Susan Elizabeth Parks

Susan Elizabeth Parks
Syracuse University | SU · Department of Biology

Ph.D. - Bio. Oceanography

About

139
Publications
34,084
Reads
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3,994
Citations
Citations since 2016
48 Research Items
2976 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - August 2020
Syracuse University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2006 - December 2011
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Senior Research Associate/ Associate Professor
September 2003 - August 2006
Cornell University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
June 1998 - September 2003
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Biological Oceanography
June 1998 - September 2003
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Field of study
  • Biological Oceanography

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are a critically endangered and visually cryptic species that inhabits Central African rainforests. Using a 1250 sq‐km grid of 50 acoustic sensors in Republic of Congo, we investigated the landscape‐scale behavioural response of forest elephants to poaching events. We detected eight automatic weapon fir...
Article
Full-text available
Biologging tags are a key enabling tool for investigating cetacean behavior and locomotion in their natural habitat. Identifying and then parameterizing gait from movement sensor data is critical for these investigations, but how best to characterize gait from tag data remains an open question. Further, the location and orientation of a tag on an a...
Chapter
Right whales have a long history of interactions with humans, being arguably the first commercially hunted species of whale. There are currently three recognized species of right whales including the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), and the southern right whale (Eubalaena australi...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptations to sound production behaviour can reduce the detectability of animal signals by eavesdroppers in a phenomenon known as acoustic crypsis. We propose that acoustic crypsis can include selection of locations that affect how sound transmits through the environment: habitats with poor acoustic propagation can minimize the range of detectabil...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Studying individual variation in vocal behavior can provide insight into its functions, stability, and mechanisms. Collecting such data at the scale of the individual can be facilitated using animal-borne tags. Here, we use archival suction-cup acoustic recording tags to investigate intra-individual variation in male humpb...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) are an endangered species of baleen whale found in high human use areas off the East Coast of the United States. Conservation efforts for this species include the use of passive acoustic monitoring to detect sounds produced by right whales to determine when they are present...
Article
In many species, group foraging is a strategy used to increase the efficiency of individuals to find and exploit patchy prey. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of the few baleen whale species reported to use coordinated foraging strategies. One of these behaviors, bubble-net feeding, has been observed in several populations, though t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biologging tags are a key enabling tool for investigating cetacean behavior and locomotion in their natural habitat. Identifying and then parameterizing gait from movement sensor data is critical for these investigations. But how best to characterize gait from tag data remains an open question. Further, the location and orientation of the tag on an...
Article
Creating a baseline understanding of communicative signals and perceptual abilities is imperative for gaining insight into a species' life history. This is especially relevant for at-risk species, as it can aid in monitoring and conservation efforts. Marine mammals communicate predominately through acoustic modalities for a variety of functions, in...
Article
Full-text available
The North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis is a Critically Endangered whale whose habitat overlaps with areas of high human use. On feeding grounds, aspects of its behavior increase the vulnerability of this species to anthropogenic threats such as entanglement in fishing gear and vessel strikes. On the calving ground, natural dive behavior...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the repertoire, call-type variability and call rates of southern right whales on a calving ground off Brazil in the western South Atlantic. Acoustic tag data were collected from four lactating females and one juvenile. Pulsive, hybrid, and upcalls showed the greatest variability among call-types with up to 23% of non-standar...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the repertoire, call-type variability and call rates of southern right whales on a calving ground off Brazil in the western South Atlantic. Acoustic tag data were collected from four lactating females and one juvenile. Pulsive, hybrid, and upcalls showed the greatest variability among call-types with up to 23% of non-standar...
Article
Full-text available
Six baleen whale species are found in the temperate western North Atlantic Ocean, with limited information existing on the distribution and movement patterns for most. There is mounting evidence of distributional shifts in many species, including marine mammals, likely because of climate‐driven changes in ocean temperature and circulation. Previous...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatically breeding harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) males use underwater vocalizations during the breeding season to establish underwater territories, defend territories against intruder males, and possibly to attract females. Vessel noise overlaps in frequency with these vocalizations and could negatively impact breeding success by limiting communi...
Article
Full-text available
The considerable power needed for large whales to leap out of the water may represent the single most expensive burst maneuver found in nature. However, the mechanics and energetic costs associated with the breaching behaviors of large whales remain poorly understood. In this study we deployed whale-borne tags to measure the kinematics of breaching...
Article
Full-text available
It's the prey that matters Although many people think of dinosaurs as being the largest creatures to have lived on Earth, the true largest known animal is still here today—the blue whale. How whales were able to become so large has long been of interest. Goldbogen et al. used field-collected data on feeding and diving events across different types...
Article
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the world's most highly endangered baleen whales, with approximately 400-450 individuals remaining. Massachusetts Bay (MB) and Cape Cod Bay (CCB) together comprise one of seven areas in the Gulf of Maine where right whales seasonally congregate. Here, we report on acoustically detected...
Article
Mammals with dependent young often rely on cryptic behaviour to avoid detection by potential predators. In the mysticetes, large baleen whales, young calves are known to be vulnerable to direct predation from both shark and orca predators; therefore, it is possible that mother-calf pairs may show cryptic behaviours to avoid the attention of predato...
Article
Passive acoustic monitoring is a common method for detection of endangered North Atlantic right whales. This study reports on the acoustic behavior of right whales on the winter calving grounds to assess their acoustic detectability in this habitat. In addition to known call types, previously undescribed low amplitude short broadband signals were d...
Article
Full-text available
North Atlantic right whales spend their summer months foraging primarily in American and Canadian Atlantic waters on high‐energy‐density prey. Here they rapidly accumulate and store energy obtained within a few months to support future migrations and reproduction while fasting. High drag from their ram‐filter foraging strategy places a limit on wha...
Conference Paper
Current estimates of the population level effects of noise exposure rely on model predictions to link exposures to health and vital rates. While noise exposure levels can be accurately modelled for controlled signal production, it is challenging to estimate the effects of cumulative noise exposure from multiple noise sources in the environment. In...
Article
Movement within and between prey patches can influence the fitness of a predator, and understanding such foraging decisions is an important topic in ecology. Most research has found sustained foraging in dense prey patches but has focused on the movement of raptorial predators that feed on single prey items, or suspension-feeders foraging on compar...
Article
Human activities impose novel pressures on amphibians, which are experiencing unprecedented global declines, yet population-level responses are poorly understood. A growing body of literature has revealed that noise is an anthropogenic stressor that impacts ecological processes spanning subcellular to ecosystem levels. These consequences can impose...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the behavioral ecology of a species is fundamental to effective conservation and management efforts. This study quantifies the behavioral ontogeny of North Atlantic right whale mother-calf pairs from birth to weaning spanning three critical habitat areas off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Data from 55 focal follows...
Article
Full-text available
During the breeding season, male harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) make underwater acoustic displays using vocalizations known as roars. These roars have been shown to function in territory establishment in some breeding areas and have been hypothesized to be important for female choice, but the function of these sounds remains unresolved. This study...
Article
The trajectory of development and refinement of communication signals closely map physical and social development in many vertebrate species. Although marine mammals exhibit highly complex and diverse communication signals, asking similar questions about signal development can be challenging when dealing with long-lived species that roam widely at...
Article
Full-text available
Given new distribution patterns of the endangered North Atlantic right whale (NARW; Eubalaena glacialis) population in recent years, an improved understanding of spatio-temporal movements are imperative for the conservation of this species. While so far visual data have provided most information on NARW movements, passive acoustic monitoring (PAM)...
Article
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is a marine protected area in southeastern Alaska that is home to one of the largest seasonal aggrega-tions of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the region. Harbor seals, like the majority of pho-cids, are an aquatically breeding pinniped species. During the breeding season, male harbor seals use acoustic signa...
Article
Acoustic communication can inform studies of behaviour and phylogeny in insect species. Despite there being 4600 described species of cockroach, few studies have focused on their ability to communicate acoustically. Cockroaches have been found to produce sound in a variety of ways. Species within the tribe Gromphadorhini produce sound through modif...
Article
Global marine and freshwater ecosystems are experiencing an unprecedented loss and re-distribution of biodiversity, due to far reaching effects of human activities, including accelerated climate change and over-exploitation. Such changes in aquatic diversity patterns will lead to shifting baselines with respect to species richness and distribution,...
Article
North Atlantic right whales are an endangered species of baleen whale that migrates along the east coast of the United States, with winter calving grounds located in the coastal waters off Florida and Georgia. This study investigated the acoustic environment experienced by individual right whales swimming through this habitat though the use of suct...
Article
Full-text available
In the Southwest Atlantic, a key southern right whale wintering ground is found off southern Brazil. Aiming to collect reference information on the acoustic ecology of right whale mother-calf pairs in the region, we used two complementary passive acoustic monitoring methods. Recordings from autonomous archival devices were used to obtain the descri...
Poster
The geography of biological sound is a largely unexplored topic that exists at the boundary of ecoacoustics and biogeography. Identification and characterization of patterns of biological sound and soundscape variation across the planet may provide insight into the potential for acoustics as a tool for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. Ecoa...
Chapter
In terrestrial ecosystems, spatial heterogeneity in landscape features drives species dispersal and distribution through local and regional processes. This chapter reviews the use of traditional and newly developed ecoacoustic approaches to monitor the three soundscape components (biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic) in different freshwater and mari...
Article
Full-text available
Source levels of harbor seal breeding vocalizations were estimated using a three-element planar hydrophone array near the Beardslee Islands in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The average source level for these calls was 144 dBRMS re 1 μPa at 1 m in the 40–500 Hz frequency band. Source level estimates ranged from 129 to 149 dBRMS re...
Article
Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), along with the majority of other phocid species, mate underwater. During the breeding season, male harbor seals set up underwater territories and use acoustic cues, known as roars, to defend these areas against intruder males and possibly to attract females. Vocalizations are low in frequency, predominately around 60-...
Article
Full-text available
Aiming to gather information on southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) mother-calf pairs' vocal behavior, archival acoustic recorders were deployed at a calving area off Brazil. Manual inspection of spectrograms revealed seven call classes: upcall, downcall, down-upcall, tonal variable , tonal constant, hybrid, and pulsive calls, which are cons...
Article
Full-text available
Aiming to gather information on southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) mother-calf pairs' vocal behavior, archival acoustic recorders were deployed at a calving area off Brazil. Manual inspection of spectrograms revealed seven call classes: upcall, downcall, down-upcall, tonal variable, tonal constant, hybrid, and pulsive calls, which are consi...
Article
Full-text available
Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data...
Conference Paper
The Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, located in an urbanized coastal area off the coast of Massachusetts in the United States, serves as an important foraging habitat for North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). During the summer, large numbers of vessels are present in the vicinity of foraging humpback whales. Humpback wh...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitatively describing the acoustic repertoire of a species is important for establishing effective passive acoustic monitoring programs and developing automated call detectors. This process is particularly important when the study site is remote and visual surveys are not cost effective. Little is known about the vocal behavior of southern righ...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this abstract/presentation we describe how we used two complementary PAM methods to investigate the vocal behaviour Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) off a nursery area off the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil.
Article
Full-text available
Sound from transoceanic shipping is a major component of ocean noise budgets. Baleen whale communication may be particularly vulnerable to shipping noise impacts due to overlap in the frequencies of signals and noise. Baleen whales rely upon acoustic signals to mediate a variety of social interactions when separated beyond visual range. We investig...
Article
Acoustic communication in insects is vital for reproduction. In the family Tettigoniidae, certain features of acoustic signals are impacted by ambient temperature. The current study investigates the correlation between increased ambient temperature and signaling behavior in four species of katydids in two subfamilies under conditions that may be en...
Article
Full-text available
Passive acoustic monitoring is a powerful tool that allows remote detection of marine mammals through their vocalizations. While call detection provides information on species presence, additional information may be contained within the vocalizations that could provide more information regarding the demographics and/or number of individuals in a pa...
Article
Environmental noise is increasing worldwide, limiting the space available for species to send and receive important acoustic information. Many invasive species produce acoustic signals that alter the spectrotemporal characteristics of available signalling space. This provides an opportunity to test ideas about competitive exclusion by quantifying w...
Article
The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has established a framework through which a variety of environmental metrics will be continuously monitored measured for multiple decades at stations located across the United States. We describe a multiyear project that demonstrates the benefits of continuous acoustic monitoring at NEON sites. By...
Poster
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of the few cetacean species that feed in groups, a strategy that allows them to take advantage of large patches of mobile prey and may minimize the high energetic cost of feeding. One common group behavior is bubble net feeding, where a whale releases a stream of bubbles while encircling prey, effect...
Poster
Full-text available
The coastal waters off the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, are an important wintering ground for Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). Using synchronized surface-behavioral observations and acoustic recordings, we conducted a dedicated study of mother-calf pairs to determine the association between the use of call classes and the pair’s beh...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the role of behavioral plasticity in the variation of sound production of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in response to changes in the ambient background noise conditions. Data were collected from southern right whales in Brazilian waters in October and November 2011. The goal of this study was to quantify diffe...
Article
The ecological impacts of increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in marine and freshwater systems are of growing public interest. Recent emphasis on the physiological approaches to identifying the impacts of noise has led to increased recognition that anthropogenic noise is an environmental stressor. We briefly review the research on noise-induce...
Poster
Full-text available
Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) as a research and mitigation method is based on the vital importance of sound for some specie´s ecology. The development of PAM has increased the capacity of data acquisition over different temporal and spatial scales generating substantial amount of information to be processed and analysed by bioacousticians. Ther...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that nonhuman primates have limited flexibility in the frequency content of their vocalizations, particularly when compared to human speech. Consistent with this notion, several nonhuman primate species have demonstrated noise-induced changes in call amplitude and duration, with no evidence of changes to spectral content....
Article
Full-text available
The vocal ontogeny of species can provide insight into their physical and social development and capacity for social learning. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) are an endangered species with a complex range of vocalizations used in a wide range of social contexts. In this study, we systematically characterize developmental changes...
Article
According to the source-filter hypothesis proposed for human speech, physical attributes of the vocal production mechanism combine independently to result in individually distinctive vocalizations. In the case of stereotyped calls with all individuals producing a similar frequency contour, the filtering of the signal resulting from the shape and si...
Article
Full-text available
A multiyear project is underway to demonstrate the benefits of incorporating acoustic monitoring into the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The NEON project seeks to generate data for the study of continental scale phenomena. Acoustic recordings can be used to determine the presence of acoustically active biota without the presence of...
Data
Data S1. PAMGuide.zip - Zipped archive of R and MATLAB codes for PAMGuide.
Article
Full-text available
Ackermann et al. discuss the lack of evidence for vocal control in nonhuman primates. We suggest that nonhuman primates may be capable of achieving greater vocal control than previously supposed. In support of this assertion, we discuss new evidence that nonhuman primates are capable of modifying spectral features in their vocalizations.