Susan Charnley

Susan Charnley
US Forest Service | FS · Pacific Northwest Research Station

PhD

About

108
Publications
40,761
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,080
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
2196 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Introduction
I am an environmental anthropologist whose research aims to improve understanding of how to integrate community well-being and development with ecosystem health and the sustainable management of natural resources, with a goal of informing policy and advancing theory.
Additional affiliations
January 2002 - present
US Forest Service
Position
  • Research Social Scientist
Education
September 1989 - June 1994
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Full-text available
Community forests managed by indigenous, traditional, and local communities must be environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable for their benefits to persist. Certification of community forests communicates that products harvested there meet these standards. However, certification of community forests has been limited, particularly in A...
Article
In Africa, forest tenure reform to decentralize forest management from central governments to local communities has been occurring since the 1990s to promote forest conservation, poverty alleviation, and sustainable forest-based livelihoods. African governments and donor organizations continue to invest in community forestry, raising the question o...
Article
For over two decades, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification for community forestry has occurred in tropical countries. However, community forests represent just over 1% of the total FSC-certified forest area worldwide. Certification can promote more socially and environmentally responsible forest management while delivering economic return...
Article
Wildfire is an influential driver of social and ecological change that calls for adaptive governance on federal lands. We identify supporting and limiting elements of adaptive governance in the context of wildfire management on the Deschutes National Forest (DNF). We use key findings to propose actions and leverage points to increase the US Forest...
Article
Full-text available
After a century of intensive logging, federal forest management policies were developed in the 1990s to protect remaining large trees and old forests in the western US. Today, due to rapidly changing ecological conditions, new threats and uncertainties, and scientific advancements, some policy provisions are being re‐evaluated in interior Oregon an...
Article
Community-based forest management has become increasingly widespread in Africa since the 1990s as an approach to conserving local forests while contributing social and economic benefits to local communities. Community forests (CFs) can sell forest goods and services to generate revenue for community benefit. Increased understanding of whether and h...
Article
Full-text available
Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-...
Article
Full-text available
‘Managed grazing’ is gaining attention for its potential to contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing bare ground and promoting perennialization, thereby enhancing soil carbon sequestration (SCS). Understanding why ranchers adopt managed grazing is key to developing the right incentives. In this paper, we explore principles and practices...
Book
Full-text available
In 1994, a large-tree harvest standard known as the “21-inch rule” was applied to land and resource management plans of national forests in eastern Oregon and Washington (hereafter, the “east side”) to halt the loss of large, old, live, and dead trees and old forest patches. These trees and forest patches have distinct ecological, economic, and soc...
Article
The past decade has seen a rapid rise in beaver-related stream restoration (BRR) using beavers and beaver dams (real or artificial) as a tool. Potential benefits of this low-cost, nature-based restoration approach include restoring aquatic and riparian habitat and recovering of threatened species dependent on it, improving water availability and st...
Article
Full-text available
U.S. federal government agencies play an important role in mitigating some risks posed to communities by natural hazard events, especially communities with high proportions of low-income or minority residents. Ongoing efforts of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) to reduce the buildup of forest fuels on national forests, particularly in dry mixed-conif...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale, high-severity wildfires are a major challenge to the future social-ecological sustainability of fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the American West. Managing forests to mitigate this risk is a collective action problem requiring landowners and stakeholders within multi-ownership landscapes to plan and implement coordinated restoration...
Article
An approach to community-based forestry (CBF) on federal forestlands in the western United States consists of a number of informal civil society institutions for communities to better organize internally and interact with government. We review the body of research on this topic, which has an explicit focus on the three interlinked aspects of democr...
Article
In order to increase the pace and scale of managing forests to reduce wildfire risk in the western U.S., federal agencies have adopted policies that promote an all lands management (ALM) approach, which extends management actions across jurisdictional boundaries. To better implement such policies, ALM approaches require new governance systems that...
Article
We examined traditional knowledge of fire use by the Ichishikin (Sahaptin), Kitsht Wasco (Wasco), and Numu (Northern Paiute) peoples (now Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, CTWS) in the eastside Cascades of Oregon to generate insights for restoring conifer forest landscapes and enhancing culturally-valued resources. We examined qualitative and ge...
Article
Full-text available
The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) has guided the management of 17 federal forests in the US Pacific Northwest for the past 25 years. The existing management plans for these national forests – which were amended by the NWFP – are now being evaluated for revision under the US Forest Service's 2012 planning rule. To help inform federal land managers, w...
Book
Full-text available
The fundamental assumption of the NWFP was that the breadth of the biological and socioeconomic strategies would achieve its biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic goals, and that those goals were also compatible with each other. Scientists and managers now have the perspective afforded by 23 years of research, monitoring, and field experience...
Article
Full-text available
This article uses research about non-timber forest products (NTFP) gathering in Seattle, Washington, USA to examine how people gain access to natural resources in urban environments. Our analysis focuses on gathering in three spaces: parks, yards, and public rights of way. We present a framework for conceptualizing access, and highlight cognitive m...
Article
Full-text available
Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures...
Article
Natural resource managers of federal lands in the USA are often tasked with various forms of social and economic impact analysis. Federal agencies in the USA also have a mandate to analyze the potential environmental justice consequences of their activities. Relatively little is known about the environmental justice impacts of natural resource mana...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Interrelated social and ecological challenges demand an understanding of how environmental change and management decisions affect human well-being. This paper outlines a framework for measuring human well-being for ecosystem-based management (EBM). We present a prototype that can be adapted and developed for various scales and context...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the influence of wildfire institutions on management and forest resilience over time, drawing on research from a multiownership, frequent-fire, coupled human and natural system (CHANS) in the eastern Cascades of Oregon, USA. We constructed social-ecological histories of the study area’s three main landowner groups (national forest, priva...
Article
Full-text available
Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks) between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challen...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing recognition of the human dimensions of natural resource management issues, and of social and ecological sustainability and resilience as being inter-related, highlights the importance of applying social science to natural resource management decision-making. Moreover, a number of laws and regulations require natural resource management a...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how federal, state, and private corporate forest owners in a fire-prone landscape of southcentral Oregon manage their forests to reduce wildfire hazard and loss to high-severity wildfire. We evaluate the implications of our findings for concepts of social-ecological resilience. Using interview data, we found a high degree of...
Article
Full-text available
Fire-prone landscapes present many challenges for both managers and policy makers in developing adaptive behaviors and institutions. We used a coupled human and natural systems framework and an agent-based landscape model to examine how alternative management scenarios affect fire and ecosystem services metrics in a fire-prone multiownership landsc...
Article
Since 2009, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service has promoted an "all lands approach" to forest restoration, particularly relevant in the context of managing wildfire. To characterize its implementation, we undertook an inventory of what we refer to as fire-focused all lands management (ALM) projects, defined as projects in which fuels r...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire risk in temperate forests has become a nearly intractable problem that can be characterized as a socioecological "pathology": that is, a set of complex and problematic interactions among social and ecological systems across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Assessments of wildfire risk could benefit from recognizing and accounting for...
Technical Report
Sustainable working landscapes are critical to the conservation of biodiversity in the American West and its cultures of rural ranching and forestry. Given the West's patchwork of public, private, and tribal lands, perhaps the best way to conserve biodiversity and ecosystem function on a large scale is through a process of collaborative conservatio...
Article
Management of ecological conditions and processes in multiownership landscapes requires cooperation by diverse stakeholder groups. The structure of organizational networks – the extent to which networks allow for interaction among organizations within and across ideological and geographic boundaries – can indicate potential opportunities for cooper...
Article
Full-text available
Disasters result from hazards affecting vulnerable people. Most disasters research by anthropologists focuses on vulnerability; this article focuses on natural hazards. We use the case of wildfire mitigation on United States Forest Service lands in the northwestern United States to examine social, political, and economic variables at multiple scale...
Article
Full-text available
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food...
Chapter
An emerging approach for restoring natural ecosystems is payment for ecosystem services (PES). Two primary means for compensation are embedding the costs of maintaining the services in the price of food and fiber products, and offering financial incentives and rewards to ranchers, farmers, or foresters working to protect, enhance, or restore ecosys...
Chapter
This chapter explores the ways in which national forest managers may contribute to community well-being by designing projects that accomplish forest management in ways that not only meet their ecological goals, but also create economic opportunities for nearby communities. The chapter summarizes a number of strategies for enhancing the economic ben...
Chapter
Full-text available
National forest management efforts have generally moved toward collaborative and participatory approaches at a variety of scales. This includes, at a larger scale, greater public participation in transparent and inclusive democratic processes and, at a smaller scale, more engagement with local communities. Participatory approaches are especially im...
Chapter
Full-text available
Forest products harvesting and use from national forest lands remain important to local residents and communities in some parts of the Sierra Nevada science synthesis area. Managing national forests for the sustainable production of timber, biomass, nontimber forest products, and forage for livestock can help support forestbased livelihoods in part...
Chapter
Full-text available
Previous chapters of this synthesis rely on multiple ecological disciplines to frame core aspects of a sustainable, resilient ecosystem. Approaching forest management in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range in a manner that promotes socioecological resilience and sustains important forest values requires consideration of not only the ecolog...
Chapter
Full-text available
National forests in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascade bioregions have begun to review and revise their land and resource management plans (LRMPs). The three most southern national forests of the Sierra Nevada (Inyo, Sequoia, and Sierra) were selected to be the lead forests for the Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region (Region 5) and are amon...
Chapter
Full-text available
Wildfires, especially large, severe, and unmanageable events, exert major influences on socioecological systems, not only through risks to life and property, but also losses of important values associated with mature forest stands. These events prompt decisions about post-wildfire management interventions, including short-term emergency responses,...
Chapter
Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service historically have served as a resource for scientists conducting longitudinal and comparative research on aspects of forestry and range management. In addition to being sites of scientific investigation, EFRs are widely used by people for act...
Article
This paper examines micro-processes of institutionalization, using the case of stewardship contracting within the US Forest Service. Our basic premise is that, until a new policy becomes an everyday practice among local actors, it will not become institutionalized at the macro-scale. We find that micro-processes of institutionalization are driven b...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Land managers in the Pacific Northwest have reported a need for updated scientific information on the ecology and management of mixed-conifer forests east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Of particular concern are the moist mixed-conifer forests, which have become drought-stressed and vulnerable to high-severity fire after decades of...
Article
Policymakers seek ways to encourage fuel reduction among private forest landowners to augment similar efforts on federal and state lands. Motivating landowners to contribute to landscape-level wildfire protection requires an understanding of factors that underlie landowner behaviour regarding wildfire. We developed a conceptual framework describing...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter sets the context for the following sociocultural sections of the synthesis by providing information on the broader social, cultural, and economic patterns in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range. Demographic influences surrounding population change, including those accounted for through amenity migration, are examined. Social a...
Article
The US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's focus on hazardous fuels reduction has increased since the adoption of the National Fire Plan in 2001. However, appropriations for hazardous fuels reduction still lag behind wildfire suppression spending. Offsetting fuels treatment costs through biomass utilization or by using innovative administrat...
Article
For a century, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) have served as a resource for scientists conducting long-term research relating to forestry and range management and ecosystem science. Social science research has not comprised a significant portion of the research endeavor at EFRs to date, despite th...
Technical Report
The fire-prone landscapes of the West include both public and private lands. Wildfire burns indiscriminately across property boundaries, which means that the way potential fuels are managed on one piece of property can affect wildfire risk on neighboring lands. Paige Fischer and Susan Charnley, social scientists with the Pacific Northwest Research...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners' invasive plant risk perceptions and mitigation practices using statistical analysis of mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data collected in Oregon's ponderosa pine zone. We found that 52% of the survey sample was aware of invasive plant species considered problematic by...
Article
Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The past decade has seen resurgence in interest in gathering wild plants and fungi in cities. In addition to gathering by individuals, dozens of groups have emerged in U.S., Canadian, and European cities to facilitate access to nontimber forest products (NTFPs), particularly fruits and nuts, in public and private spaces. Recent efforts within citie...
Article
Unsustainable rangeland management and land conversion are significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Regardless of the mechanism for exchange, carbon credits generally are associated with some type of standard or protocol that verifies the amount of carbon sequestered by a given project. The protocol used Land Resource Reg...
Article
The Trigg Ranch comprises 52,000 acres of rugged rangeland in the mesa country of northeastern New Mexico approximately 30 miles northwest of Tucumcari in the Western Great Plains and Central Great Plains Land Resource Regions. The ranch is set up as a trust and overseen by the entire Trigg clan, comprising seven different families - all grandchild...
Article
For a century, US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) have been a resource for scientists conducting long-term research relating to forestry and range management. Social science research has been limited, despite the history of occupation and current use of these sites for activities ranging from resource extraction and recreation...
Article
California's north coast region is heavily forested, mountainous, and contains many rural communities where natural-resource-based jobs-particularly in forestry-have long been important. The economic recession that started in 2007 added to what many interviewees perceived as having been depressed economic conditions in the area's rural communities...
Article
Full-text available
Forest management for carbon sequestration is a low-cost, low-technology, relatively easy way to help mitigate global climate change that can be adopted now while additional long-term solutions are developed. Carbon-oriented management of forests also offers forest owners an opportunity to obtain a new source of income, and commonly has environment...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT  In this article, we call for enhanced quantitative and environmental analysis in the work of environmental anthropologists who wish to influence policy. Using a database of 77 leading monographs published between 1967 and 2006, 147 articles by the same authors, and a separate sample of 137 articles from the journal Human Organization, we...
Article
Full-text available
Nonindustrial private—or "family"—forests hold great potential for sequestering carbon and have received much attention in discussions about forestry-based climate change mitigation. However, little is known about social and cultural influences on owners' willingness to manage for carbon and respond to policies designed to encourage carbon-oriented...
Article
Full-text available
The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is dedicated to the principle of multiple use management of the Nation's forest resources for sustained yields of wood, water, forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, cooperation with the States and private forest owners, and management of the national forests and nationa...
Article
Full-text available
There are opportunities for forest owners and ranchers to participate in emerging carbon markets and contribute to climate change mitigation through carbonoriented forest and range management activities. These activities often promote sustainable forestry and ranching and broader conservation goals while having the potential to provide a new income...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a co...