological conditions and the presence of riparian forests adjacent to streams can play an important, yet understudied role in determining dissolve...
Article
Full-text available
Plastics, especially microplastics (<5 mm in length), are anthropogenic polymer particles that have been detected in almost all environments. Microplastics are extremely persistent pollutants and act as long-lasting reactive surfaces for additives, organic matter, and toxic substances. Biofilms are microbial assemblages that act as a sink for parti...
Article
Full-text available
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents alter water chemistry and in-stream nutrient uptake rates of receiving freshwaters, thus changing the magnitude and fate of the nutrients exported. In Mediterranean regions, the dilution capacity of receiving streams can vary strongly over time due to the seasonal occurrence of floods and droughts, causin...
Article
Full-text available
The relevance of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in fluvial networks is increasing as urbanization grows in catchments. Urban-sourced fine particles from WWTP effluents deposit and accumulate in the streambed sediment of receiving streams over time and can fuel respiration rates, which can thus potentially increase rates of biogeochemic...
Article
Full-text available
A unified conceptual framework for river corridors requires synthesis of diverse site‐, method‐ and discipline‐specific findings. The river research community has developed a substantial body of observations and process‐specific interpretations, but we are still lacking a comprehensive model to distill this knowledge into fundamental transferable c...
Article
Full-text available
Hyporheic zones increase freshwater ecosystem resilience to hydrological extremes and global environmental change. However, current conceptualizations of hyporheic exchange, residence time distributions, and the associated biogeochemical cycling in streambed sediments do not always accurately explain the hydrological and biogeochemical complexity o...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Emissions of the ozone‐layer destructor and potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, N2O, from rivers are a function of both nitrate loads and stream flows. Here we answer the question of whether droughts and subsequent low flows may exacerbate climate change by increasing N2O emissions, thus forming positive feedback, which may...
Article
Full-text available
Catchment hydrological responses to precipitation inputs, particularly during exceptionally large storms, are complex and variable, and our understanding of the associated runoff generation processes during those events is limited. Hydrological monitoring of climatically and hydrologically distinct catchments can help to improve this understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Conferences are ideal platforms for studying gender gaps in science because they are important cultural events that reflect barriers to women in academia. Here, we explored women’s participation in ecology conferences by analyzing female representation, behavior, and personal experience at the 1st Meeting of the Iberian Society of Ecology (SIBECOL)...
Article
Full-text available
An explosion in high frequency dissolved oxygen (DO) observations at river network scales is creating new opportunities to understand dynamic signals in streams and rivers. Among the most informative metrics obtained from DO time series is stream metabolism—comprising gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER)—but its estimation...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) are important energy and nutrient sources for aquatic ecosystems. In many northern temperate freshwater systems DOC has increased in the past 50 years. Less is known about how changes in DOC may vary across latitudes, and whether changes in DON track those of DOC. Here we present long‐term DOC and D...
Preprint
Full-text available
In forest headwater streams, metabolic processes are predominately heterotrophic and depend on both the availability of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and a favourable C:N stoichiometry. In this context, hydrological conditions and the presence of riparian forests adjacent to streams can play an important, yet understudied role determining dissolved o...
Data
A global compilation of stream chemistry data was synthesized to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in solutes with a particular focus on dissolved organic matter and nitrogen (inorganic and organic forms). Data span a global array of streams and rivers ranging from the tropics to the arctic. Data include concentrations of dissolved organic nitro...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive cross‐biome assessment of major nitrogen (N) species that includes dissolved organic N (DON) is central to understanding interactions between inorganic nutrients and organic matter in running waters. Here, we synthesize stream water N chemistry across biomes and find that the composition of the dissolved N pool shifts from highly he...
Preprint
Full-text available
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) affect water chemistry and in-stream nutrient uptake capacity from receiving freshwaters, thus altering the amount and fate of nutrients exported. In Mediterranean regions, the dilution capacity of receiving streams to buffer the WWTP biogeochemical fingerprint can vary seasonally due to changes in...
Article
Full-text available
Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) accumulated in streambeds is a major component of organic matter budgets in headwater streams and greatly affects productivity and metabolism of stream communities. The spatiotemporal distribution of benthic FPOM in the stream, as well as its quantity and quality, depend on inputs from different source types....
Article
Full-text available
Surface-groundwater interactions in intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), waterways which do not flow year-round, are spatially and temporally dynamic because of alternations between flowing, non-flowing and dry hydrological states. Interactions between surface and groundwater often create mixing zones with distinct redox gradients, pot...
Preprint
A unified conceptual framework for river corridors requires synthesis of diverse site-, method- and discipline-specific findings. The river research community has developed a substantial body of observations and process-specific interpretations, but we are still lacking a comprehensive model to distill this knowledge into fundamental transferable c...
Poster
Rivers transport pathogenic microorganisms (including fecal indicator bacteria and human enteric viruses) from point and non-point sources over long distances, posing a direct risk for human health. Yet, pathogens in surface waters can be deposited and transitorily immobilized and accumulated together with other fine particles in streambed sediment...
Article
Full-text available
The Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) model has been rapidly adopted to interpret in‐stream nutrient spiraling metrics over a range of concentrations from breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained during pulse solute injection experiments. TASCC analyses often identify hysteresis in the relationship between spiraling metrics a...
Article
Full-text available
The ‘Dominant Source Layer’ (DSL) is defined as the riparian zone (RZ) depth stratum that contributes the most to water and solute fluxes to streams. The concept can be used to explain timing and amount of matter transferred from RZs to streams in forest headwaters. Here, we investigated the potential impact of future climate changes on the long-te...
Article
Emergent macrophyte species selection is critical for the effectiveness of nature-based engineered solutions aiming to address excess nutrient concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Yet, the mechanisms with which macrophytes enhance nutrient retention need to be further understood. Here, we compared nutrient retention among 12 artificial flumes f...
Article
Full-text available
Studies exploring how different sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) influence in-stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake at the ecosystem scale are scarce in the literature. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between DOM sources and in-stream net DOC uptake (UDOC) in a sub-humid Mediterranean stream. We considered f...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Chapter 3 of the Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams: what water managers need to know. Technical report – Cost ACTION CA 15113
Article
Addition of isotopically labeled dissolved forms of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in streams has revealed that microbes associated with leaf litter can assimilate solutes from the water column. However, whether this assimilation varies among leaf litter species and at different decomposition stages is still largely unknown. Here, we explore differenc...
Article
Full-text available
Lateral carbon flux through river networks is an important and poorly-understood component of the global carbon budget. This work investigates how temperature and hydrology control the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in Pennsylvania, USA. We applied the catchment-scale...
Article
Full-text available
Lateral carbon flux through river networks is an important and poorly understood component of the global carbon budget. This work investigates how temperature and hydrology control the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in Pennsylvania, USA. Using field measurements of da...
Article
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents alter stream water chemistry and metabolic activity. Yet, essential aspects influencing the biogeochemical response of receiving streams such as hydrology and diel oscillations of light and temperature remain largely unexplored. We measured day vs night water chemistry and in-stream net nutrient uptake ve...
Article
Full-text available
Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental p...
Article
Full-text available
Robinia pseudoacacia L. occupies large areas of Mediterranean riparian zones of the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. This study investigates the influence of the invasive alien nitrogen-fixing R. pseudoacacia on leaf litter nitrogen (N) inputs and soil N availability in a mixed riparian forest in NE Spain. We measured annual leaf litter N inputs...
Article
In the Mediterranean region, water scarcity compromises stream water quality particularly downstream of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). We tested the potential of four helophyte species to reduce dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from WWTP effluents. We conducted an 11-month mesocosm experiment to assess differences in N and P...
Article
Bioengineering techniques are currently used to restore degraded habitats in human-altered streams. Aquatic plants used in these techniques can additionally contribute to reducing excess nitrogen (N) from point sources via assimilation. Moreover, leachates from plant leaf-litter can serve as an additional source of labile dissolved organic matter (...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity of headwater streams to transform and retain organic matter and nutrients during base flow conditions has been largely demonstrated in the literature. Yet, most solute exporting occurs during storms, and thus, it becomes essential to understand the role of in-stream processes in regulating solute concentrations and exports during storm...
Article
Soil degradation by water is a serious environmental problem worldwide, with specific climatic factors being the major causes. We investigated the relationships between synoptic atmospheric patterns (i.e. weather types, WTs) and runoff, erosion and sediment yield throughout the Mediterranean basin by analyzing a large database of natural rainfall e...
Article
Full-text available
In the Anthropocene, watershed chemical transport is increasingly dominated by novel combinations of elements, which are hydrologically linked together as ‘chemical cocktails.’ Chemical cocktails are novel because human activities greatly enhance elemental concentrations and their probability for biogeochemical interactions and shared transport alo...
Article
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) encompass fluvial ecosystems that eventually stop flowing and run dry at some point in space and time. During the dry phase, channels of IRES consist mainly of dry riverbeds (DRBs), prevalent yet widely unexplored ecotones between dry and wet phases that can strongly influence the biogeochemistry of...
Article
Full-text available
We synthesize and summarize main findings from a special issue examining the origins, evolution, and resilience of diverse water quality responses to extreme climate events resulting from a Chapman Conference of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Origins refer to sequences of interactive disturbances and antecedent conditions that influence dive...
Article
Full-text available
Riparian trees can regulate streamflow dynamics and water budgets by taking up large amounts of water from both soil and groundwater compartments. However, their role has not been fully recognized in the hydrologic literature and the catchment modeling community. In this study, we explored the influence of riparian evapotranspiration (ET) on stream...
Conference Paper
This contribution results from international collaborative efforts of different research groups around the Mediterranean basin focusing on soil conservation and water management. We will present the most complete database of runoff and soil erosion information and analyze the records from 68 locations, including more than 22458 detail events betwee...
Preprint
Full-text available
Riparian trees can regulate stream flow dynamics and water budgets by taking up large amounts of water from both soil and groundwater compartments. However, their role has not been fully recognized in the hydrologic literature and the catchment modeling community. In this study, we explored the influence of riparian evapotranspiration (ET) on strea...
Chapter
The hydrological regimes of most intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) include the alternation of wet and dry phases in the stream channel and highly dynamic lateral, vertical, and longitudinal connections with their adjacent ecosystems. Consequently, IRES show a unique ‘biogeochemical heartbeat’ with pulsed temporal and spatial variatio...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity of stream biofilms to transform and assimilate N in highly N-loaded streams is essential to guarantee the water quality of freshwater resources in urbanized areas. However, the degree of N saturation experienced by urban streams and their response to acute increases in N concentration are largely unknown. We measured changes in the rat...