Susan Loeb

Susan Loeb
US Forest Service | FS · Program for Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management

Doctor of Philosophy

About

88
Publications
18,582
Reads
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2,141
Citations
Citations since 2016
33 Research Items
1101 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
Mobile acoustic surveys allow estimates of overall bat activity, relative abundance, and species richness across large areas. Protocols for estimating relative abundance recommend using non‐sinuous routes to ensure individual bats are only recorded once. We conducted mobile acoustic surveys along 12 sinuous routes in the mountainous terrain of nort...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding animals' behavioral and physiological responses to pathogenic diseases is critical for management and conservation. One such disease, white‐nose syndrome (WNS), has greatly affected bat populations throughout eastern North America leading to significant population declines in several species. Although tricolored bat (Perimyotis subfla...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bats are important components of forested ecosystems and are found in forests worldwide. Consequently, they often interact with fire. Previous reviews of the effects of fire on bats have focused on prescribed fire effects, in part due to the limited number of studies on bat responses to wildfire. However, over the past several years, stu...
Article
Full-text available
White‐nose syndrome (WNS) has caused dramatic declines of several cave‐hibernating bat species in North America since 2006, which has increased the activity of non‐susceptible species in some geographic areas or during times of night formerly occupied by susceptible species—indicative of disease‐mediated competitive release (DMCR). Yet, this patter...
Article
Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a structural feature in forests throughout the United States that provides unique cover, runways, and microclimate for various wildlife species. While use and selection of CWD for rodent foraging, travel, and nesting, which can impact an individual’s fitness, has been demonstrated across numerous studies, the role of CW...
Article
Full-text available
Tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) that roost in subterranean hibernacula have experienced precipitous declines from white-nose syndrome (WNS); however, understudied populations also use during winter non-subterranean roosts such as tree cavities, bridges, and foliage. Our objectives were to determine winter roost use by tricolored bats in an a...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity of bats to land use change depends on their foraging ecology, which varies among species based on ecomorphological traits. Additionally, because prey availability, vegetative clutter, and temperature change throughout the year, some species may display seasonal shifts in their nocturnal habitat use. In the Coastal Plain of South Carolin...
Article
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Assessing the scope and severity of threats is necessary for evaluating impacts on populations to inform conservation planning. Quantitative threat assessment often requires monitoring programs that provide reliable data over relevant spatial and temporal scales, yet such programs can be difficult to justify until there is an apparent stressor. Lev...
Article
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Collaborative monitoring over broad scales and levels of ecological organization can inform conservation efforts necessary to address the contemporary biodiversity crisis. An important challenge to collaborative monitoring is motivating local engagement with enough buy-in from stakeholders while providing adequate top-down direction for scientific...
Book
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The Handbook summarizes all the key steps in conducting an acoustic survey of a bat community, including project planning, strategies for data collection, approaches to analysis and interpretation, a guide to purchasing a bat detector, and a series of case studies. Chapter 1 (“Introduction to bat echolocation”) provides a broad introduction to the...
Article
Full-text available
Most bat species depend on forests for roosting, foraging, and drinking during part or all of their life cycles. Many of the world’s forests are managed using a variety of silvicultural treatments and, over the past 40 years, researchers have studied the responses of bats to these treatments. I carried out a qualitative synthesis of the literature...
Article
Full-text available
Many factors, including microphone type, affect the quality of acoustic calls recorded by bat detectors and detection probabilities of individual species. Because omnidirectional microphones tend to have a shorter range and record more noise than directional microphones, it has been suggested that these microphones be set farther from reflecting su...
Article
Full-text available
Bats are under threat from habitat loss, energy development, and the disease white-nose syndrome; therefore, an efficient and effective means to monitor bat populations is needed. The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) was initiated in 2015 to provide standardized, large-scale monitoring to benefit bat biologists, managers, and policy ma...
Article
Full-text available
As technology has evolved, bat researchers have relied more heavily on using acoustic techniques to collect data on bat communities. Acoustic data can be collected actively, where the researcher is present at the sampling point and follows the bat with the detector, or passively, where the researcher is not present and the detector is set out by it...
Article
Full-text available
White-nose syndrome (WNS), an epizootic disease caused by an invasive fungus, threatens bat populations across North America. WNS-induced changes in summer bat populations could impact functional diversity. We assessed the shift in relative abundance within an assemblage of bats in a temperate southern Appalachian forest in North Carolina and Tenne...
Article
Prescribed burning has become more common for the management of eastern forests in North America, so understanding if and how foraging bats respond to structural changes generated by fire is of increasing importance. Our objective was to investigate the effects of post-fire landscape conditions on the occurrence of foraging bats in mixed forests of...
Article
Full-text available
Confirming presence and distribution of a species is necessary for effective conservation. However, obtaining robust occupancy estimates and confidently identifying factors important to occupancy may be difficult for rare and elusive species. Further, in surveys to assess presence, false-positive detections bias results; however, false-positive occ...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss, wind energy development, and the disease white-nose syndrome are major threats contributing to declines in bat populations in North America. In the southeastern US in particular, the recent arrival of white-nose syndrome and changes in landscape composition and configuration have driven shifts in bat species populations and distributi...
Data
Top ranked detection model for each species. (DOCX)
Data
Estimated β for intercepts and covariates in top ranked occupancy models for each species. (DOCX)
Data
Survey cell locations and number of survey hours in each cell. (DOCX)
Data
Results of Pearson’s correlation test for each tested occupancy covariate. (DOCX)
Technical Report
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The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is a multi-national, multi-agency coordinated monitoring program designed to assess the status and trends of North American bats at local, state, and range-wide scales. NABat monitoring efforts focus on the 47 species of bats shared by Canada, the United States, and Mexico. NABat is composed of a ne...
Article
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Bats in the eastern United States are facing numerous threats and many species are in decline. Although several species of bats commonly roost in cliffs, researchers know little about use of cliffs for foraging and roosting. Because rock climbing is a rapidly growing sport and may cause disturbance to bats, our objectives were to examine use of cli...
Article
Full-text available
Early successional habitat (ESH) is an important component of natural landscapes and is crucial to maintaining biodiversity. ESH also impacts endangered species. The extent of forest disturbances resulting in ESH has been diminishing, and foresters have developed timber management regimes using standard silvicultural techniques that enhance ESH. We...
Article
Early successional habitat (ESH) is important for many wildlife species. Over the past century, land use changes have caused ESH to decline in hardwood forests of the eastern United States. Because of the decline of ESH and ESH dependent wildlife, ESH has recently received increased attention from land managers and scientists. Bats, which utilize E...
Article
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Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) is a federally threatened insectivorous bat facing devastating population declines due to white-nose syndrome (WNS). Our study provides pre-WNS (2009) capture rates and roosting-behavior data for Northern Long-eared Bats in the southern Appalachians. We conducted mist-net surveys at 37 sites and radi...
Article
Large numbers of migratory bats are killed every year at wind energy facilities. However, population-level impacts are unknown as we lack basic demographic information about these species. We investigated whether fatalities at wind turbines could impact population viability of migratory bats, focusing on the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), the speci...
Article
The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a species that is federally endangered in the U.S., is being impacted by white-nose syndrome and habitat loss across much of its range. A better understanding of summer roost ecology of the species will enable us to develop management strategies that promote summer survival for breeding adult females and their pups...
Article
Full-text available
Although habitat loss and degradation are major contributors to species declines, some species are able to adapt to changes in land use by selecting different habitats or structures in disturbed areas than they do in more pristine habitats. Bats are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use due to their dependence on specific habitat types and...
Article
Full-text available
We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appal...
Data
Vegetation codes for landcover types on USFS and NPS lands. Vegetation codes for landcover types on USDA Forest Service (USFS) and National Park Service (NPS) lands. Codes were inputs in models developed using 54 of 76 known roost locations for female and juvenile Myotis sodalis roosts from 2008–2012 in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North C...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four...
Data
Full-text available
The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four...
Article
Full-text available
Although several studies have described roost use by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), few studies have examined roost selection. We examined roost use and selection by Rafinesque's big-eared bat at the tree, stand, and landscape scales during the maternity season in pristine old-growth habitat in the Coastal Plain of South Ca...
Article
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Little is known about the ecological relationships of bats of Southcentral Alaska. We used AnaBat II bat detectors, mist-netting, and radio-telemetry to collect preliminary data on the distribution and status of bats on the Chugach National Forest (CNF), their activity patterns, and their roosting and foraging habitats. Myotis spp. were detected at...
Article
Riparian zones are important to bats, which use them for foraging, roosting, and drinking. To predict effects of timber harvests in riparian areas on bats, more information is needed on the functional width of riparian zones for bats, and how bats respond to forest removal near small perennial streams. From May to August (2004–2007), we studied bat...
Article
Full-text available
Temperate zone bats may be more sensitive to climate change than other groups of mammals because many aspects of their ecology are closely linked to temperature. However, few studies have tried to predict the responses of bats to climate change. The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a federally listed endangered species that is found in the eastern U...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding seasonal movements of bats is important for effective conservation efforts. Although female Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis Miller and Allen, 1928) have been documented to migrate >500 km, knowledge of their migratory patterns is still extremely limited. We used the relationship between latitude and stable hydrogen isotope ratio in bat h...
Article
Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (<30 groups), creation of high quality habitat through landscape man...
Chapter
Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small o...
Article
Daily surface activity and feeding patterns of a northern California population of the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus were studied each month over a 1-year period. Activity of adults was highest during the early hours of darkness regardless of season, whereas that of subadults was more variable. Food consumption by all age-classes increased sign...
Article
Full-text available
Pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae) were fed one of seven diets spanning a wide range of nutrient content and dry matter digestibility to evaluate three methods of assessing diet quality in small herbivorous mammals: the ash tracer method, prediction equations based on stomach composition, and prediction equations based on fecal composition. The ash t...
Article
Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup de...
Article
Full-text available
Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understan...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonic detectors are powerful tools for the study of bat ecology. Many options are available for deploying acoustic detectors including various weatherproofing designs and microphone orientations, but the impacts of these options on the quantity and quality of the bat calls that are recorded are unknown. We compared the impacts of three microph...
Article
Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important loc...
Article
Full-text available
Stable hydrogen isotopes (dDs) in metabolically inert tissues such as feathers and hair provide a set of endogenous markers that may be useful for establishing migratory connectivity in animals. We tested the assumption of a clear relationship between dD values of growing-season–weighted average precipitation (dD p) derived from 2 geographic inform...
Article
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Urbanization and development are predicted to increase considerably in the United States over the next several decades, and this is expected to result in large-scale habitat loss, fragmentation and loss of wildlife species. Thus, natural parks and preserves are becomingly increasingly important in the conservation of regional biodiversity. We used...
Article
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A 5-year study of long-term (40 years) study plots was conducted on the Osceola National Forest in northern Florida to determine how dormant-season fire frequency (annual, biennial, quadrennial, or unburned) affects ground-dwelling macroarthropod use of coarse woody debris in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests. Pitfall traps were used to...
Article
Full-text available
Although roost sites are critically important to bats, we have few data on macrohabitat factors that affect roost selection by foliage-roosting bats. Such data are needed so that forest managers can make informed decisions regarding conservation of bat roosts. Our objective was to examine roost selection by non-reproductive eastern pipistrelles (Pe...
Article
Full-text available
We characterized Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) roosting habitat at three maternity colony sites in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. Using radio telemetry, we tracked six bats a total of 40 bat days (range 4–9 days/bat). In 1999, we located a primary roost in an eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) snag (109 cm DBH) in the Nantahala Nation...
Article
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Sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi (truffles) are the major food of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). The two subspecies of northern flying squirrels that occur in the southern Appalachians, G. s. coloratus and G. s. fuscus, are endangered species which are primarily found in the ecotone between high-elevation spruce-fir and no...
Article
Full-text available
Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) use bridges as day roosts in parts of their range, but information on bridge use across their range is lacking. From May to Aug. 2002 we surveyed 1129 bridges (12.5%) within all 46 counties of South Carolina to determine use and selection of bridges as day roosts by big-eared bats and to docume...
Article
Forest managers often use thinning and prescribed burning to reduce the risk of wildfire and insect outbreaks. Because thinning and burning alter the structure of forest stands and may affect insect prey abundance, they may change the suitability of stands for bats. Our objective was to test the effects of thinning and burning on bat foraging and c...
Article
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Daytime refuges are important to nocturnal rodents for protection from predators and environmental extremes. Because refuges of forest-dwelling rodents are often associated with woody debris, we examined refuge use by 37 radio-collared Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mice) in experimental plots with different levels of woody debris. Treatment plots h...
Article
In recent years, interest in the ecology of bats and the influences of forest management on bat populations has increased substantially. This interest stems from the interplay of technological advances opening up new areas of research, a greater understanding of the importance of ecological roles played by bats in forest ecosystems, an increased re...
Article
Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. We conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFSs on RCW reproductive success. During...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Commu...
Article
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Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a signif- icant negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern fly...
Article
Southeastern fox squirrels were observed feeding preferentially on seeds of certain clones of loblolly pine in a central Georgia seed orchard in the early 1990s and, similarly, on slash pine seed in an orchard in central Florida in the late 1990s. In each orchard, the degree of feeding preference and avoidance among selected clones was documented a...
Article
Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), an insectivorous mammal indigenous to the southern United States, has long been referred to as one of the least known bats in North America. Although there has been a moderate increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles published on this species in the past 6 years, the basic ecology and s...
Article
Full-text available
We initiated a long-term experiment involving manipulation of coarse woody debris (CWD) at the Savannah River National Environmental Research Park in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Each of four 9.3-ha plots in each of four blocks was subject to one of the following treatments: removal of all snags and fallen logs, removal of fallen logs...
Article
We conducted a 2-yr study of the nestling diet of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at three locations to determine how it varied among sites. We photographed 5939 nest visits by adult woodpeckers delivering food items for nestlings. In 1994, we located cameras near three nest cavities on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina and nea...
Article
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The importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to small mammals in a managed pine forest in South Carolina was tested experimentally during summer and autumn 1990 and winter and spring 1991-1994. Abundance and demographics of small mammals were compared between plots with abundant CWD created by a tornado (unsalvaged plots) and plots where tornado-cre...
Article
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We investigated the effect of sampling methodology on the richness and abundance of small mammal communities in loblolly pine forests. Trapping in trees using Sherman live traps was included along with routine ground trapping using the same device. Estimates of species richness did not differ among samples in which tree traps were included or exclu...
Article
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Mast production by traditional vs buffer species was measured for two years on the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in Georgia to determine how these two types varied on a seasonal, annual, and habitat basis. Mast from buffer species was more frequent and diverse than that from traditional mast producers. The findings suggest that although traditi...
Article
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The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's inde...
Article
This paper examines the concepts of ecology, ecosystems, and ecosystem management and then further examines the role of fish, wildlife, and plant ecology research in ecosystem management, past, present, and future. It is often assumed that research in support of ecosystem management will entail comprehensive studies of entire ecosystems whereas res...
Article
Ahntrcrct: To test whether the presence of nest boxes near red-cockaded woodpecker (R(Z\V. Picoirlcs horwh) cavity trees red~~ced ca~it\ USC by other species and irnpro\-ed 1ICW reproductive success on the Francis Marion National Forest in coastal South Carohna, WC ~~XYY~ 3 nest boxes in each of 62 experimental clusters and designated 61 clusters a...
Article
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Habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to the conservation of bio- diversity and has 3 components: habitat loss, patch isolation, and patch size. We tested the effects of forest-clearing size on small mammal populations in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. These clearings act as islands for many species of small mam- mals, pa...
Article
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Ahstracr: I tested the effectiveness of squirrel excluder devices (SQEDs) in deterring southern flying squirrels (Ghucomys rduns) from using artificial red-cockaded wood- pecker (Picoidcs horeulis) cavities by placing them on approximately one-half of the cavities in I4 inactive recruitment clusters on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. SQEDs...
Article
Land managers need new tools, such as spatial models, to aid them in their decision-making processes because managing for biodiversity, water quality, or natural disturbance is challenging, and landscapes are complex and dynamic. Spatially explicit population models are helpful to managers because these models consider both species - habitat relati...
Article
Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW's, Picoides borealis). Thus, I examined cavities excavated by RCW's in central Georgia during 4 breeding seasons to determine the extent of cavity use by southern flying squirrels and other competitors, and to determine whether flying squirrels...
Article
Full-text available
Active red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in the Piedmont of Georgia are mature pine stands (mean age = 87 ± 1 yr old) with relatively sparse midstories (mean basal area = 31 ± 3 ft²/ac). Active and abandoned colony sites have similar overstory characteristics, but midstories are significantly denser in abandoned colony sites (mea...